Improving the cracking resistance of steel-normal concrete (NC) composite beams in the negative moment region is one of the main tasks in designing continuous composite beam (CCB) bridges due to the low tensile strength of the NC deck at pier supports. This study proposed an innovative structural configuration for the negative bending moment region in a steel-concrete CCB bridge with the aid of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) layer. In order to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of this new UHPC jointed structure in the negative bending moment region, field load testing was conducted on a newly built full-scale bridge. The newly designed structural configuration was described in detail regarding the structural characteristics (cracking resistance, economy, durability, and constructability). In the field investigation, strains on the surface of the concrete bridge deck, rebar, and steel beam in the negative bending moment region, as well as mid-span deflection, were measured under different load cases. Also, a finite element model for the four-span superstructure of the full-scale bridge was established and validated by the field test results. The simulated results in terms of strains and mid-span deflection showed moderate consistency with the test results. This field test and the finite element model results demonstrated that the new configuration with the UHPC layer provided an effective alternative for the negative bending moment region of the composite beam.