While the differential responses of trees to changes in climatic and environmental conditions have been demonstrated as they age, the underlying mechanisms and age control of tree growth and development are complex and poorly understood particularly at a molecular level. In this paper, we present a transcriptome analysis of , a deciduous conifer that is widely-grown in the northern hemisphere and of significant ecological and economic value. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we obtained about 26 million reads from the stems of 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25- and 50-year-old trees. Combining these with the published Roche 454 sequencing reads and the expressed sequence tags (both mainly from embryogenic cell cultures), we assembled 26670549 reads into 146786 transcripts, of which we annotated 79182 to support investigations of the molecular basis of tree aging and adaption, somatic embryogenesis and wood formation. Using these sequences we also identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats, and insertion and deletion markers to assist breeding and genetic diversity studies of .