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《中国工程科学》 >> 2021年 第23卷 第3期 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2021.03.005

针对强人工智能安全风险的技术应对策略

北京大学计算机科学技术系,北京100871

收稿日期 :2021-04-07 修回日期 :2021-04-25 发布日期 :2021-06-01

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摘要

未来进入强人工智能(AGI)时代,人类可能面临重大安全风险。本文归纳了AGI 与传统人工智能的区别,从模型的不可解释性、算法及硬件的不可靠性、自主意识的不可控性三方面研判了AGI 安全风险的来源,从能力、动机、行为3 个维度提出了针对AGI 的安全风险评估体系。为应对安全风险,从理论及技术研究、应用两个层面分别探讨相应风险的防御策略:在理论技术研究阶段,完善理论基础验证,实现模型可解释性,严格限制AGI 底层价值取向,促进技术标准化;在应用阶段,预防人为造成的安全问题,对AGI 进行动机选择,为AGI 赋予人类价值观。此外,建议加强国际合作,培养强AI 研究人才,为迎接未知的强AI 时代做好充分准备。

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