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Multi-stage ammonia production for sorption selective catalytic reduction of NO

Chen ZHANG, Guoliang AN, Liwei WANG, Shaofei WU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期   页码 840-851 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0797-1

摘要: Sorption selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) (sorption-SCR) has ever been proposed for replacing commercial urea selective catalytic reduction of NOx (urea-SCR), while only the single-stage sorption cycle is hitherto adopted for sorption-SCR. Herein, various multi-stage ammonia production cycles is built to solve the problem of relative high starting temperature with ammonia transfer (AT) unit and help detect the remaining ammonia in ammonia storage and delivery system (ASDS) with ammonia warning (AW) unit. Except for the single-stage ammonia production cycle with MnCl2, other sorption-SCR strategies all present overwhelming advantages over urea-SCR considering the much higher NOx conversion driven by the heat source lower than 100°C and better matching characteristics with low-temperature catalysts. Furthermore, the required mass of sorbent for each type of sorption-SCR is less than half of the mass of AdBlue for urea-SCR. Therefore, the multifunctional multi-stage sorption-SCR can realize compact and renewable ammonia storage and delivery with low thermal energy consumption and high NOx conversion, which brings a bright potential for efficient commercial de-NOx technology.

关键词: selective catalytic reduction (SCR)     nitrogen oxides (NOx)     ammonia     composite sorbent     chemisorption    

New nanostructured sorbents for desulfurization of natural gas

Lifeng WANG, Ralph T. YANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第1期   页码 8-19 doi: 10.1007/s11705-014-1411-4

摘要: Desulfurization of natural gas is achieved commercially by absorption with liquid amine solutions. Adsorption technology could potentially replace the solvent extraction process, particularly for the emerging shale gas wells with production rates that are generally lower than that from the large conventional reservoirs, if a superior adsorbent (sorbent) is developed. In this review, we focus our discussion on three types of sorbents: metal-oxide based sorbents, Cu/Ag-based and other commercial sorbents, and amine-grafted silicas. The advantages and disadvantages of each type are analyzed. Possible approaches for future developments to further improve these sorbents are suggested, particularly for the most promising amine-grafted silicas.

关键词: desulfurization     natural gas desulfurization     hydrogen sulfide sorbent     amine-silica sorbent    

Preparation and selection of Fe-Cu sorbent for COS removal in syngas

Bowu CHENG, Zhaofei CAO, Yong BAI, Dexiang ZHANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 441-444 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0507-8

摘要: A series of iron-based sorbents prepared with iron trioxide hydrate, cupric oxide by a novel method was studied in a fixed-bed reactor for COS removal from syngas at moderate temperature. In addition, the sorbents mixed with various additives in different ratios were tested. The effects of additive type and ratio on the breakthrough capacity and desulfurization performance, as well as the influence of operating conditions on sulfidation behavior of the sorbent, were investigated. The simulate gas contained 1% COS, 5% CO , 20%–30% CO and 60%–70% H . The outlet gases from the fixed-bed reactor were automatically analyzed by on-line mass spectrometry, and the COS concentration before breakthrough can be kept steady at 1 ppmv. The result shows that the breakthrough sulfur capacity of the sorbent is as high as 25 g-S/100 g. At 700 K and space velocity of 1000 h , the efficiency of sulfur removal and breakthrough sulfur capacity of the sorbent increase with the increase of copper oxide with an optimum value. The result shows that the species and content of additives also affect desulfurization performance of the sorbent.

关键词: sorbent     desulfurization     COS removal     syngas    

Desulfurization performance of iron-manganese-based sorbent for hot coal gas

Xiurong REN, Weiren BAO, Fan LI, Liping CHANG, Kechang XIE

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 429-434 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0504-y

摘要: A series of iron-manganese-based sorbents were prepared by co-precipitation and physical mixing method, and used for H S removal from hot coal gas. The sulfidation tests were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor with space velocity of 2000 h (STP). The results show that the suitable addition of manganese oxide in iron-based sorbent can decrease H S and COS concentration in exit before breakthrough due to its simultaneous reaction capability with H S and COS. Fe O and MnO are the initial active components in iron-manganese-based sorbent, and FeO and Fe are active components formed by reduction during sulfidation. The crystal phases of iron affect obviously their desulfurization capacity. The reducibility of sorbent changes with the content of MnO in sorbent. S7F3M and S3F7M have bigger sulfur capacities (32.68 and 32.30 gS/100 g total active component), while S5F5M has smaller sulfur capacity (21.92 gS/100 g total active component). S7F3M sorbent has stable sulfidation performance in three sulfidation-regeneration cycles and no apparent structure degradation. The sulfidation performance of iron- manganese-based sorbent is also related with its specific surface area and pore volume.

关键词: iron-manganese-based sorbent     sulfidation performance     regeneration     hot coal gas    

Efficient MgO-doped CaO sorbent pellets for high temperature CO

Zhihong Xu, Tao Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yujun Zhao, Xinbin Ma, Shengping Wang

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期   页码 698-708 doi: 10.1007/s11705-020-1981-2

摘要: Novel MgO-doped CaO sorbent pellets were prepared by gel-casting and wet impregnation. The effect of Na and MgO on the structure and CO adsorption performance of CaO sorbent pellets was elucidated. MgO-doped CaO sorbent pellets with the diameter range of 0.5 1.5 mm exhibited an excellent capacity for CO adsorption and adsorption rate due to the homogeneous dispersion of MgO in the sorbent pellets and its effects on the physical structure of sorbents. The results show that MgO can effectively inhibit the sintering of CaO and retain the adsorption capacity of sorbents during multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. The presence of mesopores and macropores resulted in appreciable change of volume from CaO (16.7 cm ∙mol ) to CaCO (36.9 cm ∙mol ) over repeated operation cycles. Ca2Mg1 sorbent pellets exhibited favorable CO capture capacity (9.49 mmol∙g ), average adsorption rate (0.32 mmol∙g ∙min ) and conversion rate of CaO (74.83%) after 30 cycles.

关键词: MgO doping     CaO sorbent pellets     gel-casting technique     CO2 capture    

Impact of H2S on Hg0 capture performance over nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11705-024-2396-2

摘要: A nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent with a hierarchical porous structure was synthesized via aggregation-hydrothermal carbonization. The Hg0 adsorption performance of the nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent was tested and compared with that of the coconut shell activated carbon prepared in the laboratory. The effect of H2S on Hg0 adsorption was also investigated. The nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent exhibited superior mercury removal performance compared with that of coconut shell activated carbon. In the absence of H2S at a low temperature (≤ 100 °C), the Hg0 removal efficiency of the nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent exceeded 90%. This value is significantly higher than that of coconut shell activated carbon, which is approximately 45%. H2S significantly enhanced the Hg0 removal performance of the nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent at higher temperatures (100–180 °C). The hierarchical porous structure facilitated the diffusion and adsorption of H2S and Hg0, while the nitrogen-containing active sites significantly improved the adsorption and dissociation capabilities of H2S, contributing to the generation of more active sulfur species on the surface of the nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent. The formation of active sulfur species and HgS on the sorbent surface was further confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Hg0 temperature-programmed desorption tests. Density functional theory was employed to elucidate the adsorption and transformation of Hg0 on the sorbent surface. H2S adsorbed and dissociated on the sorbent surface, generating active sulfur species that reacted with gaseous Hg0 to form HgS.

关键词: nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere     H2S     Hg0 removal     adsorption mechanism    

Reaction mechanism of arsenic capture by a calcium-based sorbent during the combustion of arsenic-contaminated

Mei Lei, Ziping Dong, Ying Jiang, Philip Longhurst, Xiaoming Wan, Guangdong Zhou

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-019-1110-y

摘要:

Pilot-scale combustion is required to treat arsenic-enriched biomass in China.

CaO addition to arsenic-enriched biomass reduces arsenic emission.

CaO captures arsenic via chemical adsorption to form Ca3(AsO4)2.

关键词: Arsenic contamination     Phytoremediation     Emission control     Calcium-based sorbent     Biomass disposal     Pilot-scale combustion    

A thermodynamic study of the removal of HCl and H

Joseph LEE, Bo FENG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第1期   页码 67-83 doi: 10.1007/s11705-011-1162-4

摘要: Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IFGC) systems require high-temperature sorbents that are capable of removing hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide from coal derived gases to very low levels. HCl and H S are highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gases that must be removed to meet stringent environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment and to control the emissions of contaminants. The thermodynamic behavior of 13 sorbents for the removal of HCl and H S under various conditions including: initial toxic gas concentration (1–10000 ppm), operating pressure (0.1–11 Mpa), temperature (300 K–1500 K), and the presence of H O were investigated. The correlation between HCl and H S was also examined. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out for the reactions of the 13 sorbents using a FactSage 5.2 software package based on free energy minimization. The sorbents, Na CO , NaHCO , K CO , and CaO are capable of completely removing chlorine at high temperatures (up to ~1240 K) and at high pressures. Water vapor did not have any significant effects on the dechlorination capability of the sorbents. Nine of the sorbents namely; Cu O, Na CO , NaHCO , K CO , CaO, ZnO, MnO, FeO, and PbO, were determined to have great potential as desulfurization sorbents. Cu O and ZnO had the best performance in terms of the optimum operating temperature. The addition of water vapor to the reactant gas produces a slightly detrimental effect on most of the sorbents, but FeO exhibited the worst performance with a reduction in the maximum operating temperature of about 428 K. The dechlorination performance of the alkali sorbents was not affected by the presence of H S in the reactions. However, the desulfurization capability of some sorbents was greatly affected by the presence of HCl. Particularly, the performance of Cu O was significantly reduced when HCl was present, but the performance of FeO improved remarkably. The thermodynamic results gathered are valuable for the developments of better sorbents.

关键词: syngas cleaning     sorbent     desulfurization     dechlorination    

Technological development and engineering applications of novel steel-concrete composite structures

Jianguo NIE, Jiaji WANG, Shuangke GOU, Yaoyu ZHU, Jiansheng FAN

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第1期   页码 1-14 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0514-x

摘要:

In view of China’s development trend of green building and building industrialization, based on the emerging requirements of the structural engineering community, the development and proposition of novel resource-saving high-performance steel-concrete composite structural systems with adequate safety and durability has become a kernel development trend in structural engineering. This paper provides a state of the art review of China’s cutting-edge research and technologies in steel-concrete composite structures in recent years, including the building engineering, the bridge engineering and the special engineering. This paper summarizes the technical principles and applications of the long-span bi-directional composite structures, the long-span composite transfer structures, the comprehensive crack control technique based on uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connectors, the steel plate concrete composite (SPCC) strengthen technique, and the innovative composite joints. By improving and revising traditional structure types, the comprehensive superiority of steel-concrete composite structures is well elicited. The research results also indicate that the high-performance steel-concrete composite structures have a promising popularizing prospect in the future.

关键词: high-performance composite structure     bi-directional composite     composite transfer     uplift-restricted and slip-permitted connectors     steel plate concrete composite strengthen    

Deep eutectic solvent inclusions for high- composite dielectric elastomers

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 996-1002 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2138-2

摘要: Recent advances in novel electroactive devices have placed new requirements on material development. High-performance dielectric elastomers with good mechanical stretchability and high dielectric constant are under high demand. However, the current strategy for fabricating these materials suffers from high cost or low thermal stability, which greatly hinders large-scale industrial production. Herein, we have successfully developed a novel strategy for improving the dielectric constant of polymeric elastomers via deep eutectic solvent inclusion by taking advantage of the low cost, convenient and environmentally benign synthesis process and high ionic conductivity from deep eutectic solvents. The as-prepared composite elastomers showed good stretchability and a greatly enhanced dielectric constant with a negligible increase in dielectric dissipation. Moreover, we have proven the universality of our strategy by using different types of deep eutectic solvents. It is believed that low-cost, easy-synthesis and environmentally friendly deep eutectic solvents including composite elastomers are highly suitable for large-scale industrial production and can greatly broaden the application fields of dielectric elastomers.

关键词: composite materials     deep eutectic solvent     dielectric elastomer     high dielectric constant    

An antibiotic composite electrode for improving the sensitivity of electrochemically active biofilm biosensor

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第8期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-022-1518-7

摘要:

• Antibiotic azithromycin employed in graphite electrode for EAB biosensor.

关键词: AZM@GP composite electrode     EAB-biosensor     Water quality early-warning    

Structural optimization of filament wound composite pipes

Roham RAFIEE; Reza SHAHZADI; Hossein SPERESP

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第8期   页码 1056-1069 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0868-3

摘要: An optimization procedure is developed for obtaining optimal structural design of filament wound composite pipes with minimum cost utilized in pressurized water and waste-water pipelines. First, the short-term and long-term design constraints dictated by international standards are identified. Then, proper computational tools are developed for predicting the structural properties of the composite pipes based on the design architecture of layers. The developed computational tools are validated by relying on experimental analysis. Then, an integrated design-optimization process is developed to minimize the price as the main objective, taking into account design requirements and manufacturing limitations as the constraints and treating lay-up sequence, fiber volume fraction, winding angle, and the number of total layers as design variables. The developed method is implemented in various case studies, and the results are presented and discussed.

关键词: composite pipes     optimization     experimental validation     computational modeling     filament winding    

Progressive failure analysis of notched composite plate by utilizing macro mechanics approach

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期   页码 623-642 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0726-8

摘要: In this study, gradual and sudden reduction methods were combined to simulate a progressive failure in notched composite plates using a macro mechanics approach. Using the presented method, a progressive failure is simulated based on a linear softening law prior to a catastrophic failure, and thereafter, sudden reduction methods are employed for modeling a progressive failure. This combination method significantly reduces the computational cost and is also capable of simultaneously predicting the first and last ply failures (LPFs) in composite plates. The proposed method is intended to predict the first ply failure (FPF), LPF, and dominant failure modes of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy notched composite plates. In addition, the effects of mechanical properties and different stacking sequences on the propagation of damage in notched composite plates were studied. The results of the presented method were compared with experimental data previously reported in the literature. By comparing the numerical and experimental data, it is revealed that the proposed method can accurately simulate the failure propagation in notched composite plates at a low computational cost.

关键词: progressive failure     notched composite plate     Hashin failure criterion     macro mechanics approach     finite element method    

A theoretical model for investigating shear lag in composite cable-stayed bridges

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第12期   页码 1907-1923 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0995-5

摘要: The slab of the composite girder is usually very wide in composite cable-stayed bridges, and the main girder has an obvious shear lag. There is an axial force in the main girder due to cable forces, which changes the normal stress distribution of the composite girder and affects the shear lag. To investigate the shear lag in the twin I-shaped composite girder (TICG) of cable-stayed bridges, analytical solutions of TICGs under bending moment and axial force were derived by introducing the additional deflection into the longitudinal displacement function. A shear lag coefficient calculation method of the TICG based on additional deflection was proposed. Experiments with three load cases were conducted to simulate the main girder in cable-stayed bridges. And the stress, deflection, and shear lag coefficient obtained from the theoretical method considering additional deflection (TMAD) were verified by the experimental and finite element results. A generalized verification of a composite girder from existing references was made, indicating that the proposed method could provide more accurate results for the shear lag effect.

关键词: cable-stayed bridge     composite girder     shear lag     energy method     additional deflection    

Bending and rotational behaviour of semi-continuous composite beams

WANG Jingfeng, LI Guoqiang

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第2期   页码 116-122 doi: 10.1007/s11709-008-0015-9

摘要: Stresses and deflections were measured in various semi-continuous composite beams. The bending and rotational capacities of the composite connections were measured in terms of beam curvatures and deflections by using two full-scale semi-rigid composite frames with monotonic loadings. The effect of semi-rigid connections on the performance of composite beams with various loadings was compared with predictions and codes. The tests show that the semi-continuous composite beams are more economic and effective than the simple or continuous composite beams. The semi-rigid connections affect the bending capacities and beam deflections, so the connection behavior should be considered in the design of composite beams. Yielding analysis of the steel beam bottom flange has some influence on the deflection calculation of composite beams.

关键词: rotational     effective     deflection calculation     semi-continuous composite     full-scale semi-rigid    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Multi-stage ammonia production for sorption selective catalytic reduction of NO

Chen ZHANG, Guoliang AN, Liwei WANG, Shaofei WU

期刊论文

New nanostructured sorbents for desulfurization of natural gas

Lifeng WANG, Ralph T. YANG

期刊论文

Preparation and selection of Fe-Cu sorbent for COS removal in syngas

Bowu CHENG, Zhaofei CAO, Yong BAI, Dexiang ZHANG

期刊论文

Desulfurization performance of iron-manganese-based sorbent for hot coal gas

Xiurong REN, Weiren BAO, Fan LI, Liping CHANG, Kechang XIE

期刊论文

Efficient MgO-doped CaO sorbent pellets for high temperature CO

Zhihong Xu, Tao Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yujun Zhao, Xinbin Ma, Shengping Wang

期刊论文

Impact of H2S on Hg0 capture performance over nitrogen-doped carbon microsphere sorbent

期刊论文

Reaction mechanism of arsenic capture by a calcium-based sorbent during the combustion of arsenic-contaminated

Mei Lei, Ziping Dong, Ying Jiang, Philip Longhurst, Xiaoming Wan, Guangdong Zhou

期刊论文

A thermodynamic study of the removal of HCl and H

Joseph LEE, Bo FENG

期刊论文

Technological development and engineering applications of novel steel-concrete composite structures

Jianguo NIE, Jiaji WANG, Shuangke GOU, Yaoyu ZHU, Jiansheng FAN

期刊论文

Deep eutectic solvent inclusions for high- composite dielectric elastomers

期刊论文

An antibiotic composite electrode for improving the sensitivity of electrochemically active biofilm biosensor

期刊论文

Structural optimization of filament wound composite pipes

Roham RAFIEE; Reza SHAHZADI; Hossein SPERESP

期刊论文

Progressive failure analysis of notched composite plate by utilizing macro mechanics approach

期刊论文

A theoretical model for investigating shear lag in composite cable-stayed bridges

期刊论文

Bending and rotational behaviour of semi-continuous composite beams

WANG Jingfeng, LI Guoqiang

期刊论文