Latest Research

Perspective  |  2021-09-30

Intelligent Manufacturing for the Process Industry Driven by Industrial Artificial Intelligence

Based on the analysis of the characteristics and operation status of the process industry, as well as the development of the global intelligent manufacturing industry, a new mode of intelligent manufacturing for the process industry, namely, deep integration of industrial artificial intelligence and the Industrial Internet with the process industry, is proposed. This paper analyzes the development status of the existing three-tier structure of the process industry, which consists of the enterprise resource planning, the manufacturing execution system, and the process control system, and examines the decision-making, control, and operation management adopted by process enterprises. Based on this analysis, it then describes the meaning of an intelligent manufacturing framework and presents a vision of an intelligent optimal decision-making system based on human–machine cooperation and an intelligent autonomous control system. Finally, this paper analyzes the scientific challenges and key technologies that are crucial for the successful deployment of intelligent manufacturing in the process industry.

Tao Yang ,   Xinlei Yi   et al.

Perspective  |  2021-09-30

Machine Learning in Chemical Engineering: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats

Chemical engineers rely on models for design, research, and daily decision-making, often with potentially large financial and safety implications. Previous efforts a few decades ago to combine artificial intelligence and chemical engineering for modeling were unable to fulfill the expectations. In the last five years, the increasing availability of data and computational resources has led to a resurgence in machine learning-based research. Many recent efforts have facilitated the roll-out of machine learning techniques in the research field by developing large databases, benchmarks, and representations for chemical applications and new machine learning frameworks. Machine learning has significant advantages over traditional modeling techniques, including flexibility, accuracy, and execution speed. These strengths also come with weaknesses, such as the lack of interpretability of these black-box models. The greatest opportunities involve using machine learning in time-limited applications such as real-time optimization and planning that require high accuracy and that can build on models with a self-learning ability to recognize patterns, learn from data, and become more intelligent over time. The greatest threat in artificial intelligence research today is inappropriate use because most chemical engineers have had limited training in computer science and data analysis. Nevertheless, machine learning will definitely become a trustworthy element in the modeling toolbox of chemical engineers.

Maarten R. Dobbelaere ,   Pieter P. Plehiers   et al.

Article  |  2021-10-13

Blockchain-Based Emergency Information Sharing System for Public Health Security

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused severe human casualties and economic losses. Strengthening research on the coordination of public health security emergency information and building a more efficient and credible emergency information sharing system have become the core issues to optimize the public health security information management in China. This study analyzes the structure and connotations of public health security emergency information and proposes a new structure for emergency information management of sudden epidemics in China. We create a hierarchical blockchain model for information sharing among emergency response departments based on the blockchain distributed trust mechanism and elaborate the emergency information consortium blockchain, block structure, and implementation of the side chain interaction mechanism. Moreover, the uploading, sharing, downloading, and backtracking processes of emergency information are presented. Using the COVID-19 epidemic control in Nanjing as an example, we verify the validity of this model through scenario simulation and propose policy recommendations for responding to the epidemic. This study is expected to provide a decision-making reference and feasible path for building a new public health information system in China that meets the needs of prevention and control of major epidemics.

Chen Xiaohong ,   Xu Xuesong   et al.

Article  |  2021-10-13

Construction of Emergency Prevention and Control System for Public Health Emergencies in China

Public health emergencies severely affect people’s lives and health, national security, social stability, and economic development. Against the background of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, this study analyzes the current status of China’s public health emergency prevention and control system from the aspects of its six major systems: monitoring, early warning, and evaluation; diagnosis and treatment; basic scientific research; personnel training; material, equipment, and industry support; and social mobilization and coordinated action. We conclude that strengthening system construction is a realistic demand of China in the new development stage. China’s public health system still faces challenges regarding institutional positioning, capacity building, hardware investment, and management system. Therefore, we propose that China should establish a national overall coordination and emergency command mechanism, strengthen clinical, science, education, and industrial support capacity, and further promote international cooperation.

Wang Zhuoran ,   Li Mingsui   et al.

Article  |  2021-10-11

Promoting the Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Industry in the New Development Stage: From an Industry Security Perspective

Promoting the competitiveness of China's agricultural industry is crucial for building China into a great modern country. The aggravation of agricultural external risks and the basic national conditions—smallholder farmers, resource shortage, and tight balance of agricultural products supply and demand—propose new requirements and challenges to the competitiveness of China's agricultural industry. It becomes urgent to redefine the competitiveness of agricultural industry and propose a corresponding strategic framework for the new development stage. In this study, we propose a new concept of agricultural industry competitiveness labeled as safe and diversified, green and efficient, core control, and independent competition. Moreover, we establish a competitiveness evaluation index system for the agricultural industry considering three core components: security assurance, industrial control, and market competitiveness; we evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural industry using this system to explore the weaknesses of the industry. Furthermore, we propose competitiveness upgrade paths and countermeasures for China’s agricultural industry at the new stage. Specifically, China should ensure a stable supply of important agricultural products, expand the value-added space of its agricultural industry, promote the modernization of agricultural operation and services, encourage international cooperation, and give priority to the development of agricultural science and technologies.

Wu Kongming ,   Mao Shiping   et al.

Article  |  2021-09-29

Inactivation and risk control of pathogenic microorganisms in municipal sludge treatment: A review

• Diversity and detection methods of pathogenic microorganisms in sludge.