Crop protection is an important issue and major challenge in agriculture worldwide, especially when confronting global climate change, biological invasions and declining agricultural biodiversity of recent decades.
Sustainable and environment-friendly agricultural pest management are required to achieve the sustainable development goals in agriculture. In this case, an advanced accurate prediction of monitoring and early warning system could be the first step in crop protection to identify and locate pests and diseases before outbreaks and epidemics. Field management and biological control is a traditional conservation agriculture technique on crop protection such as intercropping and usage of natural enemies. However, these methods are limited when pests and diseases have already become well established in crop fields. Biopesticides are potential ideal pesticides for crop protection, including biochemical pesticides, microbial pesticides and plant-incorporated protectants. They are environment-friendly biopesticides with high effectiveness and species-specificity and some of them have been applied and commercialized worldwide. With the development and application of new biotechnology in agriculture, opportunities for crop protection are great becoming more abundant, opening new approaches, such as genetic engineering, to improve the plant resistance against crop pests and diseases. Thus, crop protection opens up new era of sustainable and environment-friendly agricultural pest management.