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Urban constructed wetlands: Assessing ecosystem services and disservices for safe, resilient, and sustainable cities

《工程管理前沿(英文)》   页码 582-596 doi: 10.1007/s42524-023-0268-y

摘要: Climate change and rapid urbanization are pressing environmental and social concerns, with approximately 56% of the global population living in urban areas. This number is expected to rise to 68% by 2050, leading to the expansion of cities and encroachment upon natural areas, including wetlands, causing their degradation and fragmentation. To mitigate these challenges, green and blue infrastructures (GBIs), such as constructed wetlands, have been proposed to emulate and replace the functions of natural wetlands. This study evaluates the potential of eight constructed wetlands near Beijing, China, focusing on their ecosystem services (ESs), cost savings related to human health, growing/maintenance expenses, and disservices using an emergy-based assessment procedure. The results indicate that all constructed wetlands effectively purify wastewater, reducing nutrient concentrations (e.g., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids). Among the studied wetlands, the integrated vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW-4) demonstrates the highest wastewater purification capability (1.63E+14 sej/m2/yr) compared to other types (6.78E+13 and 2.08E+13 sej/m2/yr). Additionally, constructed wetlands contribute to flood mitigation, groundwater recharge, wildlife habitat protection, and carbon sequestration, resembling the functions of natural wetlands. However, the implementation of constructed wetlands in cities is not without challenges, including greenhouse gas emissions, green waste management, mosquito issues, and disturbances in the surrounding urban areas, negatively impacting residents. The ternary phase diagram reveals that all constructed wetlands provide more benefits than costs and impacts. CW-4 shows the highest benefit‒cost ratio, reaching 50%, while free water surface constructed wetland (CW-3) exhibits the lowest benefits (approximately 38%), higher impacts (approximately 25%), and lower costs (approximately 37%) compared to other wetlands. The study advocates the use of an emergy approach as a reliable method to assess the quality of constructed wetlands, providing valuable insights for policymakers in selecting suitable constructed wetlands for effective urban ecological management.

关键词: constructed wetland     emergy     ecosystem services     disservices     ternary diagram    

Microfluidic production of liposomes through liquid–liquid phase separation in ternary droplets

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 1017-1022 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2118-y

摘要: Liposomes, the self-assembled phospholipid vesicles, have been extensively used in various fields such as artificial cells, drug delivery systems, biosensors and cosmetics. However, current microfluidic routes to liposomes mostly rely on water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion droplets as templates, and require complex fabrication of microfluidic devices, and tedious manipulation of multiphase fluids. Here we present a simple microfluidic approach to preparing monodisperse liposomes from oil-in-water droplets. For demonstration, we used butyl acetate-water-ethanol ternary mixtures as inner phase and an aqueous solution of surfactants as outer phase to make oil-in-water droplets, which can evolve into water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion droplets by liquid–liquid phase separation of ternary mixtures. Subsequently, the resultant water-in-oil-in-water droplets underwent a dewetting transition to form separated monodisperse liposomes and residual oil droplets, with the assistance of surfactants. The method is simple, does not require complex microfluidic devices and tedious manipulation, and provides a new platform for controllable preparation of liposomes.

关键词: microfluidics     liposomes     ternary droplets     phase separation    

纳米水滴柴油节能型微乳剂的研究和开发

王宏莹,李干佐,郑利强,李辉, 朱长德,宋景泉

《中国工程科学》 2009年 第11卷 第4期   页码 21-25

摘要:

应用有自主权的天然羧酸盐及其改性产品为主要表面活性剂,通过表面活性剂相互作用参数βm测定,确定复配的非离子表面活性剂。然后测定复配表面活性剂∕水∕柴油拟三元相图。从中得到3种廉价高效的-10#柴油微乳剂,其中包括少量的燃烧促进剂、十六烷值改进剂和消烟剂。经台架试验,平均节油率为20 %,NOx排放量下降20 %,每吨乳化柴油节省500元左右。

关键词: 天然羧酸盐     拟三元相图     -10#柴油微乳剂    

Newly-modeled graphene-based ternary nanocomposite for the magnetophotocatalytic reduction of CO2 with

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第10期   页码 1438-1459 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2166-y

摘要: The development of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels has emerged as a green method that could help mitigate global warning. The novel structured photocatalyst is a promising material for use in a photocatalytic and magneto-electrochemical method that fosters the reduction of CO2 by suppressing the recombination of electron−hole pairs and effectively transferring the electrons to the surface for the chemical reaction of CO2 reduction. In our study, we have developed a novel-structured AgCuZnS2–graphene–TiO2 to analyze its catalytic activity toward the selective evolution of CO2. The selectivity of each nanocomposite substantially enhanced the activity of the AgCuZnS2–graphene–TiO2 ternary nanocomposite due to the successful interaction, and the selectivity of the final product was improved to a value 3 times higher than that of the pure AgCuZnS2 and 2 times higher than those of AgCuZnS2–graphene and AgCuZnS2–TiO2 under ultra-violet (UV)-light (λ = 254 nm) irradiation in the photocatalytic process. The electrochemical CO2 reduction test was also conducted to analyze the efficacy of the AgCuZnS2–graphene–TiO2 when used as a working electrode in laboratory electrochemical cells. The electrochemical process was conducted under different experimental conditions, such as various scan rates (mV·s–1), under UV-light and with a 0.07 T magnetic-core. The evolution of CO2 substantially improved under UV-light (λ = 254 nm) and with 0.07 T magnetic-core treatment; these improvements were attributed to the facts that the UV-light activated the electron-transfer pathway and the magnetic core controlled the pathway of electron-transmission/prevention to protect it from chaotic electron movement. Among all tested nanocomposites, AgCuZnS2–graphene–TiO2 absorbed the CO2 most strongly and showed the best ability to transfer the electron to reduce the CO2 to methanol. We believe that our newly-modeled ternary nanocomposite opens up new opportunities for the evolution of CO2 to methanol through an electrochemical and photocatalytic process.

关键词: ternary nanocomposite     photocatalytic     electrochemical CO2 reduction     UV-light     magnetic core    

Development of dimensionless P-I diagram for curved SCS sandwich shell subjected to uniformly distributed

Yonghui WANG, Ximei ZHAI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第6期   页码 1432-1445 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0566-y

摘要: The curved steel-concrete-steel (SCS) sandwich shell was recently proposed to resist blast loading and it showed better blast resistant performance as compared to flat SCS sandwich shell via developing compressive force along the shell. In this paper, a dimensionless Pressure-Impulse (P-I) diagram was constructed as a convenient tool to predict the damage level of curved SCS sandwich shell subjected to uniformly distributed blast loading. The curved SCS sandwich shell was equivalent to a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system and the equation of motion was established by employing the Lagrange’s equation. To construct the dimensionless P-I diagram, the energy balance method was utilized to yield the pressure and impulse asymptotes and the responses in the dynamic response regime were obtained via employing the SDOF method. Then, the finite element method was employed to validate the developed dimensionless P-I diagram. Finally, the procedures of using the constructed dimensionless P-I diagram to quickly conduct the blast resistant design of curved SCS sandwich shell were presented.

关键词: blast loading     curved steel-concrete-steel sandwich shell     Pressure-Impulse diagram     single-degree-of-freedom method     finite element analysis    

Synergistic effect of V and Fe in Ni/Fe/V ternary layered double hydroxides for efficient and durable

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 102-115 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2179-6

摘要: High-performance and stable electrocatalysts are vital for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, via a one-pot hydrothermal method, Ni/Fe/V ternary layered double hydroxides (NiFeV-LDH) derived from Ni foam are fabricated to work as highly active and durable electrocatalysts for OER. By changing the feeding ratio of Fe and V salts, the prepared ternary hydroxides were optimized. At an Fe:V ratio of 0.5:0.5, NiFeV-LDH exhibits outstanding OER activity superior to that of the binary hydroxides, requiring overpotentials of 269 and 274 mV at 50 mA·cm–2 in the linear sweep voltammetry and sampled current voltammetry measurements, respectively. Importantly, NiFeV-LDH shows extraordinary long-term stability (≥ 75 h) at an extremely high current density of 200 mA·cm–2. In contrast, the binary hydroxides present quick decay at 200 mA·cm–2 or even reduced current densities (150 and 100 mA·cm–2). The outstanding OER performance of NiFeV-LDH benefits from the synergistic effect of V and Fe while doping the third metal into bimetallic hydroxide layers: (a) Fe plays a crucial role as the active site; (b) electron-withdrawing V stabilizes the high valence state of Fe, thus accelerating the OER process; (c) V further offers great stabilization for the formed intermediate of FeOOH, thus achieving superior durability.

关键词: oxygen evolution reaction     electrocatalysts     ternary layered double hydroxides     long-term stability    

A ternary mechanism for the facilitated transfer of metal ions onto metal–organic frameworks: implications

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》   页码 1632-1642 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2187-6

摘要: Although metal–organic frameworks offer a new platform for developing versatile sorption materials, yet coordinating the functionality, structure and component of these materials remains a great challenge. It depends on a comprehensive knowledge of a “real sorption mechanism”. Herein, a ternary mechanism for U(VI) uptake in metal–organic frameworks was reported. Analogous MIL-100s (Al, Fe, Cr) were prepared and studied for their ability to sequestrate U(VI) from aqueous solutions. As a result, MIL-100(Al) performed the best among the tested materials, and MIL-100(Cr) performed the worst. The nuclear magnetic resonance technique combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and zeta potential measurement reveal that U(VI) uptake in the three metal–organic frameworks involves different mechanisms. Specifically, hydrated uranyl ions form outer-sphere complexes in the surface of MIL-100s (Al, Fe) by exchanging with hydrogen ions of terminal hydroxyl groups (Al-OH2, Fe-OH2), and/or, hydrated uranyl ions are bound directly to Al(III) center in MIL-100(Al) through a strong inner-sphere coordination. For MIL-100(Cr), however, the U(VI) uptake is attributed to electrostatic attraction. Besides, the sorption mechanism is also pH and ionic strength dependent. The present study suggests that changing metal center of metal–organic frameworks and sorption conditions alters sorption mechanism, which helps to construct effective metal–organic frameworks-based sorbents for water purification.

关键词: U(VI)     metal–organic frameworks     adsorption mechanism     metal node    

Experimental investigation on mechanical properties of binary and ternary blended pervious concrete

Rekha SINGH, Sanjay GOEL

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第1期   页码 229-240 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0597-4

摘要: The purpose of the investigation was to study the effect of binary and ternary blends of cement on the mechanical properties of pervious concrete (PC) specimen through destructive (DT) and non-destructive testing (NDT). Various combinations of fly ash (FA), limestone powder (LP), metakaolin (MK), and silica fume (SF) as mineral admixtures have been investigated to partially replace the cement up to 30% by weight in PC. Standard cube specimens of size 150 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm of binary and ternary blends of mineral admixture of pervious concrete were prepared to conduct standard compressive strength test and split tensile test at 7 and 28 days of curing. The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test and Rebound Hammer test were used as a non-destructive testing tool to substantiate the robustness of PC and to determine the approximate mechanical properties where other destructive testing tools are not feasible in case of in-place pervious pavements. Overall the pervious concrete made with LP based ternary blends (PLM and PLS) were found to perform better than FA based ternary blends (PFM and PFS) and control mix (PC) in destructive and non-destructive testing.

关键词: mineral admixture     ternary     compressive strength     split tensile strength     pervious concrete     ultrasonic pulse velocity    

Assessment and prediction of the mechanical properties of ternary geopolymer concrete

Jinliang LIU; Wei ZHAO; Xincheng SU; Xuefeng XIE

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第11期   页码 1436-1452 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0889-y

摘要: This paper utilized granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), fly ash (FA), and zeolite powder (ZP) as the binders of ternary geopolymer concrete (TGC) activated with sodium silicate solution. The effects of alkali content (AC) and alkaline activator modulus (AAM) on the compressive strength, flexural tensile strength and elastic modulus of TGC were tested and the SEM micrographs were investigated. The experimental results were then compared with the predictions based on models of mechanical properties, and the amended models of TGC were proposed taking account of the effects of AC and AAM. The results indicated that increasing AC and reducing AAM which were in the specific ranges (5% to 7% and 1.1 to 1.5, respectively) had positive effects on the mechanical properties of TGC. In addition, the flexural tensile strength of TGC was 27.7% higher than that of OPC at the same compressive strength, while the elastic modulus of TGC was 25.8% lower than that of OPC. Appropriate prediction models with the R2 of 0.945 and 0.987 for predicting flexural tensile strength and elastic modulus using compressive strength, respectively, were proposed. Fitting models, considering the effects of AC and AAM, were also proposed to predict the mechanical properties of TGC.

关键词: Ternary Geopolymer Concrete (TGC)     alkaline activator modulus     alkali content     mechanical properties     assessment    

Potassium carbonate-based ternary transition temperature mixture (deep eutectic analogues) for CO absorption

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第7期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1500-9

摘要:

•Addition of hindered amine increased thermal stability and viscosity of TTTM.

关键词: Ternary transition-temperature mixture     FT-IR and thermal stability analysis     Viscosity and correlation study     Eyring’s absolute rate theory     CO2 solubility     Density functional theory (DFT).    

An investigation into the properties of ternary and binary cement pastes containing glass powder

Marcelo Frota BAZHUNI, Mahsa KAMALI, Ali GHAHREMANINEZHAD

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第3期   页码 741-750 doi: 10.1007/s11709-018-0511-5

摘要: The properties of binary and ternary cement pastes containing glass powder (GP) were examined. Hydration at early age was evaluated using semi-adiabatic calorimetry and at late ages using non-evaporable water content and thermogravimetric analysis. The transport characteristic was assessed by measuring electrical resistivity. The binary paste with slag showed the highest hydration activity compared to the binary pastes with GP and fly ash (FA). The results indicated that the pozzolanic behavior of the binary paste with GP was less than that of the binary pastes with slag or FA at late ages. An increase in the electrical resistivity and compressive strength of the binary paste with GP compared to other modified pastes at late ages was observed. It was shown that GP tends to increase the drying shrinkage of the pastes. Ternary pastes containing GP did not exhibit synergistic enhancements compared to the respective binary pastes.

关键词: cement paste     glass powder     pozzolanic reaction     supplementary cementitious material    

Molecular diffusion in ternary poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 1003-1016 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2121-3

摘要: The diffusion kinetics of a molecular probe—rhodamine B—in ternary aqueous solutions containing poly(vinyl alcohol), glycerol, and surfactants was investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. We show that the diffusion characteristics of rhodamine B in such complex systems is determined by a synergistic effect of molecular crowding and intermolecular interactions between chemical species. The presence of glycerol has no noticeable impact on rhodamine B diffusion at low concentration, but significantly slows down the diffusion of rhodamine B above 3.9% (w/v) due to a dominating steric inhibition effect. Furthermore, introducing surfactants (cationic/nonionic/anionic) to the system results in a decreased diffusion coefficient of the molecular probe. In solutions containing nonionic surfactant, this can be explained by an increased crowding effect. For ternary poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions containing cationic or anionic surfactant, surfactant–polymer and surfactant–rhodamine B interactions alongside the crowding effect of the molecules slow down the overall diffusivity of rhodamine B. The results advance our insight of molecular migration in a broad range of industrial complex formulations that incorporate multiple compounds, and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate additives and surfactants in formulated products.

关键词: fluorescence correlation spectroscopy     poly(vinyl alcohol)     anomalous diffusion     crowding effects     dynamic light scattering     binding effects     rhodamine B    

完全信息价值的影响图求解法及其应用

刘艳琼,陈英武

《中国工程科学》 2006年 第8卷 第8期   页码 45-49

摘要:

指出了翻转决策树法求解完全信息价值时可能存在问题的根本原因,提出完全信息价值在影响图中的本质表现为信息弧,并对Howard正则型影响图定义进行修正,进而系统分析了两种不同情形下基于影响图求解完全信息价值的思路。最后举例说明。

关键词: 完全信息价值     影响图     Howard正则型    

Simulation studies on metastable phase equilibria in the aqueous ternary systems (NaCl-MgCl

Tianlong DENG, Baojun ZHANG, Dongchan LI, Yafei GUO

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 172-175 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0048-1

摘要: The solubilities and densities of the aqueous metastable ternary systems (NaCl-MgCl -H O) and (KCl-MgCl -H O) at 308.15 K were determined by the isothermal evaporation method. On the basis of the experimental results, the phase diagrams for those systems were plotted. It was found that the former system belongs to the hydrate-I type with one invariant point of (NaCl+ MgCl ?6H O), two univariant curves, and two crystallization regions corresponding to halite (NaCl) and bischofite (MgCl ·6H O); and the latter system belongs to the type of incongruent-double salts with two invariant points of (KCl+ KCl·MgCl ·6H O) and (MgCl ·6H O+ KCl·MgCl ·6H O), three univariant curves, and three crystallization regions corresponding to potassium chloride (KCl), carnallite (KCl·MgCl ·6H O) and bischofite (MgCl ·6H O). No solid solutions were found in both systems.

关键词: green chemistry     solar pond technique     simulation     metastable phase equilibrium     solubility    

Design and optimization of reactive distillation: a review

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 799-818 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2128-9

摘要: Reactive distillation process, a representative process intensification technology, has been widely applied in the chemical industry. However, due to the strong interaction between reaction and separation, the extension of reactive distillation technology is restricted by the difficulties in process analysis and design. To overcome this problem, the design and optimization of reactive distillation have been widely studied and illustrated for plenty of reactive mixtures over the past three decades. These design and optimization methods of the reactive distillation process are classified into three categories: graphical, optimization-based, and evolutionary/heuristic methods. The primary objective of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing design and optimization methods. Desired and output information, advantages and limitations of each method are stated, the modification and development for original methodologies are also reviewed. Perspectives on future research on the design and optimization of reactive distillation method are proposed for further research.

关键词: reactive distillation     process intensification     design method     reactive phase diagram     optimization algorithm    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Urban constructed wetlands: Assessing ecosystem services and disservices for safe, resilient, and sustainable cities

期刊论文

Microfluidic production of liposomes through liquid–liquid phase separation in ternary droplets

期刊论文

纳米水滴柴油节能型微乳剂的研究和开发

王宏莹,李干佐,郑利强,李辉, 朱长德,宋景泉

期刊论文

Newly-modeled graphene-based ternary nanocomposite for the magnetophotocatalytic reduction of CO2 with

期刊论文

Development of dimensionless P-I diagram for curved SCS sandwich shell subjected to uniformly distributed

Yonghui WANG, Ximei ZHAI

期刊论文

Synergistic effect of V and Fe in Ni/Fe/V ternary layered double hydroxides for efficient and durable

期刊论文

A ternary mechanism for the facilitated transfer of metal ions onto metal–organic frameworks: implications

期刊论文

Experimental investigation on mechanical properties of binary and ternary blended pervious concrete

Rekha SINGH, Sanjay GOEL

期刊论文

Assessment and prediction of the mechanical properties of ternary geopolymer concrete

Jinliang LIU; Wei ZHAO; Xincheng SU; Xuefeng XIE

期刊论文

Potassium carbonate-based ternary transition temperature mixture (deep eutectic analogues) for CO absorption

期刊论文

An investigation into the properties of ternary and binary cement pastes containing glass powder

Marcelo Frota BAZHUNI, Mahsa KAMALI, Ali GHAHREMANINEZHAD

期刊论文

Molecular diffusion in ternary poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions

期刊论文

完全信息价值的影响图求解法及其应用

刘艳琼,陈英武

期刊论文

Simulation studies on metastable phase equilibria in the aqueous ternary systems (NaCl-MgCl

Tianlong DENG, Baojun ZHANG, Dongchan LI, Yafei GUO

期刊论文

Design and optimization of reactive distillation: a review

期刊论文