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New perspectives in free nitrous acid (FNA) uses for sustainable wastewater management

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-024-1786-5

摘要:

● The historical development of free nitrous acid (FNA) technologies is reviewed.

关键词: Free nitrous acid     Acid-tolerant ammonia oxidizer     In situ generation     Wastewater management    

Potential unreliability of ALK variant allele frequency in the efficacy prediction of targeted therapy in NSCLC

《医学前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期   页码 493-502 doi: 10.1007/s11684-022-0946-x

摘要: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is the most common fusion gene involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and remarkable response has been achieved with the use of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs). However, the clinical efficacy is highly variable. Pre-existing intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) has been proven to contribute to the poor treatment response and the resistance to targeted therapies. In this work, we investigated whether the variant allele frequencies (VAFs) of ALK fusions can help assess ITH and predict targeted therapy efficacy. Through the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS), 7.2% (326/4548) of patients were detected to be ALK positive. On the basis of the adjusted VAF (adjVAF, VAF normalization for tumor purity) of four different threshold values (adjVAF < 50%, 40%, 30%, or 20%), the association of ALK subclonality with crizotinib efficacy was assessed. Nonetheless, no statistical association was observed between median progression-free survival (PFS) and ALK subclonality assessed by adjVAF, and a poor correlation of adjVAF with PFS was found among the 85 patients who received first-line crizotinib. Results suggest that the ALK VAF determined by hybrid capture-based NGS is probably unreliable for ITH assessment and targeted therapy efficacy prediction in NSCLC.

关键词: ALK fusion     next-generation sequencing     fluorescence in situ hybridization     immunohistochemistry     variant allele frequency     intratumoral heterogeneity     targeted therapy    

Development and application of ex-situ presulfurization technology for hydrotreating catalysts in China

Yulan GAO, Xiangchen FANG, Zhenmin CHENG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第3期   页码 287-296 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0529-2

摘要: The development and application of ex-situ presulfurization (EPRES) technology for hydrotreating catalysts has been reviewed in the present article. The studies in laboratory scale and commercial practice indicated that the adoption of the EPRES catalyst in industrial application can significantly enhance the degree of presulfurization of metal oxide components, shorten the start-up period, and effectively reduce the environmental impact as well as the danger of start-up procedure in industrial hydrotreating unit. This catalyst has been proved to be versatile for different types of hydrogenation reactions. Different types of active site models are also discussed for better understanding the nature of presulfurized catalysts.

关键词: ex-situ presulfurization     in situ presulfurization     hydrotreating catalyst     sulfur utilization ratio    

Lunar In Situ Large-Scale Construction: Quantitative Evaluation of Regolith Solidification Techniques

Charun Bao,Daobo Zhang,Qinyu Wang,Yifei Cui,Peng Feng,

《工程(英文)》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2024.03.004

摘要: Lunar habitat construction is crucial for successful lunar exploration missions. Due to the limitations of transportation conditions, extensive global research has been conducted on lunar in situ material processing techniques in recent years. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review, precise classification, and quantitative evaluation of these approaches, focusing specifically on four main approaches: reaction solidification (RS), sintering/melting (SM), bonding solidification (BS), and confinement formation (CF). Eight key indicators have been identified for the construction of low-cost and high-performance systems to assess the feasibility of these methods: in situ material ratio, curing temperature, time, implementation conditions, compressive strength, tensile strength, curing dimensions, and environmental adaptability. The scoring thresholds are determined by comparing the construction requirements with the actual capabilities. Among the evaluated methods, regolith bagging has emerged as a promising option due to its high in situ material ratio, low time requirement, lack of high-temperature requirements, and minimal shortcomings, with only the compressive strength falling below the neutral score. The compressive strength still maintains a value of 2–3 MPa. The proposed construction scheme utilizing regolith bags offers numerous advantages, including rapid and large-scale construction, ensured tensile strength, and reduced reliance on equipment and energy. In this study, guidelines for evaluating regolith solidification techniques are provided, and directions for improvement are offered. The proposed lunar habitat design based on regolith bags is a practical reference for future research.

关键词: Lunar habitats     Lunar     in situ     construction     Regolith bag     Solidification and formation     In situ     materials     Evaluation method    

偏远岛礁就地供水保障模式分析

姜海波,赵云鹏,程忠庆

《中国工程科学》 2014年 第16卷 第3期   页码 99-102

摘要:

分析了偏远岛礁依靠大陆船运送水的远距离供水保障模式在复杂军事斗争环境和台风频发环境存在的主要问题,提出了能提高岛礁独立生存能力的淡水自给自足的保障模式,重点探讨了利用雨水收集和可再生能源发电制水这两种方式解决偏远岛礁就地供水保障问题的特点、互补性、具体方式和技术途径。研究表明,采用“珊瑚沙滩浅层暗湖雨水收集利用系统”和“光伏直接供能反渗透海水淡化系统”这两种具体的淡水就地保障模式具有很高的发展潜能,特别是其联合工作模式具有较强的互补性和可靠性,适合在偏远岛礁推广应用。

关键词: 雨水收集     光伏发电     海水淡化     偏远岛礁     淡水保障    

Polyolefin-nanocomposites with special properties by in-situ polymerization

Walter Kaminsky

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 555-563 doi: 10.1007/s11705-018-1715-x

摘要:

Exceptionally strong polyolefin nanocomposites are synthesized by in-situ polymerization using soluble metallocene/methylaluminoxane (MAO) as catalysts in a two-step process. First, the soluble metallocene/MAO or other single site catalysts are absorbed on the surface of the nanofillers. Then by addition of ethene or propene, a polyolefin film is formed, covering the nanoparticles, layered silicates, or fibers. The resulting polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites are characterized by better physical and chemical properties such as stiffness, gas barrier properties, degradation temperatures, and crystallization rates. They show better mechanical properties than materials produced by mechanical blending. The thickness of the polyolefin can be controlled by the pressure of ethene or propene and by the polymerization time. Carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes are covered with isotactic or syndiotactic polypropylene. Because of the hydrophobic character of the carbon surface, the polymer is drawn on the fiber. This leads to a reinforced combined polymer with special properties. The crystallization temperature is 10 °C higher and therefore the crystallization rate up to 20 times faster than that of pure syndiotactic polypropylene. The form stability increases by 100% if 3 wt-% of carbon nanotubes are incorporated.

关键词: polyolefin nanocomposites     metallocenes     methylaluminoxane    

电子束定向能量沉积中垂滴振荡的产生与抑制 Article

Zhiyue Liang, Zhenyu Liao, Haoyu Zhang, Zixiang Li, Li Wang, Baohua Chang, Dong Du

《工程(英文)》 2024年 第37卷 第6期   页码 217-231 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2023.12.012

摘要:

Electron beam–directed energy deposition (EB–DED) has emerged as a promising wire-based metal additive manufacturing technique. However, the effects of EBs on pendant droplets at wire tips have not yet been determined. The aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of this action by analyzing the mechanism of droplet oscillation. The pendant droplet oscillation phenomenon hinders the stable transfer of droplets to the molten pool and limits the feasibility of manufacturing complex lattice structures by EB–DED. Hence, another aim of this study is to create an oscillation suppression method. An escalating asymmetric amplitude is the main characteristic of droplet oscillation. The primary oscillation-inducing force is the recoil force generated from the EB-acted local surface of the droplet. The physical mechanism of this force is the rapid increase and uneven distribution of the local surface temperature caused by the partial action of the EB. The prerequisites for droplet oscillation include vacuum conditions, high power densities, and bypass wire feeding processes. The proposed EB–dynamic surrounding melting (DSM) method can be applied to conveniently and effectively suppress oscillations, enable the accurate transfer of droplets to the molten pool, and achieve stable processes for preparing the strut elements of lattice structures. Lowering the temperature and improving the uniformity of its distribution are the mechanisms of oscillation suppression in EB–DSM. In this study, the physical basis for interpreting the mechanism by which EBs act on droplets and the technical basis for using EB–DED to prepare complex lattice structure parts are provided.

关键词: Additive manufacturing     Electron beam freeform fabrication     In situ     monitoring     Pendant droplet    

Thermodynamic analysis of liquid phase in situ hydrogenation of glycerol for 1,3-propanediol synthesis

Kun OUYANG, Yu HUANG, Haoyi CHEN, Tao LI, Fahai CAO, Dingye FANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 67-73 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0541-6

摘要: Based on the combination of the glycerol aqueous-phase reforming (APR) and catalytic hydrogenation of glycerol, a novel reaction system of liquid phase in situ hydrogenation of glycerol for the synthesis of 1,3-propanediol is proposed, in which hydrogen is produced from glycerol aqueous-phase reforming in the same reactor. In this new system, the glycerol is the raw material of the aqueous-phase reforming reaction; the hydrogen generated from the APR of glycerol can be quickly transformed to the in situ hydrogenation of glycerol to produce 1,3-propanediol, which can improve the selectivity of hydrogen for the APR process of glycerol. Moreover, thermodynamic calculation of the coupling processes was carried out, and standard molar enthalpies and equilibrium constants of foregoing reactions were obtained. The above calculation results indicate that the combination process is feasible for 1,3-propanediol synthesis.

关键词: glycerol     aqueous-phase reforming     1     3-propanediol     in-situ reduction    

Propagation characteristics of transient waves in low-strain integrity testing on cast-in-situ concrete

Hanlong LIU, Xuanming DING

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 240-240 doi: 10.1007/s11709-009-0100-8

In situ synthesis of FeS/Carbon fibers for the effective removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution

Rongrong Zhang, Daohao Li, Jin Sun, Yuqian Cui, Yuanyuan Sun

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1247-8

摘要: Abstract • FeS/carbon fibers were in situ synthesized with Fe-carrageenan hydrogel fiber. • The double helix structure of carrageenan is used to load and disperse Fe. • Pyrolyzing sulfate groups enriched carrageenan-Fe could easily generate FeS. • The adsorption mechanisms include reduction and complexation reaction. Iron sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles (termed FSNs) have attracted much attention for the removal of pollutants due to their high efficiency and low cost, and because they are environmentally friendly. However, issues of agglomeration, transformation, and the loss of active components limit their application. Therefore, this study investigates in situ synthesized FeS/carbon fibers with an Fe-carrageenan biomass as a precursor and nontoxic sulfur source to ascertain the removal efficiency of the fibers. The enrichment of sulfate groups as well as the double-helix structure in ι-carrageenan-Fe could effectively avoid the aggregation and loss of FSNs in practical applications. The obtained FeS/carbon fibers were used to control a Cr(VI) polluted solution, and exhibited a relatively high removal capacity (81.62 mg/g). The main mechanisms included the reduction of FeS, electrostatic adsorption of carbon fibers, and Cr(III)-Fe(III) complexation reaction. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir adsorption model both provided a good fit of the reaction process; hence, the removal process was mainly controlled by chemical adsorption, specifically monolayer adsorption on a uniform surface. Furthermore, co-existing anions, column, and regeneration experiments indicated that the FeS/carbon fibers are a promising remediation material for practical application.

关键词: Carrageenan     FeS     Double-helix structure     Hexavalent chromium    

In situ-based assessment of soil liquefaction potential–Case study of an earth dam in Tunisia

Ikram GUETTAYA,Mohamed Ridha EL OUNI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第4期   页码 456-461 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0259-5

摘要: The present paper examines the evaluation of liquefaction potential of an earth dam foundation in Tunisia. The assessment of soil liquefaction was made using deterministic and probabilistic simplified procedures developed from several case histories. The data collected from the field investigation performed before and after the vibrocompaction are analyzed and the results are reported. The obtained results show that after vibrocompaction, a significant improvement of the soil resistance reduces the liquefaction potential of the sandy foundation. Indeed, in the untreated layers, the factor of safety drops below 1 which means that the soil is susceptible for liquefaction. However, in the compacted horizons, the values of exceed the unit which justifies the absence of liquefaction hazard of the foundation.

关键词: liquefaction     cone penetration test (CPT)     standard penetration test (SPT)     vibrcompaction     sand    

In-situ condition monitoring of reinforced concrete structures

Sanjeev Kumar VERMA,Sudhir Singh BHADAURIA,Saleem AKHTAR

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第4期   页码 420-437 doi: 10.1007/s11709-016-0336-z

摘要: Performance of concrete structures is significantly influenced and governed by its durability and resistance to environmental or exposure conditions, apart from its physical strength. It can be monitored, evaluated and predicted through modeling of physical deterioration mechanisms, performance characteristics and parameters and condition monitoring of in situ concrete structures. One such study has been conducted using Non-destructive testing equipment in the city of Bhopal and around located in India. Some selected parameters influencing durability of reinforced concrete (RC) structures such as concrete cover, carbonation depth, chloride concentration, half cell potential and compressive strength have been measured, for establishing correlation among various parameters and age of structures. Effects of concrete cover and compressive strength over the variation of chloride content with time are also investigated.

关键词: concrete     carbonation     chloride     corrosion     monitoring     models    

Investigate of in situ sludge reduction in sequencing batch biofilm reactor: Performances, mechanisms

Yonglei Wang, Baozhen Liu, Kefeng Zhang, Yongjian Liu, Xuexin Xu, Junqi Jia

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-018-1077-0

摘要:

Microbial metabolism uncoupling, sludge decay is the main mechanism to promote in situ sludge reduction on this biofilm system.

The main reduction mechanism inside the biofilm is sludge decay in the longitudinal distribution of biofilm.

Mizugakiibacter and Azospira anaerobic fermentation bacterium dominate the FSC organisms indicating the dominant mechanism on the biofilm is sludge decay.

The floating spherical carriers with compound of the polyurethane and two fiber balls can effectively blocking suspended sludge, improving Biofilm formation efficiency significantly.

关键词: In situ sludge reduction     Biofilm     Composite floating spherical carriers     Microbial community     SBBR    

Development of an H reduction and moderate oxidation method for 3,5-dimethylpyridine hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第12期   页码 1807-1817 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2243-2

摘要: The Ru/C catalyst prepared by impregnation method was used for hydrogenation of 3,5-dimethylpyridine in a trickle bed reactor. Under the same reduction conditions (300 °C in H2), the catalytic activity of the non-in-situ reduced Ru/C-n catalyst was higher than that of the in-situ reduced Ru/C-y catalyst. Therefore, an in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation method was developed to increase the catalyst activity. Moreover, the influence of oxidation temperature on the developed method was investigated. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction H2-TPR, hydrogen temperature-programmed dispersion (H2-TPD), X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, O2 chemisorption and oxygen temperature-programmed dispersion (O2-TPD) analyses. The results showed that there existed an optimal Ru/RuOx ratio for the catalyst, and the highest 3,5-dimethylpyridine conversion was obtained for the Ru/C-i1 catalyst prepared by in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation (oxidized at 100 °C). Excessive oxidation (200 °C) resulted in a significant decrease in the Ru/RuOx ratio of the in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidized Ru/C-i2 catalyst, the interaction between RuOx species and the support changed, and the hard-to-reduce RuOx species was formed, leading to a significant decrease in catalyst activity. The developed in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation method eliminated the step of the non-in-situ reduction of catalyst outside the trickle bed reactor.

关键词: Ru/C catalyst     in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation     in-situ reduction     non-in-situ reduction     hydrogenation of 3     5-dimethylpyridine    

Tracing the impact of stack configuration on interface resistances in reverse electrodialysis by in situ

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1480-9

摘要:

• RED performance and stack resistance were studied by EIS and LSV.

关键词: Reverse electrodialysis     Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy     Concentration polarization     Spacer shadow effect    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

New perspectives in free nitrous acid (FNA) uses for sustainable wastewater management

期刊论文

Potential unreliability of ALK variant allele frequency in the efficacy prediction of targeted therapy in NSCLC

期刊论文

Development and application of ex-situ presulfurization technology for hydrotreating catalysts in China

Yulan GAO, Xiangchen FANG, Zhenmin CHENG

期刊论文

Lunar In Situ Large-Scale Construction: Quantitative Evaluation of Regolith Solidification Techniques

Charun Bao,Daobo Zhang,Qinyu Wang,Yifei Cui,Peng Feng,

期刊论文

偏远岛礁就地供水保障模式分析

姜海波,赵云鹏,程忠庆

期刊论文

Polyolefin-nanocomposites with special properties by in-situ polymerization

Walter Kaminsky

期刊论文

电子束定向能量沉积中垂滴振荡的产生与抑制

Zhiyue Liang, Zhenyu Liao, Haoyu Zhang, Zixiang Li, Li Wang, Baohua Chang, Dong Du

期刊论文

Thermodynamic analysis of liquid phase in situ hydrogenation of glycerol for 1,3-propanediol synthesis

Kun OUYANG, Yu HUANG, Haoyi CHEN, Tao LI, Fahai CAO, Dingye FANG

期刊论文

Propagation characteristics of transient waves in low-strain integrity testing on cast-in-situ concrete

Hanlong LIU, Xuanming DING

期刊论文

In situ synthesis of FeS/Carbon fibers for the effective removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution

Rongrong Zhang, Daohao Li, Jin Sun, Yuqian Cui, Yuanyuan Sun

期刊论文

In situ-based assessment of soil liquefaction potential–Case study of an earth dam in Tunisia

Ikram GUETTAYA,Mohamed Ridha EL OUNI

期刊论文

In-situ condition monitoring of reinforced concrete structures

Sanjeev Kumar VERMA,Sudhir Singh BHADAURIA,Saleem AKHTAR

期刊论文

Investigate of in situ sludge reduction in sequencing batch biofilm reactor: Performances, mechanisms

Yonglei Wang, Baozhen Liu, Kefeng Zhang, Yongjian Liu, Xuexin Xu, Junqi Jia

期刊论文

Development of an H reduction and moderate oxidation method for 3,5-dimethylpyridine hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor

期刊论文

Tracing the impact of stack configuration on interface resistances in reverse electrodialysis by in situ

期刊论文