Critical minerals and materials are fundamental to national economy, national defense construction, and residents’ lives; therefore, it is of great significance to ensure the stability of their supply chain. This study associates mineral resources with the material industry and analyzes the strategic needs and development status of China’s key minerals and their raw material industries from the perspective of the entire industrial chain including resource exploration, mining, smelting, material processing, manufacturing, and product recycling. Moreover, problems are summarized including blocked industrial chain; insufficient supply of key minerals at the resource end; high energy consumption and excessive scale at the smelting end; insufficient support capacity, inadequate innovation ability, and weak industrial foundation at the material end; and lagging development at the recycling end.Focusing on exploration, mining, and basic raw material preparation, a three-step goal by 2035 is proposed, and technological development priorities are summarized from the aspects of mining, smelting, and basic raw materials. Furthermore, we propose suggestions for the high-quality development of China’s key minerals and material industry supply chain, including promoting the supply guarantee capacity of domestic mineral resources, improving the technical competitiveness of new materials, and unblocking the resource–smelting–material–recycling industrial chain.
Hydrogen energy is crucial for building a clean, low-carbon, safe, and efficient modern energy system in China. In this article, we expound on the progress of global hydrogen energy industry and summarize the development status of China’s hydrogen energy industry from the aspects of scale, characteristics, and policies. The demand for and problems of China’s hydrogen energy industry are analyzed. Our research shows that the strategic layout of China’s hydrogen energy industry has been continuously strengthened; the investment in hydrogen energy infrastructure has been gradually increased; and a regional industrial agglomeration effect has initially emerged. However, challenges remain including defective standards systems, severe industrial homogenization, incomplete industrial chain, and limited application scenarios. To promote the high-quality development of China’s hydrogen energy industry, we suggest that China should strengthen the top-level design for hydrogen industry development, establish a technical standards system for hydrogen production, storage, and use, promote the pilot demonstration and popularization of the entire hydrogen energy industry chain, and enhance hydrogen technology innovation to achieve a high level of self-reliance.
Accelerating the development of the hydrogen energy industry is crucial for realizing the carbon peaking and carbon neutralization goals and for ensuring national energy security. Hydrogen energy storage has the advantages of cross-seasonal, crossregional, and large-scale storage, as well as quick response capabilities, which is applicable to all links of “source/grid/load” of a newtype power system. This study analyzes the advantages of hydrogen energy storage over other energy storage technologies, expounds on the demands of the new-type power system for hydrogen energy, and constructs an application value system for hydrogen energy storage in the “source/grid/load” of the new-type power system. The results show that hydrogen energy storage can satisfy the requirements of the new-type power system in terms of storage capacity and discharge time; however, gaps remain in investment cost and conversion efficiency. The hydrogen energy system lacks coordination with the power system, and the application of hydrogen energy storage to the new-type power system lacks incentive policies. Moreover, standards systems are insufficient or even absent in renewable energy hydrogen production, electric–hydrogen coupling operation control, and hydrogen fuel cell power generation. Therefore, we suggest that the electric – hydrogen storage mode with high efficiency and low cost should be primarily used at present, and the electric – hydrogen–electric mode should be auxiliary. It is imperative to give full play to the power of hydrogen, electricity, and carbon markets to promote the low-carbon and low-cost development of hydrogen energy storage; actively explore the combination of hydrogen energy transport modes at different distance scales to solve the problem of mismatched distribution of hydrogen energy resources and loads; and accelerate the development of a new standards system for the electric–hydrogen coupling industry.
The development of hydrogen industry is crucial for realizing the green and low-carbon transformation of terminal energy consumption. The efficiency of hydrogen transportation is key to the development of hydrogen industry. Blending hydrogen in natural gas pipelines can improve the scale and efficiency of hydrogen distribution in a short period of time, and it provides a solution for expanding the scale of hydrogen application. Based on defining the industrial chain of hydrogen blending in natural gas pipelines, the paper discusses the values of developing the blending industry in terms of promoting the hydrogen industry, resolving renewable energy consumption, ensuring energy supply security, realizing the deep carbon reduction of terminal energy consumption, and encouraging energy technology innovation. Moreover, the paper summarizes the international progress and domestic current status of the blending industry. It unravels key issues regarding the hydrogen blending proportion, adaptability of pipes and terminal equipment, and their safety use and technical economy. Furthermore, we propose the following suggestions: (1) strengthening the toplevel design, (2) building a standards system for safety supervision as well as technology and operation management of hydrogen blending in natural gas pipelines, (3) actively deploying demonstration projects through multi-participation, and (4) exploring diversified application scenarios and business models, thereby cultivating a sustainable industrial ecosystem to steadily promote the scaled development of the industry.