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WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 512-524 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2021393

摘要:

Settlement patterns and social structures have been shaped by access to water since the onset of human societies. This review covers historical and recent examples from Cambodia, Central Asia, India, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula to analyze the role of water resources in determining the rise and collapse of civilizations. Over recent decades increasing globalization and concomitant possibilities to externalize water needs as virtual water have obscured global dependence on water resources via telecoupling, but rapid urbanization brings it now back to the political agenda. It is foremost in the urban arena of poorer countries where competing claims for water increasingly lead to scale-transcendent conflicts about ecosystem services. Solutions to the dilemma will require broad stakeholder-based agreements on water use taking into account the available data on water resources, their current and potential use efficiency, recycling of water after effective treatment, and social-ecological approaches of improved governance and conflict resolution.

 

关键词: agroecology     historical water use     water footprint     water governance     urbanization    

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

Andreas BUERKERT, Kotiganahalli Narayanagowda GANESHAIAH, Stefan SIEBERT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》   页码 512-524 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021393

摘要: Since the onset of human societies, settlement patterns and social structures have been shaped by access to water. This review covers historical and recent examples from Cambodia, Central Asia, India, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula to analyze the role of water resources in determining the rise and collapse of civilizations. Over recent decades increasing globalization and concomitant possibilities to externalize water needs as have obscured global dependence on water resources via telecoupling, but rapid urbanization brings it now back to the political agenda. It is foremost in the urban arena of poorer countries where competing claims for water increasingly lead to scale-transcendent conflicts about ecosystem services. Solutions to the dilemma will require broad stakeholder-based agreements on water use taking into account the available data on water resources, their current and potential use efficiency, recycling of water after effective treatment, and social-ecological approaches of improved governance and conflict resolution.

关键词: agroecology     historical water use     water footprint     water governance     urbanization    

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN DRYLAND AGROECOSYSTEMS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 599-602 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2021409

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 185-194 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017149

摘要: This paper explores the effect of varying agricultural management practices on different water efficiency indicators: irrigation efficiency (IE), crop water use efficiency (WUE), and green and blue water footprint (WF). We take winter wheat in an experimental field in Northern China as a case study and consider a dry, average and wet year. We conducted 24 modeling experiments with the AquaCrop model, for all possible combinations of four irrigation techniques, two irrigation strategies and three mulching methods. Results show that deficit irrigation most effectively improved blue water use, by increasing IE (by 5%) and reducing blue WF (by 38%), however with an average 9% yield reduction. Organic or synthetic mulching practices improved WUE (by 4% and 10%, respectively) and reduced blue WF (by 8% and 17%, respectively), with the same yield level. Drip and subsurface drip irrigation improved IE and WUE, but drip irrigation had a relatively large blue WF. Improvements in one water efficiency indicator may cause a decline in another. In particular, WUE can be improved by more irrigation at the cost of the blue WF. Furthermore, increasing IE, for instance by installing drip irrigation, does not necessarily reduce the blue WF.

关键词: field management     irrigation efficiency     water footprint     water productivity     water use efficiency    

Effects of dwarfing genes on water use efficiency of bread wheat

Jiakun YAN, Suiqi ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 126-134 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017134

摘要: Climate change has increased the risk of drought, which significantly limits plant productivity. Various ways of increasing water availability and sustaining growth of crop plants in drought-prone environments are available. Genetic advances in grain yields under rainfed conditions have been achieved with the introduction of dwarfing genes. A thorough understanding of the effects of different dwarfing genes on root growth, coleoptile length, grain yields and water using efficiency (WUE) will provide opportunities to select appropriate genes for breeding high WUE and grain yield cultivars. This review focuses on the mechanism involved in genes that reduce plant height and affect root and coleoptile length, their consequent effects on grain yields and WUE, and suggests that for rainfed and irrigation-limited environments, combining GAR and GAI dwarfing genes in breeding may help boost WUE and yields, and more materials from different parental sources should be collected to assess opportunities for potential comprehensive application of specific genes.

关键词: coleoptile length     wheat     dwarfing genes     grain yield     root     water use efficiency    

Ceramic water filter for point-of-use water treatment in developing countries: Principles, challenges

Haiyan Yang, Shangping Xu, Derek E. Chitwood, Yin Wang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1254-9

摘要: • CWF is a sustainable POU water treatment method for developing areas. • CWF manufacturing process is critical for its filtration performance. • Simultaneous increase of flow rate and pathogen removal is a challenge. • Control of pore size distribution holds promises to improve CWF efficiency. • Novel coatings of CWFs are a promising method to improve contaminant removal. Drinking water source contamination poses a great threat to human health in developing countries. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment techniques, which improve drinking water quality at the household level, offer an affordable and convenient way to obtain safe drinking water and thus can reduce the outbreaks of waterborne diseases. Ceramic water filters (CWFs), fabricated from locally sourced materials and manufactured by local labor, are one of the most socially acceptable POU water treatment technologies because of their effectiveness, low-cost and ease of use. This review concisely summarizes the critical factors that influence the performance of CWFs, including (1) CWF manufacturing process (raw material selection, firing process, silver impregnation), and (2) source water quality. Then, an in-depth discussion is presented with emphasis on key research efforts to address two major challenges of conventional CWFs, including (1) simultaneous increase of filter flow rate and bacterial removal efficiency, and (2) removal of various concerning pollutants, such as viruses and metal(loid)s. To promote the application of CWFs, future research directions can focus on: (1) investigation of pore size distribution and pore structure to achieve higher flow rates and effective pathogen removal by elucidating pathogen transport in porous ceramic and adjusting manufacture parameters; and (2) exploration of new surface modification approaches with enhanced interaction between a variety of contaminants and ceramic surfaces.

关键词: Point-of-use water treatment     Ceramic water filter     Bacterial removal     Surface modification     Water quality    

Effects of riparian land use on water quality and fish communities in the headwater stream of the Taizi

Sen DING, Yuan ZHANG, Bin LIU, Weijing KONG, Wei MENG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第5期   页码 699-708 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0528-x

摘要: Riparian land use remains one of the most significant impacts on stream ecosystems. This study focuses on the relationship between stream ecosystems and riparian land use in headwater regions. Four riparian land types including forest, grassland, farmland, and residential land were examined to reveal the correlation between stream water and fish communities in headwater streams of the Taizi River in north-eastern China. Four land types along riparian of 3 km in length were evaluated at 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 m widths, respectively. Generally, the results found a significant relationship between riparian land uses and stream water quality. Grassland was positively correlated with water quality parameters (conductivity and total dissolved solids) at scales from 100 to 500 m riparian width. Farmland and residential land was negatively correlated with water quality parameters at scales from 25 to 500 m and from 50 to 200 m riparian widths, respectively. Although the riparian forest is important for maintaining habitat diversity and fish communities, the results found that only fish communities were significantly correlated with the proportion of riparian farmland. Farmland had a positive correlation with individual fish abundance within a riparian corridor of 25 to 50 m, but a negative correlation with fish diversity metrics from 25 to 100 m. This study indicates that effective riparian management can improve water quality and fish communities in headwater streams.

关键词: fish     water quality     land use     riparian buffer     headwater stream    

Symbiotic performance, shoot biomass and water-use efficiency of three groundnut (

Sofiya K. MUHABA, Felix D. DAKORA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第4期   页码 455-466 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020354

摘要:

Phosphorus is a key nutrient element involved in energy transfer for cellular metabolism, respiration and photosynthesis and its supply at low levels can affect legume nodulation, N fixation, and C assimilation. A two-year field study was conducted in Ethiopia in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the effects of P supply on growth, symbiotic N nutrition, grain yield and water-use efficiency of three groundnut genotypes. Supplying P to the genotypes significantly increased their shoot biomass, symbiotic performance, grain yield, and C accumulation. There was, however, no effect on shoot δ C values in either year. Compared to the zero-P control, supplying 40 kg·ha P markedly increased shoot biomass by 77% and 66% in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In both years, groundnut grain yields were much higher at 20 and 30 kg·ha P. Phosphorus supply markedly reduced shoot δ N values and increased the %Ndfa and amount of N-fixed, indicating the direct involvement of P in promoting N fixation in nodulated groundnut. The three genotypes differed significantly in δ N, %Ndfa, N-fixed, grain yield, C concentration, and δ C. The phosphorus × genotype interaction was also significant for shoot DM, N content, N-fixed and soil N uptake.

关键词: shoot yield     N-fixed     %Ndfa     δ15N     δ13C     water-use efficiency    

Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 115-123 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015055

摘要: This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

关键词: rice     nitrogen-efficient cultivar     grain fill     harvest index     nitrogen use efficiency     water use efficiency    

Scientifically advanced woody media for improved water quality from livestock woodchip heavy-use areas

Laura Christianson, David DeVallance, Joshua Faulkner, Thomas Basden

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0909-7

摘要: Overwintering cattle on pastures in many areas can damage the pasture and lead to impaired water quality. During these times, use of a woodchip heavy-use area (HUA) presents advantages such as a soft, supportive, and dry foot surface for animals and protection of the pasture and pasture soils. However, woodchip HUAs can also be a centralized source of high nutrient loads due to their drainage outflows. A column study was conducted to assess the nutrient load reduction potential of: 1) six types of wood media (including torrefied wood media and biochar) that could be used in a woodchip HUA versus a gravel control, and 2) providing a 48 h retention time within the wood media to enhance nitrogen removal through denitrification. The woody media provided significant liquid waste volume reduction compared to the gravel in simulated events (53%–61% vs. 39% reductions, respectively), and there may be additional liquid storage capacity in the woodchips not utilized during these rapid events. Substantial total nitrogen removal by the wood treatments (mean removal efficiencies>50%) was observed across the simulated events, although nitrate leaching also occurred. Nitrate removal was enhanced during the 48 h retention test which showed removal was governed by availability of labile carbon (i.e., fresh woodchips exhibited>70% nitrate removal). The retention test also indicated biochar mixtures provided some of the best total phosphorus removal, but the greatest benefits across all parameters was provided by the Mixed Hardwood treatment.

关键词: Overwinter     Heavy-use area     Nutrient pollution     Torrefied     Woodchip    

Improving water use efficiency in grain production of winter wheat and summer maize in the North China

Xiying ZHANG,Wenli QIN,Juanna XIE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第1期   页码 25-33 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016090

摘要: Reducing irrigation water use by improving water use efficiency (WUE) in grain production is critical for the development of sustainable agriculture in the North China Plain (NCP). This article summarizes the research progresses in WUE improvement carried out at the Luancheng station located in the Northern part of NCP for the past three decades. Progresses in four aspects of yield and WUE improvement are presented, including yield and WUE improvement associated with cultivar selection, irrigation management for improving yield and WUE under limited water supply, managing root system for efficient soil water use and reducing soil evaporation by straw mulch. The results showed that annual average increase of 0.014 kg·m for winter wheat and 0.02 kg·m in WUE were observed for the past three decades, and this increase was largely associated with the improvement in harvest index related to cultivar renewal and an increase in chemical fertilizer use and soil fertility. The results also indicated that deficit irrigation for winter wheat could significantly reduce the irrigation water use, whereas the seasonal yield showed a smaller reduction rate and WUE was significantly improved. Straw mulching of summer maize using the straw from winter wheat could reduce seasonal soil evaporation by 30–40 mm. With new cultivars and improved management practices it was possible to further increase grain production without much increase in water use. Future strategies to further improve WUE are also discussed.

关键词: harvest index     cultivar selection     deficit irrigation     root water uptake     straw mulching    

Conservation and adaptive-reuse of historical industrial building in China in the post-industrial era

WANG Jianguo, JIANG Nan

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第4期   页码 474-480 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0064-5

摘要: The conservation and adaptive-reuse of historical industrial building is one of the most important issues to be solved in today s urban development and construction in China. In this paper, the necessity and academic meaning of the conservation and adaptive-reuse of historical industrial building were discussed by reviewing its development rend both at home and abroad, and the basic contents of the implementation of the conservation and adaptive-reuse of historical industrial building in China with specific cases provided were analyzed. It is the central task for China to put forward the restructuring and design methods, assessment principles and relevant core technical specifications based on the empirical researches on the historical industrial building and site.

关键词: historical industrial     industrial building     implementation     adaptive-reuse     empirical    

Effect of a new antitranspirant on the physiology and water use efficiency of soybean under different

Shasha JI, Ling TONG, Fusheng LI, Hongna LU, Sien LI, Taisheng DU, Youjie WU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 155-164 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017148

摘要: Antitranspirants are exogenous substances applied to leaves to reduce luxury transpiration by regulating stomatal conductance to increase water use efficiency (WUE). A cheap and environmentally-friendly antitranspirant, FZ, was newly developed, extracted mainly from . Its effects on soybean water use were investigated in a field experiment using the locally-used irrigation rate and a low irrigation rate (The lower and upper limit of irrigation is 40%–70% of field capacity). Foliar application of FZ and measurement of leaf physiological characteristics, final biomass, seed yield and water use efficiency were carried out during the pod bearing and pod filling stages of drip-irrigated soybean with film-mulching. Under the low irrigation rate, leaf stomatal conductance (g ) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased significantly by 7 d after spraying, but photosynthesis (Pn) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE ) were not significantly affec ted. The stomatal frequency, stomatal aperture, g , Tr and Pn decreased by 1 d after spraying, without significantly increasing WUE . However, applying FZ during the pod bearing and pod filling stages did not significantly affect the final biomass, water consumption, seed yield and WUE of soybean. Under the locally-used irrigation rate, applying FZ increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves by 38% and 33%, respectively, but did not significantly affect g , Tr, Pn, stomatal aperture and stomatal frequency. Applying FZ three times during pod bearing and pod filling stages enhanced seed yield and WUE by 24% and 21%, respectively, but did not significantly affect the final biomass and water consumption. Therefore, seed yield and WUE of soybean were significantly increased by foliar application of FZ during the pod bearing and pod filling stages under the locally-used irrigation rate in arid region, but applying FZ did not have a positive effect on water use efficiency of soybean under a low irrigation rate.

关键词: antitranspirant     soybean     water deficit     leaf gas exchange     enzymes activities     water consumption     seed yield    

Analysis of Sydney’s recycled water schemes

Zhuo CHEN, Huu Hao NGO, Wenshan GUO, Xiaochang WANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第4期   页码 608-615 doi: 10.1007/s11783-012-0468-x

摘要: Recycled water provides a viable opportunity to partially supplement fresh water supplies as well as substantially alleviate environmental loads. Currently, thousands of recycled water schemes have been successfully conducted in a number of countries and Sydney is one of the leading cities, which has made massive effort to apply water reclamation, recycling and reuse. This study aims to make a comprehensive analysis of recycled water schemes in Sydney for a wide range of end uses such as landscape irrigation, industrial process uses and residential uses (e.g., golf course irrigation, industrial cooling water reuse, toilet flushing and clothes washing etc.). For each representative recycled water scheme, this study investigates the involved wastewater treatment technologies, the effluent quality compared with specified guideline values and public attitudes toward different end uses. Based on these obtained data, multi criteria analysis (MCA) in terms of risk, cost-benefit, environmental and social aspects can be performed. Consequently, from the analytical results, the good prospects of further expansion and exploration of current and new end uses were identified toward the integrated water planning and management. The analyses could also help decision makers in making a sound judgment for future recycled water projects.

关键词: recycled water schemes     end use     water quality     public attitudes     integrated water planning and management    

华北地区农业水资源现状和未来保障研究

黄峰,杜太生,王素芬,梅旭荣,龚道枝,陈源泉,康绍忠

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第5期   页码 28-37 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.05.024

摘要:

华北地区是我国重要的粮食和农产品生产基地,对保障国家的粮食和食物安全至关重要。华北用仅占全国6% 的水资源支撑了占全国18% 的耕地并生产出占全国23% 的粮食。但这个巨大成就是以极大的资源环境和生态成本为代价的。本文回顾华北粮食生产和用水的历史性成就,总结现在面临的主要问题和挑战,然后应用国际水资源研究界广泛应用的农业用水管理的综合分析框架,系统分析1998—2015 年华北地区水资源、农业用水以及用水效率和水分生产力,在此基础上尝试提出了未来保障华北地区食物安全的战略和政策途径。

关键词: 食物安全     农业用水     水分利用效率     作物水分生产力    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

期刊论文

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

Andreas BUERKERT, Kotiganahalli Narayanagowda GANESHAIAH, Stefan SIEBERT

期刊论文

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN DRYLAND AGROECOSYSTEMS

期刊论文

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

期刊论文

Effects of dwarfing genes on water use efficiency of bread wheat

Jiakun YAN, Suiqi ZHANG

期刊论文

Ceramic water filter for point-of-use water treatment in developing countries: Principles, challenges

Haiyan Yang, Shangping Xu, Derek E. Chitwood, Yin Wang

期刊论文

Effects of riparian land use on water quality and fish communities in the headwater stream of the Taizi

Sen DING, Yuan ZHANG, Bin LIU, Weijing KONG, Wei MENG

期刊论文

Symbiotic performance, shoot biomass and water-use efficiency of three groundnut (

Sofiya K. MUHABA, Felix D. DAKORA

期刊论文

Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

Jianchang YANG

期刊论文

Scientifically advanced woody media for improved water quality from livestock woodchip heavy-use areas

Laura Christianson, David DeVallance, Joshua Faulkner, Thomas Basden

期刊论文

Improving water use efficiency in grain production of winter wheat and summer maize in the North China

Xiying ZHANG,Wenli QIN,Juanna XIE

期刊论文

Conservation and adaptive-reuse of historical industrial building in China in the post-industrial era

WANG Jianguo, JIANG Nan

期刊论文

Effect of a new antitranspirant on the physiology and water use efficiency of soybean under different

Shasha JI, Ling TONG, Fusheng LI, Hongna LU, Sien LI, Taisheng DU, Youjie WU

期刊论文

Analysis of Sydney’s recycled water schemes

Zhuo CHEN, Huu Hao NGO, Wenshan GUO, Xiaochang WANG

期刊论文

华北地区农业水资源现状和未来保障研究

黄峰,杜太生,王素芬,梅旭荣,龚道枝,陈源泉,康绍忠

期刊论文