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Abstract • Air masses from Zhejiang Province is the major source of O3 in suburban Shanghai. • O3 formation was in VOC-sensitive regime in rural Shanghai. • O3 formation was most sensitive to propylene in rural Shanghai. A high level of ozone (O3) is frequently observed in the suburbs of Shanghai, the reason for this high level remains unclear. To obtain a detailed insight on the high level of O3 during summer in Shanghai, O3 and its precursors were measured at a suburban site in Shanghai from July 1, 2016 to July 31, 2016. Using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and concentration weighted trajectories (CWT), we found that Zhejiang province was the main potential source of O3 in suburban Shanghai. When the sampling site was controlled by south-western winds exceeding 2 m/s, the O3-rich air masses from upwind regions (such as Zhejiang province) could be transported to the suburban Shanghai. The propylene-equivalent concentration (PEC) and ozone formation potential (OFP) were further calculated for each VOC species, and the results suggested that propylene, (m+p)-xylene, and toluene played dominant roles in O3 formation. The Ozone Isopleth Plotting Research (OZIPR) model was used to reveal the impact of O3 precursors on O3 formation, and 4 base-cases were selected to adjust the model simulation. An average disparity of 18.20% was achieved between the simulated and observed O3 concentrations. The O3 isopleth diagram illustrated that O3 formation in July 2016 was in VOC-sensitive regime, although the VOC/NOx ratio was greater than 20. By introducing sensitivity (S), a sensitivity analysis was performed for O3 formation. We found that O3 formation was sensitive to propylene, (m+p)-xylene, o-xylene and toluene. The results provide theoretical support for O3 pollution treatment in Shanghai.

Abstract • Dual-reaction-center (DRC) system breaks through bottleneck of Fenton reaction. • Utilization of intrinsic electrons of pollutants is realized in DRC system. • DRC catalytic process well continues Fenton’s story. Triggered by global water quality safety issues, the research on wastewater treatment and water purification technology has been greatly developed in recent years. The Fenton technology is particularly powerful due to the rapid attack on pollutants by the generated hydroxyl radicals (•OH). However, both heterogeneous and homogeneous Fenton/Fenton-like technologies follow the classical reaction mechanism, which depends on the oxidation and reduction of the transition metal ions at single sites. So even after a century of development, this reaction still suffers from its inherent bottlenecks in practical application. In recent years, our group has been focusing on studying a novel heterogeneous Fenton catalytic process, and we developed the dual-reaction-center (DRC) system for the first time. In the DRC system, H2O2 and O2 can be efficiently reduced to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in electron-rich centers, while pollutants are captured and oxidized by the electron-deficient centers. The obtained electrons from pollutants are diverted to the electron-rich centers through bonding bridges. This process breaks through the classic Fenton mechanism, and improves the performance and efficiency of pollutant removal in a wide pH range. Here, we provide a brief overview of Fenton’s story and focus on combing the discovery and development of the DRC technology and mechanism in recent years. The construction of the DRC and its performance in the pollutant degradation and interfacial reaction process are described in detail. We look forward to bringing a new perspective to continue Fenton’s story through research and development of DRC technology.

• Toxicity-oriented water quality monitoring was proposed. • Toxicity-oriented water quality engineering control was proposed. • Future issues to the proposition were discussed. The fundamental goal of water quality engineering is to ensure water safety to humans and the environment. Traditional water quality engineering consists of monitoring, evaluation, and control of key water quality parameters. This approach provides some vital insights into water quality, however, most of these parameters do not account for pollutant mixtures – a reality that terminal water users face, nor do most of these parameters have a direct connection with the human health safety of waters. This puts the real health-specific effects of targeted water pollutant monitoring and engineering control in question. To focus our attention to one of the original goals of water quality engineering – human health and environmental protection, we advocate here the toxicity-oriented water quality monitoring and control. This article presents some of our efforts toward such goal. Specifically, complementary to traditional water quality parameters, we evaluated the water toxicity using high sensitivity toxicological endpoints, and subsequently investigated the performance of some of the water treatment strategies in modulating the water toxicity. Moreover, we implemented the toxicity concept into existing water treatment design theory to facilitate toxicity-oriented water quality control designs. Suggestions for the next steps are also discussed. We hope our work will intrigue water quality scientists and engineers to improve and embrace the mixture water pollutant and toxicological evaluation and engineering control.

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