Eucalypt plantations in China currently exceed 4.5 Mhm , and this country has the third largest area of such plantations after India and Brazil. China’s eucalypt industry now comprises a complex, multifaceted industry including seedling propagation, fertilizer production and supply, plantation silviculture, harvesting and transport, wood processing for products including lumber, pulp and paper, and wood-based panels, as well as bioenergy production and various forest byproducts and non-wood forest products. In 2015, the combined value of output of this whole industry was around 300 billion CNY. Chinese research and development (R&D) has been instrumental in supporting growth and development across the whole breadth of the country’s eucalypt industry. In this report, recent advances in this R&D are reviewed under six key topics: (1) advanced propagation technology; (2) genetic resources and breeding; (3) targeted silviculture; (4) eucalypt disease and pest management; (5) enhancing plantation ecology and sustainability; and (6) wood processing and byproduct technology. R&D has greatly facilitated expansion and proliferation of all parts of China’s eucalypt industry. This industry is now of major importance to China’s economy; it involves tens of thousands of growers and companies that provide livelihoods for hundreds of thousands of people.