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《工程(英文)》 >> 2020年 第6卷 第1期 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2019.07.020

病毒性疾病对奶牛繁殖力的重要影响

a Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK
b Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria

收稿日期 :2018-08-14 修回日期 :2019-01-08 录用日期 : 2019-04-18 发布日期 :2019-07-24

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摘要

世界各地的牛群中有许多病毒性疾病是地方性疾病。许多病毒穿过胎盘并导致流产和胎儿畸形的能力是众所周知的。还有大量证据表明,病毒感染对于奶牛还有其他影响,反映在受胎率的降低上。但是,这些影响很大程度上取决于单个动物首次感染该疾病的时间,因此难以量化。本文介绍了5种可能影响奶牛繁殖力的病毒,以及它们的潜在作用机制。妊娠中期非细胞病变型牛病毒性腹泻病毒(bovine viral diarrhea virus, BVDV)的急性感染会使流产率升高或导致持续感染的犊牛出生。在临近配种期感染BVDV会直接影响卵巢和子宫内膜,导致发情周期不规律和早期胚胎死亡。BVDV诱发的免疫抑制也可能降低繁殖力,从而增加对细菌的易感性。牛疱疹病毒(bovine herpesvirus, BHV)-1型在青春期前的小母牛中最常见,会导致它们生长减缓,延迟繁殖并提高首次产犊的年龄,先前受感染的动物继而表现出繁殖力的降低。尽管这可能与肺损伤有关,但也有卵巢病变的相关报告。初次感染后,BHV-1和BHV-4都潜伏在宿主中,并且可能在以后由于应激而重新激活,如与产犊和早期泌乳有关的应激。虽然仅感染BHV-4可能不会降低繁殖力,但它似乎与已建立的细菌病原体(如大肠杆菌和化脓隐秘杆菌)共同作用,促进子宫内膜炎的发展并延迟产犊后母牛的子宫修复机制。施马伦贝格病毒(Schmallenberg virus, SBV)和蓝舌病病毒(bluetongue virus, BTV)均以昆虫作为媒介传播,导致流产率和先天畸形的增加。BTV-8同时还损害孵出囊泡的发育;此外,任何一种病毒在繁殖前后的感染基本都会降低受胎率。尽管受胎率的降低通常难以量化,但足以造成经济损失,这有助于衡量疫苗接种和根除方案的效益。

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