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Intercropping is the planned cultivation of species mixtures on agricultural land. Intercropping has many attributes that make it attractive for developing a more sustainable agriculture, such as high yield, high resource use efficiency, lower input requirements, natural suppression of pests, pathogens and weeds, and building a soil with more organic carbon and nitrogen. Information is needed which species combinations perform best under different circumstances and which management is suitable to bring out the best from intercropping in a given production situation. The literature is replete with case studies on intercropping from across the globe, but evidence synthesis is needed to make this information accessible. Meta-analysis requires a careful choice of metric that is appropriate for answering the question at hand, and which lends itself for a robust meta-analysis. This paper reviews some metrics that may be used in the quantitative synthesis of literature data on intercropping.

 


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European cropping systems are often characterized by short rotations or even monocropping, leading to environmental issues such as soil degradation, water eutrophication, and air pollution including greenhouse gas emissions, that contribute to climate change and biodiversity loss. The use of diversification practices (i.e., intercropping, multiple cropping including cover cropping and rotation extension), may help enhance agrobiodiversity and deliver ecosystem services while developing new value chains. Despite its benefits, crop diversification is hindered by various technical, organizational, and institutional barriers along value chains (input industries, farms, trading and processing industries, retailers, and consumers) and within sociotechnical systems (policy, research, education, regulation and advisory). Six EU-funded research projects have joined forces to boost crop diversification by creating the European Crop Diversification Cluster (CDC). This Cluster aggregates research, innovation, commercial and citizen-focused partnerships to identify and remove barriers across the agrifood system and thus enables the uptake of diversification measures by all European value-chain stakeholders. The CDC will produce a typology of barriers, develop tools to accompany actors in their transition, harmonize the use of multicriteria assessment indicators, prepare policy recommendations and pave the way for a long-term network on crop diversification.

 


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The EIP-Agri multiactor approach was exemplified during a 3-day workshop with 63 project participants from the EU H2020 funded project “Redesigning European cropping systems based on species MIXtures”. The objective was to share firsthand experience of participatory research among researchers who were mostly not familiar with this approach. Workshop participants were divided into smaller multidisciplinary groups and given the opportunity to interact with representatives from eight actor positions in the value chain of the agrifood cooperative Terrena located in Western France. The four stages of the workshop were: (1) key actor interviews, (2) sharing proposed solutions for overcoming barriers, and (3) developing possible interdisciplinary concepts. Expressions of frustration were recorded serving both as a motivation for group members to become more aware of the scientific concerns and practices of their colleagues, as well as a recognition that some researchers have better skills integrating qualitative approaches than others. Nevertheless, the workshop format was an effective way to gain a common understanding of the pertinent issues that need to be addressed to meet overall multiactor-approach objectives. Working with the actor networks was identified and emphasized as a means to overcome existing barriers between academia and practice in order to coproduce a shared vision of the benefits of species mixture benefits.

 


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Crop rotations are widely used because they can significantly reduce the incidence of pests and diseases. The interactions between non-host roots and pathogens may be key in the inhibition of soilborne pathogens in crop rotations. Interactions between fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) roots/root exudates and Phytophthora nicotianae were investigated because of the known allelopathy between fennel and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The effects of the key compounds in the fennel rhizosphere on the mycelial growth and zoospore behavior of P. nicotianae were assessed. The roots of fennel attracted P. nicotianae zoospores and inhibited their motility and the germination of cystospores, with some cystospores rupturing. 4-ethylacetophenone, vanillin and N-formylpiperidine were consistently identified in the fennel rhizosphere and were found to interfere with the infection of P. nicotianae, especially vanillin. Hyphae treated with these compounds produced more abnormal branches and accumulated reactive oxygen species. These interspecific interactions between non-host roots and pathogens were found to be an important factor in the inhibition by fennel of infection by P. nicotianae.

 


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