The stress state of the built-in corridor in core rock-fill dam on thick overburden is extremely complex, which may produce cracking and damage. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of thick overburden on the stress and deformation of the built-in corridor in a rock-fill dam, and ascertain the damage causes of the corridor. The rationality of the analysis method for corridor with similar structure is another focus. The approach is based on finite-element method and the calculation result accuracy is verified by the field monitoring data. The improved analysis method for corridors with similar structure is proposed by comparing various corridor load calculation methods and concrete constitutive models. Results demonstrate that the damage causes of the corridor are the deformability difference between the overburden and concrete and the special structural form. And the calculation model considering dam construction process, contact between concrete and surrounding soil, and concrete damage plasticity can reasonably reflect the mechanical behavior of the corridor. The research conclusions may have a reference significance for the analysis of tunnels similar to built-in corridors.