Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Energy is of great importance in human life because of its benefits as the main resource for human activity. According to International Energy Agency (IEA), energy demands are expected to continue increasing until 2030. Because energy demand will never decrease, it is necessary to develop modern technology, such as nano-based technology, in order to obtain a more effective and efficient process to produce more energy. The application of nano technology or nano material in the field of energy, which involves lithium-ion battery, fuel cell, light emitting diode (LED), ultra-capacitor, and solar cell (including Gr?tzel cell), is a hot topic in many scientific researches. Unfortunately, its current development is hampered by the expensive cost of production compared to conventional technologies. Therefore, priority should be given to nano technology in the energy sector order to obtain higher efficiency, lower production cost, and easier in its application.