. Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), 5 Avenue des Hauts-Forneaux, Esch-sur-Alzette L-4362, Luxemburg.. UMR n°3495 Modèles et Simulations pour l’Architecture et le Patrimoine Centre de Recherche en Architecture et Ingénierie (MAP-CRAI), 1 Rue Bastien Lepage, Nancy 54000, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 3 Rue Michel-Ange, Paris 75794, France.. UMR n°3495 Modèles et Simulations pour l’Architecture et le Patrimoine Centre de Recherche en Architecture et Ingénierie (MAP-CRAI), 1 Rue Bastien Lepage, Nancy 54000, France; Université de Lorraine (UL), Nancy 54000, France
Synchronous collaboration sessions within the context of 4D BIM position construction professionals into a complex socio–technical system. This system includes hardware, software, people, and broader community aspects. This article strictly focuses on the ontology representation of synchronous collaboration sessions with collocated collective decision-making. The model is designed by considering various 4D BIM model uses while a digital multiuser touch table facilitates the collaboration between actors. The outlined ontological model aims to improve interoperability and to move toward a knowledge-driven, smart-built environment paradigm. A knowledge engineering methodology is outlined, by virtue of which the semantics of the presented model are defined and discussed. Concepts from nearby knowledge fields, especially from the Industry Foundation Classes, are reused. Several examples on querying the knowledge base according to the project meeting requirements are outlined to demonstrate the benefits of using the model. Although 4D BIM model data can be imported by using standard formats, capturing data about the social context remains a challenge in the future. This is expected to change the ontology model structure by considering user ergonomics, data modeling requirements, as well as technical implementation constraints.