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The road to sustainable use and waste management of plastics in Portugal

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 5-5 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1439-x

摘要:

• Portugal recycles 34% of the 40 kg/hab year of plastic packaging waste.

关键词: Single-use plastics     Plastic packaging     Plastic waste     Waste management     Waste shipment     Lightweight plastic bags    

Multi-Component Resource Recycling from Waste Light-Emitting Diode Under Hydrothermal Condition: Plastic

Yongliang Zhang,Lu Zhan,Zhenming Xu,

《工程(英文)》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2023.04.008

摘要: Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have accounted for most of the lighting market as the technology matures and costs continue to reduce. As a new type of e-waste, LED is a double-edged sword, as it contains not only precious and rare metals but also organic packaging materials. In previous studies, LED recycling focused on recovering precious and strategic metals while ignoring harmful substances such as organic packaging materials. Unlike crushing and other traditional methods, hydrothermal treatment can provide an environment-friendly process for decomposing packaging materials. This work developed a closed reaction vessel, where the degradation rate of plastic polyphthalamide (PPA) was close to 100%, with nano-TiO2 encapsulated in plastic PPA being efficiently recovered, while metals contained in LED were also recycled efficiently. Besides, the role of water in plastic PPA degradation that has been overlooked in current studies was explored and speculated in detail in this work. Environmental impact assessment revealed that the proposed recycling route for waste LED could significantly reduce the overall environmental impact compared to the currently published processes. Especially the developed method could reduce more than half the impact of global warming. Furthermore, this research provides a theoretical basis and a promising method for recycling other plastic-packaged e-waste devices, such as integrated circuits.

关键词: Waste LED     Hydrothermal treatment     Recycling     Plastic PPA degradation     Packaging materials    

Anthocyanins/chitosan films doped by nano zinc oxide for active and intelligent packaging: comparison

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第6期   页码 704-715 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2270-z

摘要: The multifunctional films was prepared by blending chitosan and nano-ZnO with purple tomato anthocyanins or black wolfberry anthocyanins. The properties of films functioned by anthocyanins source and nano-ZnO content were studied. It was found purple tomato anthocyanins showed more significant color change against pH than black wolfberry anthocyanins. The nano-ZnO were widely dispersed in matrix and enhanced the compatibility of anthocyanins with chitosan. However, the anthocyanins source influenced the properties of the films more slightly than nano-ZnO addition. The tensile strength, antioxidant and antibacterial effects of the chitosan films dramatically increased after cooperated by nano-ZnO and anthocyanins, which also enhanced with increase of nano-ZnO content, whereas the elongation at break of the composite films decreased. Especially, the anthocyanin and nano-ZnO promoted the antibacterial activity of films synergistically. Composite films made from black wolfberry anthocyanins exhibited higher mechanical performance than those made from purple tomato anthocyanins but weaker antibacterial effects. The purple tomato anthocyanins/chitosan and nano-ZnO/purple tomato anthocyanins/chitosan films effectively reflected pork spoilage, changing their colors from dark green to brown, indicating the potential for applications in active and intelligent food packaging.

关键词: bio-based     multifunction     colorimetric indicator     active and intelligent packaging    

ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES AND CONSUMER PREFERENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY BEVERAGE PACKAGING: THE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第1期   页码 95-108 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022478

摘要:

● Consumer preference for environmentally-friendly beverage packaging was investigated.

关键词: China     consumer preference     food and beverage packaging     green identity label     information treatment     plastics    

Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture representative of packaging plastics residue

Simona Colantonio, Lorenzo Cafiero, Doina De Angelis, Nicolò M. Ippolito, Riccardo Tuffi, Stefano Vecchio Ciprioti

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第2期   页码 288-303 doi: 10.1007/s11705-019-1875-3

摘要: A synthetic mixture of real waste packaging plastics representative of the residue from a material recovery facility (plasmix) was submitted to thermal and catalytic pyrolysis. Preliminary thermogravimetry experiments coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed to evaluate the effects of the catalysts on the polymers’ degradation temperatures and to determine the main compounds produced during pyrolysis. The thermal and catalytic experiments were conducted at 370°C, 450°C and 650°C using a bench scale reactor. The oil, gas, and char yields were analyzed and the compositions of the reaction products were compared. The primary aim of this study was to understand the effects of zeolitic hydrogen ultra stable zeolite Y (HUSY) and hydrogen zeolite socony mobil-5 (HZSM5) catalysts with high silica content on the pyrolysis process and the products’ quality. Thermogravimetry showed that HUSY significantly reduces the degradation temperature of all the polymers—particularly the polyolefines. HZSM5 had a significant effect on the degradation of polyethylene due to its smaller pore size. Mass balance showed that oil is always the main product of pyrolysis, regardless of the process conditions. However, all pyrolysis runs performed at 370°C were incomplete. The use of either zeolites resulted in a decrease in the heavy oil fraction and the prevention of wax formation. HUSY has the best performance in terms of the total monoaromatic yield (29 wt-% at 450°C), while HZSM5 promoted the production of gases (41 wt-% at 650°C). Plasmix is a potential input material for pyrolysis that is positively affected by the presence of the two tested zeolites. A more effective separation of polyethylene terephthalate during the selection process could lead to higher quality pyrolysis products.

关键词: packaging plastics waste     plasmix     pyrolysis     zeolite catalyst     degradation temperature    

Moving policy and regulation forward for single-use plastic alternatives

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1423-5

摘要: Single-use plastics are often used once or cannot be reused for extended periods. They are widely consumed with the rapid development of social economy. The waste generated by single-use plastics threatens ecosystem health by entering the environment and ultimately restricts sustainable human development. The innovation of sustainable and environmentally friendly single-use plastic alternative materials and the joint participation of governments, enterprises and the public are promising technologies and management approaches that can solve the problem of single-use plastics wastes. The development of single-use plastic alternative products can be promoted fundamentally only by improving relevant legislation and standards, providing differentiated industrial policies, encouraging scientific and technological innovation and expanding public participation.

关键词: Single-use plastic alternatives     Policy     Regulation     Sustainable development    

Current scenario and challenges of plastic pollution in Bangladesh: a focus on farmlands and terrestrial

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1666-4

摘要:

● A global snapshot of plastic waste generation and disposal is analysed.

关键词: Plastic waste     Farmlands     Terrestrial ecosystem     Marine life    

广义塑性力学及其运用

郑颖人,孔亮

《中国工程科学》 2005年 第7卷 第11期   页码 21-36

摘要:

分析了经典塑性力学用于岩土类材料的问题,它采用了3个不符合岩土材料变形机制的假设。从固体力学原理直接导出广义塑性位势理论,将经典塑性力学改造为更一般的塑性力学——广义塑性力学。广义塑性力学采用了塑性力学中的分量理论,能反映应力路径转折的影响,并避免了采用正交流动法则所引起的过大剪胀等不合理现象,也不会产生当前非关联流动法则中任意假定塑性势面引起的误差。给出了广义塑性力学的屈服面理论、硬化定律和应力-应变关系,并建立了考虑应力主轴旋转的广义塑性位势理论。屈服条件是状态参数,也是试验参数,只能由试验给出。应用表明,广义塑性力学可作为岩土材料的建模理论,还可应用于诸如极限分析等土力学的诸多领域,具有广阔的应用前景。

关键词: 岩土塑性力学     广义塑性力学     塑性势     屈服面     本构模型    

Effects of natural zeolite and sulfate ions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of plastic

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第1期   页码 86-98 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0793-x

摘要: One of the strategic materials used in earth-fill embankment dams and in modifying and preventing groundwater flow is plastic concrete (PlC). PlC is comprised of aggregates, water, cement, and bentonite. Natural zeolite (NZ) is a relatively abundant mineral resource and in this research, the microstructure, unconfined strength, triaxial behavior, and permeability of PlC made with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% replacement of cement by NZ were studied. Specimens of PIC-NZ were subjected to confined conditions and three different confining pressures of 200, 350, and 500 kPa were used to investigate their mechanical behavior and permeability. To study the effect of sulfate ions on the properties of PlC-NZ specimens, the specimens were cured in one of two different environments: normal condition and in the presence of sulfate ions. Results showed that increasing the zeolite content decreases the unconfined strength, elastic modulus, and peak strength of PlC-NZ specimens at the early ages of curing. However, at the later ages, increasing the zeolite content increases unconfined strength as well as the peak strength and elastic modulus. Specimens cured in the presence of sulfate ions indicated lower permeability, higher unconfined strength, elastic modulus, and peak strength due to having lower porosity.

关键词: plastic concrete     sulfate resistance     natural zeolite     triaxial compression test     SEM     permeability    

Preventing masks from becoming the next plastic problem

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1413-7

基于玻璃通孔的Ka波段宽带滤波封装天线 Research Article

方针1,2,张继华1,2,3,高莉彬1,2,陈宏伟1,2,李文磊1,2,梁天鹏1,2,蔡旭东1,2,蔡星周3,贾惟聪3,郭欢3,李勇3

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第24卷 第6期   页码 916-926 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.2200573

摘要: 以玻璃封装材料和玻璃通孔技术为基础,提出一种新的Ka波段(33 GHz)滤波封装天线(FPA),该天线具有宽频带和高滤波响应特点。与传统封装材料(印刷电路板、低温共烧陶瓷、硅等)相比,玻璃通孔更适合小型化技术(毫米波三维封装器件),具有优越的微波性能。玻璃基板通过键合技术可实现三维高密度互联,其热膨胀系数与硅相当。此外,玻璃基板的堆叠实现了高密度互连,并与微电子技术兼容。该天线辐射贴片由贴片天线和反射系数几乎互补的带通滤波器(BPF)组成。BPF单元有3对λg/4槽(缺陷微带结构)和两对λg/2 U形缝隙(缺陷地结构)。该天线实现了大带宽和高辐射效率,这可能与玻璃基板的叠加和玻璃通孔馈电有关。此外,引入4个辐射零值可有效提高阻带内的抑制水平。为验证所提设计性能,对33 GHz宽带滤波天线进行优化、调试和测量。天线的工作带宽为29.4‒36.4 GHz (|S11|<−10 dB),阻抗匹配带宽高达21.2%,阻带抑制水平大于16.5 dB。该天线实际增益为~6.5 dBi,辐射效率为~89%。

关键词: 滤波封装天线;玻璃通孔;三维封装器件;激光键合    

Effect of RC wall on the development of plastic rotation in the beams of RC frame structures

Amar KAHIL, Aghiles NEKMOUCHE, Said BOUKAIS, Mohand HAMIZI, Naceur Eddine HANNACHI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 318-330 doi: 10.1007/s11709-017-0420-z

摘要:

The objective of this study is, to interpret the influence of reinforced concrete walls addition in reinforced concrete frame structures considering behavior laws that reflects the actual behavior of such structures, by means of Castem2000computer code (pushover analysis). A finite element model is proposed in this study, using the TAKEDA modified behavior model with Timoshenko beams elements. This model is validated initially on experimental model. Then the work has focused on the behavior of a RC frame with 3 levels and three bays to better visualize the behavior of plastic hinges. Once the plastic hinge control parameters are identified (plastic rotation, ultimate curvature), a strengthening by introduction of reinforced concrete walls (RC/wall) at the ends of the reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame) has been performed. The results show that these RC walls significantly improve the behavior, by a relocation of efforts towards the central part of the beams.

关键词: RC/frame     RC/wall     moment curvature     plastic rotation     plastic hinge     pushover analysis     global models    

Several basic problems in plastic theory of geomaterials

Yuanxue LIU, Jiawu ZHOU, Zhongyou LI, Chen CHEN, Yingren ZHENG

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第1期   页码 81-84 doi: 10.1007/s11709-009-0016-3

摘要: Based on the basic mechanical properties of geomaterials, it was proven that the Drucker Postulate and the classical theory of plasticity can not be applied to geomaterials. Moreover, several basic problems of plastic theory of geomaterials were discussed. Based on the strict theoretical analysis, the following have been proven: the single yield surface model based on the classical theory of plasticity is unsuitable for geomaterials whether the rule of associated flow is applied or not; the yield surface of geomaterials is not unique, and its number is the same as the freedoms of plastic strain increment; the yield surface is not convex; and the rule of associated flow is unsuitable for geomaterials.

关键词: constitutive relation     geomaterials     classial plastic theory     Drucker Postulate     yield surface     flow rule    

Influence of recycled polyethylene terephthalate fibres on plastic shrinkage and mechanical properties

Necat ÖZAŞIK; Özgür EREN

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 792-802 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0849-6

摘要: Polyethylene terephthalate bottles production has drastically increased year after year due to high versatility of polyethylene terephthalate plastics and considerable consumption of beverages. In tandem with that increase, the major concern of society has been the improper disposal of this non-biodegradable material to the environment. To deal with this concern, recycled polyethylene terephthalate bottles were incorporated in concrete as fibre reinforcements in this study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene terephthalate fibre reinforced concrete (RPFRC) in comparison with control concrete without fibres. polyethylene terephthalate fibres with three different diameters (0.45, 0.65, and 1.0 mm) and two lengths (20 and 30 mm) were added at various proportions (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) by volume of concrete in order to determine the effect of fibres initially on compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strengths of concrete. The results revealed that none of the fibres have detrimental effects up to 1% volume fraction, however further addition caused slight reductions on mechanical properties in some conditions. Plastic shrinkage resistance and impact resistance tests were also performed according to related standards. Polyethylene terephthalate fibres were observed to have marked improvements on those properties. Such a good performance could be attributed primarily to the bridging effect of fibres.

关键词: recycled PET     fibre-reinforced concrete     mechanical properties     plastic shrinkage     impact energy    

Predetermination of potential plastic hinges on reinforced concrete frames using GFRP reinforcement

Dominik KUERES; Dritan TOPUZI; Maria Anna POLAK

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期   页码 624-637 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0832-2

摘要: In the past, glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP)-reinforcement has been successfully applied in reinforced concrete (RC) structures where corrosion resistance, electromagnetic neutrality, or cuttability were required. Previous investigations suggest that the application of GFRP in RC structures could be advantageous in areas with seismic activity due to their high deformability and strength. However, especially the low modulus of elasticity of GFRP limited its wide application as GFRP-reinforced members usually exhibit considerably larger deformations under service loads than comparable steel-reinforced elements. To overcome the aforementioned issues, the combination of steel and GFRP reinforcement in hybrid RC sections has been investigated in the past. Based on this idea, this paper presents a novel concept for the predetermination of potential plastic hinges in RC frames using GFRP reinforcement. To analyze the efficiency of the concept, nonlinear finite element simulations were performed. The results underscore the high efficiency of hybrid steel-GFRP RC sections for predetermining potential plastic hinges on RC frames. The results also indicate that the overall seismic behavior of RC structures could be improved by means of GFRP as both the column base shear force during the seismic activity as well as the plastic deformations after the earthquake were considerably less pronounced than in the steel-reinforced reference structure.

关键词: glass fiber-reinforced polymer     GFRP     hybrid section     plastic hinge     seismic design     reinforced concrete    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

The road to sustainable use and waste management of plastics in Portugal

期刊论文

Multi-Component Resource Recycling from Waste Light-Emitting Diode Under Hydrothermal Condition: Plastic

Yongliang Zhang,Lu Zhan,Zhenming Xu,

期刊论文

Anthocyanins/chitosan films doped by nano zinc oxide for active and intelligent packaging: comparison

期刊论文

ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES AND CONSUMER PREFERENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY BEVERAGE PACKAGING: THE

期刊论文

Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture representative of packaging plastics residue

Simona Colantonio, Lorenzo Cafiero, Doina De Angelis, Nicolò M. Ippolito, Riccardo Tuffi, Stefano Vecchio Ciprioti

期刊论文

Moving policy and regulation forward for single-use plastic alternatives

期刊论文

Current scenario and challenges of plastic pollution in Bangladesh: a focus on farmlands and terrestrial

期刊论文

广义塑性力学及其运用

郑颖人,孔亮

期刊论文

Effects of natural zeolite and sulfate ions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of plastic

期刊论文

Preventing masks from becoming the next plastic problem

期刊论文

基于玻璃通孔的Ka波段宽带滤波封装天线

方针1,2,张继华1,2,3,高莉彬1,2,陈宏伟1,2,李文磊1,2,梁天鹏1,2,蔡旭东1,2,蔡星周3,贾惟聪3,郭欢3,李勇3

期刊论文

Effect of RC wall on the development of plastic rotation in the beams of RC frame structures

Amar KAHIL, Aghiles NEKMOUCHE, Said BOUKAIS, Mohand HAMIZI, Naceur Eddine HANNACHI

期刊论文

Several basic problems in plastic theory of geomaterials

Yuanxue LIU, Jiawu ZHOU, Zhongyou LI, Chen CHEN, Yingren ZHENG

期刊论文

Influence of recycled polyethylene terephthalate fibres on plastic shrinkage and mechanical properties

Necat ÖZAŞIK; Özgür EREN

期刊论文

Predetermination of potential plastic hinges on reinforced concrete frames using GFRP reinforcement

Dominik KUERES; Dritan TOPUZI; Maria Anna POLAK

期刊论文