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Dynamic simulation of a space gas-cooled reactor power system with a closed Brayton cycle

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 916-929 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0757-9

摘要: Space nuclear reactor power (SNRP) using a gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) is the ideal choice for future high-power space missions. To investigate the safety characteristics and develop the control strategies for gas-cooled SNRP, transient models for GCR, energy conversion unit, pipes, heat exchangers, pump and heat pipe radiator are established and a system analysis code is developed in this paper. Then, analyses of several operation conditions are performed using this code. In full-power steady-state operation, the core hot spot of 1293 K occurs near the upper part of the core. If 0.4 $ reactivity is introduced into the core, the maximum temperature that the fuel can reach is 2059 K, which is 914 K lower than the fuel melting point. The system finally has the ability to achieve a new steady-state with a higher reactor power. When the GCR is shut down in an emergency, the residual heat of the reactor can be removed through the conduction of the core and radiation heat transfer. The results indicate that the designed GCR is inherently safe owing to its negative reactivity feedback and passive decay heat removal. This paper may provide valuable references for safety design and analysis of the gas-cooled SNRP coupled with CBC.

关键词: gas-cooled space nuclear reactor power     closed Brayton cycle     system startup and shutdown     positive reactivity insertion accident    

Exergetic sustainability evaluation and optimization of an irreversible Brayton cycle performance

Mohammad H. AHMADI,Mohammad-Ali AHMADI,Esmaeil ABOUKAZEMPOUR,Lavinia GROSU,Fathollah POURFAYAZ,Mokhtar BIDI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第2期   页码 399-410 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0445-y

摘要: Owing to the energy demands and global warming issue, employing more effective power cycles has become a responsibility. This paper presents a thermodynamical study of an irreversible Brayton cycle with the aim of optimizing the performance of the Brayton cycle. Moreover, four different schemes in the process of multi-objective optimization were suggested, and the outcomes of each scheme are assessed separately. The power output, the concepts of entropy generation, the energy, the exergy output, and the exergy efficiencies for the irreversible Brayton cycle are considered in the analysis. In the first scheme, in order to maximize the exergy output, the ecological function and the ecological coefficient of performance, a multi-objective optimization algorithm (MOEA) is used. In the second scheme, three objective functions including the exergetic performance criteria, the ecological coefficient of performance, and the ecological function are maximized at the same time by employing MOEA. In the third scenario, in order to maximize the exergy output, the exergetic performance criteria and the ecological coefficient of performance, a MOEA is performed. In the last scheme, three objective functions containing the exergetic performance criteria, the ecological coefficient of performance, and the exergy-based ecological function are maximized at the same time by employing multi-objective optimization algorithms. All the strategies are implemented via multi-objective evolutionary algorithms based on the NSGAII method. Finally, to govern the final outcome in each scheme, three well-known decision makers were employed.

关键词: entropy generation     exergy     Brayton cycle     ecological function     irreversibility    

Improvement of the cascading closed loop cycle system

ZHANG Guoqiang, CAI Ruixian

《能源前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 341-346 doi: 10.1007/s11708-007-0051-5

摘要: Aspen Plus was used to simulate and get more information about the cascading closed loop cycle (CCLC) system [1–3]. Following evaluation of the variable temperature heat source (e.g. gas turbine flue gas) utilized by the CCLC, both qualitative and quantitive comparisons between the system and simple steam Rankine cycle, were made. The results indicate that CCLC has the advantage in recuperating exergy from flue gas, but it cannot sufficiently convert the recuperated exergy to useful work. To improve the utilization of low temperature flue gas heat, the properties and parameters of the working substance must match conditions of the low temperature heat source. A better cycle scheme and pressure distribution was proposed to raise the efficiency of the CCLC. In addition, the multifunction system concept was introduced to improve the performance of CCLC with solar energy.

PWR-FBR with closed fuel cycle for a sustainable nuclear energy supply in China

XU Mi

《能源前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 129-134 doi: 10.1007/s11708-007-0016-8

摘要: From the thermal reactor to the fast reactor and then to the fusion reactor; this is the three-step strategy that has been decided for a sustainable nuclear energy supply in China. As the main thermal reactor type, the commercialized development phase of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been stepped up. The development of the fast reactor (FBR) is still in the early stage, marked by China experimental fast reactor (CEFR), which is currently under construction. According to the strategy study on the fast reactor development in China, its engineering development will be divided into three steps: the CEFR with a power of 65 MWt/20 MWe; the China prototype fast reactor (CPFR) with a power of 1 500 MWt/600 MWe; and the China demonstration fast reactor (CDFR) with a power of 2 500 3 750 MWt/1 000 1 500 MWe. With regards to the fuel cycle, a 100 t/a PWR spent fuel reprocessing pilot plant and a 500 kg/ a MOX fabrication plant are under construction. A project involving the construction of an industrial reprocessing plant and an MOX fabrication plant are also under application phase.

关键词: reactor development     reprocessing     MWt/600     demonstration     three-step strategy    

Preliminary design of an SCO conversion system applied to the sodium cooled fast reactor

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 832-841 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0777-5

摘要: The supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) Brayton cycle has become an ideal power conversion system for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) due to its high efficiency, compactness, and avoidance of sodium-water reaction. In this paper, the 1200 MWe large pool SFR (CFR1200) is used as the heat source of the system, and the sodium circuit temperature and the heat load are the operating boundaries of the cycle system. The performance of different SCO2 Brayton cycle systems and changes in key equipment performance are compared. The study indicates that the inter-stage cooling and recompression cycle has the best match with the heat source characte-ristics of the SFR, and the cycle efficiency is the highest (40.7%). Then, based on the developed system transient analysis program (FR-Sdaso), a pool-type SFR power plant system analysis model based on the inter-stage cooling and recompression cycle is established. In addition, the matching between the inter-stage cooling recompression cycle and the SFR during the load cycle of the power plant is studied. The analysis shows that when the nuclear island adopts the flow-advanced operation strategy and the carbon dioxide flowrate in the SCO2 power conversion system is adjusted with the goal of maintaining the sodium-carbon dioxide heat exchanger sodium side outlet temperature unchanged, the inter-stage cooling recompression cycle can match the operation of the SFR very well.

关键词: sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR)     supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2)     brayton cycle     load cycle    

optimization of the system integrated with wind power/photovoltaic/concentrating solar power with S-CO Braytoncycle

《能源前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11708-024-0922-z

摘要: This paper proposes a new power generating system that combines wind power (WP), photovoltaic (PV), trough concentrating solar power (CSP) with a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton power cycle, a thermal energy storage (TES), and an electric heater (EH) subsystem. The wind power/photovoltaic/concentrating solar power (WP−PV−CSP) with the S-CO2 Brayton cycle system is powered by renewable energy. Then, it constructs a bi-level capacity-operation collaborative optimization model and proposes a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) nested linear programming (LP) algorithm to solve this optimization problem, aiming to obtain a set of optimal capacity configurations that balance carbon emissions, economics, and operation scheduling. Afterwards, using Zhangbei area, a place in China which has significant wind and solar energy resources as a practical application case, it utilizes a bi-level optimization model to improve the capacity and annual load scheduling of the system. Finally, it establishes three reference systems to compare the annual operating characteristics of the WP−PV−CSP (S-CO2) system, highlighting the benefits of adopting the S-CO2 Brayton cycle and equipping the system with EH. After capacity-operation collaborative optimization, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and carbon emissions of the WP−PV−CSP (S-CO2) system are decreased by 3.43% and 92.13%, respectively, compared to the reference system without optimization.

关键词: wind power/photovoltaic/concentrating solar power (WP−PV−CSP)     supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle     capacity-operation collaborative optimization     sensitive analysis    

Experimental investigations on operating characteristics of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe

Yu WANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第2期   页码 134-141 doi: 10.1007/s11708-015-0354-x

摘要: The operating mechanism of the pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is not well understood and the present technology cannot predict required design parameters for a given task. The aim of research work presented in this paper is to better understand the operation regimes of the PHP through experimental investigations. A series of experiments were conducted on a closed loop PHP with 5 turns made of copper capillary tube of 2 mm in inner diameter. Two different working fluids viz. ethanol and acetone were employed. The operating characteristics were studied for the variation of heat input, filling ratio (FR) and inclination angle of the tested device. The results strongly demonstrate the effect of the filling ratio of the working fluid on the operational stability and heat transfer capability of the device. Important insight into the operational characteristics of PHP has been obtained.

关键词: closed loop pulsating heat pipe     thermal performance     operation limit     thermography    

General closed-form inverse kinematics for arbitrary three-joint subproblems based on the product of

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0681-7

摘要: The inverse kinematics problems of robots are usually decomposed into several Paden–Kahan subproblems based on the product of exponential model. However, the simple combination of subproblems cannot solve all the inverse kinematics problems, and there is no common approach to solve arbitrary three-joint subproblems in an arbitrary postural relationship. The novel algebraic geometric (NAG) methods that obtain the general closed-form inverse kinematics for all types of three-joint subproblems are presented in this paper. The geometric and algebraic constraints are used as the conditions precedent to solve the inverse kinematics of three-joint subproblems. The NAG methods can be applied in the inverse kinematics of three-joint subproblems in an arbitrary postural relationship. The inverse kinematics simulations of all three-joint subproblems are implemented, and simulation results indicating that the inverse solutions are consistent with the given joint angles validate the general closed-form inverse kinematics. Huaque III minimally invasive surgical robot is used as the experimental platform for the simulation, and a master–slave tracking experiment is conducted to verify the NAG methods. The simulation result shows the inverse solutions and six sets given joint angles are consistent. Additionally, the mean and maximum of the master–slave tracking experiment for the closed-form solution are 0.1486 and 0.4777 mm, respectively, while the mean and maximum of the master–slave tracking experiment for the compensation method are 0.3188 and 0.6394 mm, respectively. The experiments results demonstrate that the closed-form solution is superior to the compensation method. The results verify the proposed general closed-form inverse kinematics based on the NAG methods.

关键词: inverse kinematics     Paden–Kahan subproblems     three-joint subproblems     product of exponential     closed-form solution    

Analysis of stress and failure in rock specimens with closed and open flaws on the surface

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第5期   页码 1222-1237 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0773-1

摘要: The influence of closed and open surface flaws on the stress distribution and failure in rock specimens is investigated. Heterogeneous finite element models are developed to simulate the compression tests on flawed rock specimens. The simulated specimens include those with closed flaws and those with open flaws on the surface. Systematic analyses are conducted to investigate the influences of the flaw inclination, friction coefficient and the confining stress on failure behavior. Numerical results show significant differences in the stress, displacement, and failure behavior of the closed and open flaws when they are subjected to pure compression; however, their behaviors under shear and tensile loads are similar. According to the results, when compression is the dominant mode of stress applied to the flaw surface, an open flaw may play a destressing role in the rock and relocate the stress concentration and failure zones. The presented results in this article suggest that failure at the rock surface may be managed in a favorable manner by fabricating open flaws on the rock surface. The insights gained from this research can be helpful in managing failure at the boundaries of rock structures.

关键词: surface flaw     heterogeneity     circular hole     numerical modeling     relative displacement    

Effect of Joule heating on electro-osmotic flow in a closed-end micro-channel with isothermal and convective

Liang ZHAO, Linhua LIU,

《能源前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第4期   页码 381-388 doi: 10.1007/s11708-009-0057-2

摘要: The effect of Joule heating on the steady state electro-osmotic flow in a closed-end micro-channel is studied through numerical simulation with the finite volume method. The velocity field and the temperature field are described by a rigorous mathematical model. Thermophysical properties including viscosity and thermal conductivity are considered to be temperature-dependent. The simulations show that the presence of Joule heating causes an increase in temperature and a decrease in viscosity in the whole micro-channel, which, thereafter, induce a large velocity near the wall and an increase in fluid velocity at the central region in order to maintain a zero flow rate at the cross section of the micro-channel. The effect of Joule heating on the induced pressure gradient is also studied, which is very important for the application of the closed-end micro-channel as a micro-actuator. The results reveal that the induced pressure gradient, taking into consideration Joule heating, is significantly smaller than that without considering Joule heating when the wall temperature of the micro-channel is constant. The induced pressure gradient difference between considering Joule heating and without considering Joule heating is small under the convective boundary condition.

关键词: closed-end micro-channel     electrical double layer     electro-osmotic flow     induced pressure gradient     Joule heating    

Reverse driving character of 2-DOF closed chain haptic device

GUO Wei-dong, GUO Xin, ZHANG Yu-ru

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2006年 第1卷 第3期   页码 356-359 doi: 10.1007/s11465-006-0029-8

摘要: Reverse driving character plays an important role in evaluating the performance of a haptic device, and it is the primary rule in the mechanical design. This article mainly investigates the problem of 2-DOF haptic device design f

Generation of closed-form inverse kinematics for reconfigurable robots

ZHAO Jie, WANG Weizhong, GAO Yongsheng, CAI Hegao

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第3卷 第1期   页码 91-96 doi: 10.1007/s11465-008-0013-6

摘要: For reconfigurable robots, the automatic generation of inverse kinematics is a key problem, because such robots may assume various configurations. In this paper, the screw and product-of-exponentials (POE) formula are used to model the kinematics of reconfigurable robots. The POE formula can be converted to canonical subproblems through decomposition and adjoint transformation. Three classes and 28 types of subproblems containing geometric or algebraic solutions are identified and solved, which can be reused in different configurations. A generalized, decomposable, and reusable approach for close-form inverse kinematics of reconfigurable robots is developed based on POE and subproblems. The effectiveness of this method is shown in an example.

关键词: different     effectiveness     generation     reconfigurable     algebraic    

A combined modulated feedback and temperature compensation approach to improve bias drift of a closed-loop

Ming-jun MA,Zhong-he JIN,Hui-jie ZHU

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第16卷 第6期   页码 497-510 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.1400349

摘要: The bias drift of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer suffers from the 1/ noise and the temperature effect. For massive applications, the bias drift urgently needs to be improved. Conventional methods often cannot address the 1/ noise and temperature effect in one architecture. In this paper, a combined approach on closed-loop architecture modification is proposed to minimize the bias drift. The modulated feedback approach is used to isolate the 1/ noise that exists in the conventional direct feedback approach. Then a common mode signal is created and added into the closed loop on the basis of modulated feedback architecture, to compensate for the temperature drift. With the combined approach, the bias instability is improved to less than 13 μ , and the drift of the Allan variance result is reduced to 17 μ at 100 s of the integration time. The temperature coefficient is reduced from 4.68 to 0.1 m /°C. The combined approach could be useful for many other closed-loop accelerometers.

关键词: Bias drift     Closed-loop MEMS accelerometer     Modulated feedback approach     Temperature compensation    

Research progress in removal of trace carbon dioxide from closed spaces

ZHANG Yatao, FAN Lihai, ZHANG Lin, CHEN Huanlin

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 310-316 doi: 10.1007/s11705-007-0057-x

摘要: In this paper, the removal of trace carbon dioxide from closed spaces through membrane process and biotransformation are introduced in detail. These methods include the microalgae photobioreactor, membrane microalgae photobioreactor, supported liquid membrane, membrane gas-liquid contactor, hydrogel membrane, and enzyme membrane bioreactor. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are compared. It is found that higher CO removal efficiency can be obtained in biotransformation and membrane process. However, a large volume and high energy consumption are needed in biotransformation, while the low permeability and stability must be solved in the membrane process.

关键词: removal efficiency     consumption     removal     CO removal     membrane microalgae    

Structural parameter design method for a fast-steering mirror based on a closed-loop bandwidth

Guozhen CHEN, Pinkuan LIU, Han DING

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第15卷 第1期   页码 55-65 doi: 10.1007/s11465-019-0545-y

摘要: When a fast-steering mirror (FSM) system is designed, satisfying the performance requirements before fabrication and assembly is vital. This study proposes a structural parameter design approach for an FSM system based on the quantitative analysis of the required closed-loop bandwidth. First, the open-loop transfer function of the FSM system is derived. In accordance with the transfer function, the notch filter and proportional-integral (PI) feedback controller are designed as a closed-loop controller. The gains of the PI controller are determined by maximizing the closed-loop bandwidth while ensuring the robustness of the system. Then, the two unknown variables of rotational radius and stiffness in the open-loop transfer function are optimized, considering the bandwidth as a constraint condition. Finally, the structural parameters of the stage are determined on the basis of the optimized results of rotational radius and stiffness. Simulations are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the FSM system is fabricated, and corresponding experimental tests are conducted. Experimental results indicate that the bandwidth of the proposed FSM system is 117.6 Hz, which satisfies the minimum bandwidth requirement of 100 Hz.

关键词: fast-steering mirror     structural parameter     PI controller     bandwidth     notch filter    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Dynamic simulation of a space gas-cooled reactor power system with a closed Brayton cycle

期刊论文

Exergetic sustainability evaluation and optimization of an irreversible Brayton cycle performance

Mohammad H. AHMADI,Mohammad-Ali AHMADI,Esmaeil ABOUKAZEMPOUR,Lavinia GROSU,Fathollah POURFAYAZ,Mokhtar BIDI

期刊论文

Improvement of the cascading closed loop cycle system

ZHANG Guoqiang, CAI Ruixian

期刊论文

PWR-FBR with closed fuel cycle for a sustainable nuclear energy supply in China

XU Mi

期刊论文

Preliminary design of an SCO conversion system applied to the sodium cooled fast reactor

期刊论文

optimization of the system integrated with wind power/photovoltaic/concentrating solar power with S-CO Braytoncycle

期刊论文

Experimental investigations on operating characteristics of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe

Yu WANG

期刊论文

General closed-form inverse kinematics for arbitrary three-joint subproblems based on the product of

期刊论文

Analysis of stress and failure in rock specimens with closed and open flaws on the surface

期刊论文

Effect of Joule heating on electro-osmotic flow in a closed-end micro-channel with isothermal and convective

Liang ZHAO, Linhua LIU,

期刊论文

Reverse driving character of 2-DOF closed chain haptic device

GUO Wei-dong, GUO Xin, ZHANG Yu-ru

期刊论文

Generation of closed-form inverse kinematics for reconfigurable robots

ZHAO Jie, WANG Weizhong, GAO Yongsheng, CAI Hegao

期刊论文

A combined modulated feedback and temperature compensation approach to improve bias drift of a closed-loop

Ming-jun MA,Zhong-he JIN,Hui-jie ZHU

期刊论文

Research progress in removal of trace carbon dioxide from closed spaces

ZHANG Yatao, FAN Lihai, ZHANG Lin, CHEN Huanlin

期刊论文

Structural parameter design method for a fast-steering mirror based on a closed-loop bandwidth

Guozhen CHEN, Pinkuan LIU, Han DING

期刊论文