The tribological performance of artificial joints is regarded as the main factor of the lifespan of implanted prostheses. The relationship between surface roughness and coefficient of friction (COF) under dry and lubricated conditions is studied. Results show that under dry test, friction coefficient is not reduced all the time with a decrease in surface roughness. On the contrary, a threshold of roughness value is observed, and frictional force increases again below this value. This critical value lies between 40 and 100 nm in Sa (roughness). This phenomenon is due to the transfer of friction mechanisms from abrasion to adhesion. Under wet test, COF always decreases with reduction in surface roughness. This result is mainly attributed to the existence of a thin layer of lubricant film that prevents the intimate contact of two articulating surfaces, thus greatly alleviating adhesion friction. Furthermore, surface texturing technology is successful in improving the corresponding tribological performance by decreasing friction force and mitigating surface deterioration. The even-distribution mode of texturing patterns is most suitable for artificial joints. By obtaining the optimal surface roughness and applying texturing technology, the tribological performance of polymer-based bioimplants can be greatly enhanced.