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《中国工程科学》 >> 2021年 第23卷 第6期 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2021.06.011

碳中和政策机制及社会共识的国际经验与启示

北京大学能源研究院,北京 100871

收稿日期 :2021-10-13 修回日期 :2021-11-10 发布日期 :2021-12-09

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摘要

现阶段,大部分发达国家碳排放已达峰且进入排放快速下降时期,纷纷出台更加积极有效的措施,力争在实现碳中和的同时占据新兴产业发展的优势地位。本文旨在梳理发达国家实现碳达峰、推进碳中和过程中的政策机制及促进社会共识方面的相关措施,为我国提供发展借鉴。梳理不同发达国家的经验并比较分析了其可取之处,总结了发达国家碳中和政策机制方面给我们带来的启发,据此形成我国碳中和路径的发展建议。国际经验表明,碳中和是一项系统工程,需要多措并举、有序推进,在减少转型成本的同时加快培育新兴产业;碳中和愿景的实现需要完善的市场化机制并加快能源市场化改革;碳中和不仅是能源和经济的转型,也将对个人的生活方式带来改变,因而普遍的社会共识是成功实现碳中和的重要保障。研究建议,做好顶层设计和分阶段的碳减排行动计划,加快和深化能源市场化改革,加强社会动员以凝聚公众的全面共识,不断深化国际合作。

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