To enhance the mechanical properties and wear resistance of epoxy resin, polyaniline nanorods were first synthesized using a facile route, and then introduced into the epoxy matrix to yield composites via solution mixing. Several measurements were conducted to investigate the phase structures and compositions of polyaniline nanorods, and their positive influences on the mechanical and tribological properties of epoxy resin were also characterized. The results confirmed that the as-synthesized polyaniline exhibited representative rod-like morphologies and dispersed well in the epoxy matrix, leading to significant enhancements in the tensile strength and elastic modulus of epoxy composites. The highest values of 110.33 MPa and 2.04 GPa were obtained by adding 5%–7% polyaniline nanorods, which were 43% and 62% higher than the pure sample, respectively. The wear rate was increased first and then decreased along with polyaniline nanorods, presenting the lowest value of 2.12 × 10−5 mm3·Nm–1 by adding 5% filler, which was markedly reduced by ca. 70% compared to the control sample. Finally, the possible wear mechanism was proposed and discussed in detail. This study tried to broaden the applications of polyaniline nanorods in the field of tribology.