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《中国工程科学》 >> 2013年 第15卷 第2期

质子导体燃料电池阴极材料的研究及发展概述

中国科学技术大学材料系,中国科学院能量转换材料重点实验室,合肥 230026

收稿日期 :2012-11-07 发布日期 :2013-01-28 10:49:15.000

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摘要

能源危机和环境污染是全世界在可持续发展道路中所面临的难题。固体氧化物燃料电池(SOFC)具有高能量转化效率和低污染排放,被认为是未来能源经济的基石。其中,以质子导体作为电解质的固体氧化物燃料电池(H-SOFC)由于具有高燃料利用率、高理论电动势、高离子迁移数以及低传导活化能,因而备受关注。然而,与氧离子导体固体氧化物燃料电池(O-SOFC)相比,H-SOFC的材料选择和理论体系还处于初级阶段,尤其是H-SOFC的阴极。在H-SOFC中,氢气在阳极被氧化,形成质子,通过电解质迁移到阴极,而后与氧进行电极反应生成水,其阴极的电极过程比O-SOFC更为复杂。寻找高性能的阴极材料和探索H-SOFC中的阴极反应机理,对于H-SOFC的发展具有重要的意义。围绕质子导体阴极材料的发展进行深入调研,着重阐述和总结了不同传导类型的阴极材料的电化学行为及其反应模型,为H-SOFC阴极材料的发展和应用提供了一种思路。

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