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含钒钢渣 1

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电化学储能;钒液流电池;钒资源;供应保障;需求预测 1

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Coextraction of vanadium and manganese from high-manganese containing vanadium wastewater by a solvent

Zishuai Liu, Yimin Zhang, Zilin Dai, Jing Huang, Cong Liu

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第5期   页码 902-912 doi: 10.1007/s11705-019-1887-z

摘要: High-manganese containing vanadium wastewater (HMVW) is commonly produced during the vanadium extraction process from vanadium titano-magnetite. HMVW cannot be reused and discharged directly, and is harmful to the environment and affect product quality due to heavy metals in the wastewater. The wastewater is usually treated by lime neutralization, but valuable metals (especially V and Mn) cannot be recovered. In this study, an efficient and environmentally friendly method was developed to recover valuable metals by using a solvent extraction-precipitation process. In the solvent extraction process, 98.15% of vanadium was recovered, and the V O product, with a purity of 98.60%, was obtained under optimal conditions. For the precipitation process, 91.05% of manganese was recovered as MnCO which meets the III grade standard of HG/T 2836-2011. Thermodynamic simulation analysis indicated that MnCO was selectively precipitated at pH 6.5 while Mg and Ca could hardly be precipitated. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the obtained V O and MnCO displayed a good degree of crystallinity. The treated wastewater can be returned for leaching, and resources (V and Mn) in the wastewater were utilized efficiently in an environmentally friendly way. Therefore, this study provides a novel method for the coextraction of V and Mn from HMVW.

关键词: high-manganese containing vanadium wastewater     solvent extraction     carbonate precipitation     vanadium titano-magnetite     valuable metal recovery    

Optimized the vanadium electrolyte with sulfate-phosphoric mixed acids to enhance the stable operation

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11705-023-2377-x

摘要: Herein, the influence of the concentration design and comprehensive performance of the sulfate-phosphoric mixed acid system electrolyte is investigated to realize an electrolyte that maintains high energy density and stable operation at high temperatures. Static stability tests have shown that VOPO4 precipitation occurs only with vanadium(V) electrolyte. The concentration of vanadium ion of 2.0–2.2 mol·L–1, phosphoric acid of 0.10–0.15 mol·L–1, and sulfuric acid of 2.5–3.0 mol·L–1 are suitable for a vanadium redox flow battery in the temperature range from –20 to 50 °C. The equations for predicting the viscosity and conductivity of electrolytes are obtained by the response surface method. The optimized electrolyte overcomes precipitation generation. It has 2.8 times higher energy density than the non-phosphate electrolyte, and a coulomb efficiency of 94.0% at 50 °C. The sulfate-phosphoric mixed acid system electrolyte promotes the electrode reaction process, increases the current density, and reduces the resistance. This work systematically optimizes the concentrations of composition of positive and negative vanadium electrolytes with mixed sulfate-phosphoric acid. It provides a basis for the different valence states and comprehensive properties of sulfate-phosphoric mixed acid system vanadium electrolytes under extreme environments, guiding engineering applications.

关键词: all vanadium redox flow battery     mixed-acid vanadium electrolyte     concentration optimization     response surface methodology     high-temperature stability    

Mechanical properties of vanadium-alloyed austempered ductile iron for crankshaft applications

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第18卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-023-0746-2

摘要: This study focused on the development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with desirable combination of mechanical properties for crankshaft applications by the combined effect of vanadium (V) alloying and an optimized heat treatment process. The produced unalloyed GGG60, 0.15% V-alloyed GGG60 (V-15), and 0.30% V-alloyed GGG60 samples were subjected to austenitizing at 900 °C for 1 h and subsequent austempering processes at 250, 300, and 350 °C for 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180 min. As a result of these austempering processes, different bainitic structures were obtained, which led to the formation of diverse combinations of mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the austempered samples were tested comprehensively, and the results were correlated with their microstructures and the stability of the retained austenite phases. From the microstructural observations, the V-alloyed samples exhibited a finer microstructure and a more acicular ferrite phase than unalloyed samples. The V addition delayed the coarsening of the acicular ferrite structures and considerably contributed to the improvement of the mechanical properties of GGG60. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction results revealed that the retained austenite volume and the carbon enrichment of austenite phases in ADI samples were remarkably affected by the addition of vanadium. The increase in volume fraction of retained austenite and its carbon content provided favorable ductility and toughness to V-15, as confirmed by the elongation and impact test results. Consequently, the dual-phase ausferrite microstructure of V-15 that was austempered at 300 °C for 60 min exhibited high strength with substantial ductility and toughness for crankshaft applications.

关键词: austempered ductile iron (ADI)     vanadium alloying     mechanical properties     crankshafts     retained austenite    

Highly efficient and selective removal of vanadium from tungstate solutions by microbubble floating-extraction

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第5期   页码 581-593 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2235-2

摘要: Selective separation of dissolved tungsten and vanadium is of great significance for the utilization of the secondary resources of these elements. In this work, selective removal of vanadium from tungstate solutions via microbubble floating-extraction was systematically investigated. The results indicated that vanadium can be more easily mineralized over tungsten from tungstate solutions using methyl trioctyl ammonium chloride as mineralization reagent under weak alkaline conditions. Owing to the higher bubble and interface mass transfer rates, high-efficiency enrichment and deep separation of vanadium could be achieved easily. Additionally, the deep recovery of tungsten and vanadium from the floated organic phase could be easily realized using a mixed solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride as stripping agents. The separation mechanism mainly included the formation of hydrophobic complexes, their attachment on the surface of rising bubbles, and their mass transfer at the oil–water interface. Under the optimal conditions, the removal efficiency of vanadium reached 98.5% with tungsten loss below 8% after two-stage microbubble floating-extraction. Therefore, the microbubble floating-extraction could be an efficient approach for separating selectively vanadium from tungstate solutions, exhibiting outstanding advantages of high separation efficiency and low consumption of organic solvents.

关键词: tungsten     vanadium     selective separation     reagent mineralization     microbubble floating-extraction    

Characterization and comparison of organic functional groups effects on electrolyte performance for vanadium

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第9期   页码 1221-1230 doi: 10.1007/s11705-023-2298-8

摘要: The vanadium redox flow battery with a safe and capacity-controllable large-scale energy storage system offers a new method for the sustainability. In this case, acetic acid, methane sulfonic acid, sulfonic acid, amino methane sulfonic acid, and taurine are used to overcome the low electrolyte energy density and stability limitations, as well as to investigate the effects of various organic functional groups on the vanadium redox flow battery. When compared to the pristine electrolyte (0.22 Ah, 5.0 Wh·L–1, 85.0%), the results show that taurine has the advantage of maintaining vanadium ion concentrations, discharge capacity (1.43 Ah), energy density (33.9 Wh·L–1), and energy efficiency (90.5%) even after several cycles. The acetic acid electrolyte is more conducive to the low-temperature stability of the V(II) electrolyte (177 h at −25 °C) than pristine (82 h at −2 °C). The –SO3H group, specifically the coaction of the –NH2 and –SO3H groups, improves electrolyte stability. The –NH2 and –COOH additive groups improved conductivity and electrochemical activity.

关键词: vanadium redox flow battery     functional groups     organic additives     energy density     stability    

Utilization of waste vanadium-bearing resources in the preparation of rare-earth vanadate catalysts for

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第12期   页码 1793-1806 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2191-x

摘要: Recycling industrial solid waste not only saves resources but also eliminates environmental concerns of toxic threats. Herein, we proposed a new strategy for the utilization of petrochemical-derived carbon black waste, a waste vanadium-bearing resource (V > 30000 ppm (10 −6)). Chemical leaching was employed to extract metallic vanadium from the waste and the leachate containing V was used as an alternative raw material for the fabrication of vanadate nanomaterials. Through the screening of various metal cations, it was found that the contaminated Na+ during the leaching process showed strong competitive coordination with the vanadium ions. However, by adding foreign Ce3+ and Y3+ cations, two rare-earth vanadates, viz., flower-like CeVO4 and spherical YVO4 nanomaterials, were successfully synthesized. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, and N2 physisorption were applied to analyze the physicochemical properties of the waste-derived nanomaterials. Importantly, we found that rare-earth vanadate catalysts exhibited good activities toward the semi-hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. The conversion of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol selectivity were even higher than those of the common CeVO4 prepared using pure chemicals (67.2% vs. 27.7% and 88.4% vs. 53.5%). Our work provides a valuable new reference for preparing vanadate catalysts by the use of abundant vanadium-bearing waste resources.

关键词: petrochemical solid wastes     vanadium recovery     resource utilization     nanomaterials     semi-hydrogenation    

Vanadium and molybdenum concentrations in particulate from Palermo (Italy): analytical methods using

Diana AMORELLO,Santino ORECCHIO

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第4期   页码 605-614 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0703-8

摘要: The main purpose of this work was to develop a reliable method for the determination of vanadium (V) and molybdenum (Mo) in atmosphere particles or aerosols because they can not be readily measured using conventional techniques. For this research, 30 particulate samples were collected from five different stations located at Palermo, Italy. We used the catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry and differential pulsed voltammetry to measure V and Mo in atmospheric particulate, respectively. The represented method includes advantages of high sensitivity, high selectivity, simplicity, reproducibility, speed and low costs. The quantification limits for V and Mo are, respectively, 0.57 and 0.80 ng·m . The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD %), was about 2% for both metals. The mean recoveries of added V and Mo were about 99.5% and ranged from 97% to 101%. Vanadium concentrations in particulate samples collected in Palermo area ranged from 0.57 to 7.7 ng·m , while Mo concentrations were in the range 0.8–51 ng·m . In many cases the concentrations of two elements in the particulate samples fall below the detection limits. The mean concentrations for V and Mo in particulate samples, collected in Palermo area, were respectively 3.1 and 5.9 ng·m .

关键词: vanadium     molybdenum     particulate     voltammetry     Palermo    

新型储能金属钒资源需求预测与供应分析

陈仁凤,龙涛,陈其慎,张艳飞,邢佳韵,刘敏,王琨,任鑫,商铖红,王晓

《中国工程科学》 2024年 第26卷 第3期   页码 74-85 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2024.03.010

摘要:

随着全球太阳能、风能等新能源的快速发展,储能作为解决其发电间歇性等问题的必备设施,未来也将迎来爆发式增长。钒液流电池具有本征安全、全生命周期经济性好及环境友好等特点,且已具备产业化应用条件,在储能领域的重要性不断凸显。本文分析了未来钒液流电池的发展趋势,设置了高速发展、参考和低速发展3种情景,结合钒液流电池单位钒用量,预测了未来不同情景下储能领域钒资源需求趋势。研究发现,未来钒资源需求将快速增长,尤其是在高增长情景下,全球2040年钒资源需求将较2021年增长276~338倍;分析全球钒资源的供应情况,认为随着钒液流电池的迅速发展,未来钒资源将供不应求。针对以上情况,研究提出:一是提高钒液流电池的技术研发力度;二是加大钒矿的地质勘查力度,积极探索新的钒矿资源;三是创新钒钛磁铁矿的提钒方法和技术,提高钒资源利用效率;四是加大钒资源的回收利用;五是重视境外钒钛磁铁矿的布局与开发。

关键词: 电化学储能;钒液流电池;钒资源;供应保障;需求预测    

Vanadium metabolism investigation using substance flow and scenario analysis

Fangfang ZHANG, Huiquan LI, Bo CHEN, Xue GUAN, Yi ZHANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第2期   页码 256-266 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0585-1

摘要: Vanadium is a vital strategic resource, and vanadium metabolism is an important part of the national socio-economic system of China. This study conducts accounting and scenario analysis on the life cycle of vanadium metabolism in China. Based on the characteristics of vanadium life cycle and substance flow analysis (SFA) framework, we present a quantitative evaluation of a static anthropogenic vanadium life cycle for the year 2010. Results show that anthropogenic vanadium consumption, stocks, and new domestic scrap are at 98.2, 21.2, and 4.1 kt, respectively; new scrap is usually discarded. The overall utilization ratio of vanadium is 32.2%. A large amount of vanadium is stockpiled into tailings, debris, slags, and other spent solids. A scenario analysis was conducted to analyze the future developmental trend of vanadium metabolism in China based on the SFA framework and the qualitative analysis of technology advancement and socio-economic development. The baseline year was set as 2010. Several indicators were proposed to simulate different scenarios from 2010 to 2030. The scenario analysis indicates that the next 20 years is a critical period for the vanadium industry in China. This paper discusses relevant policies that contribute to the improvement of sustainable vanadium utilization in China.

关键词: metabolism     vanadium industry     substance flow analysis     scenario analysis    

Synthesis of cobalt vanadium nanomaterials for efficient electrocatalysis of oxygen evolution

Meifeng Hao, Mingshu Xiao, Lihong Qian, Yuqing Miao

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 409-416 doi: 10.1007/s11705-017-1689-0

摘要:

A low-cost and high-activity catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key to the water splitting technology for hydrogen generation. Here we report the use of three solvents, DMF, ethanol and glycol, in the solvothermal synthesis of three nano-catalysts, Co3(VO4)2-I, Co3(VO4)2-II, and Co3(VO4)2-III, respectively. Transmission electron microscope shows Co3(VO4)2-I, II, and III exist as ultrafine nanosheets, ultrathin nanofilms, and ultrafine nanosheet-comprised microspheres, respectively. These Co3(VO4)2 catalysts exhibit OER electrocatalysis, among which the Co3(VO4)2-II shows the lowest onset overpotential of 310 mV and only requires a small overpotential of 330 mV to drive current density of 10 mA/cm2. Due to their high surface free energy, the ultrathin nanofilms of Co3(VO4)2-II exhibits a good immobilization effect with the high electrocatalytic activity for OER.

关键词: Co3(VO4)2     oxygen evolution reaction     electrocatalyst     water splitting    

Vanadium(IV) solvent extraction enhancement in high acidity using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid with

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 56-67 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2185-8

摘要: Separation of vanadium from black shale leaching solution at low pH is very meaningful, which can effectively avoid the generation of alkali neutralization slag and the resulting vanadium loss. In this study, coordination mechanism of vanadium in acid leaching solution at low pH was investigated with the intervention of chloride ions. Under the conditions of pH 0.8, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration of 20%, phase ratio of 1:2, and extraction time of 8 min, the vanadium extraction could reach 80.00%. The Fourier transform infrared and electrospray ionization results reveal that, despite the fact that the chloride ion in the leachate could significantly promote vanadium extraction, the chloride ion does not enter the organic phase, indicating an intriguing phenomenon. Among Cl–V, SO42−–V, and H2O–V, the V–Cl bond is longer and the potential difference between coordinate ions and vanadium is smaller. Therefore, VO2+ gets easily desorbed with chloride ions and enter the organic phase. At the same time, the hydrogen ions of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid also enter the water phase more easily, which reduces the pH required for the extraction reaction.

关键词: vanadium     black shale     solvent extraction     high acidity extraction    

Engineering the electronic and geometric structure of VO/BN@TiO heterostructure for efficient aerobic oxidative desulfurization

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期   页码 276-287 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2242-3

摘要: Particle size governs the electronic and geometric structure of metal nanoparticles (NPs), shaping their catalytic performances in heterogeneous catalysis. However, precisely controlling the size of active metal NPs and thereafter their catalytic activities remain an affordable challenge in ultra-deep oxidative desulfurization (ODS) field. Herein, a series of highly-efficient VOx/boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS)@TiO2 heterostructures, therein, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide cationic surfactants serving as intercalation agent, BNNS and MXene as precursors, with various VOx NP sizes were designed and controllably constructed by a facile intercalation confinement strategy. The properties and structures of the prepared catalysts were systematically characterized by different technical methods, and their catalytic activities were investigated for aerobic ODS of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The results show that the size of VOx NPs and V5+/V4+ play decisive roles in the catalytic aerobic ODS of VOx/BNNS@TiO2 catalysts and that VOx/BNNS@TiO2-2 exhibits the highest ODS activity with 93.7% DBT conversion within 60 min under the reaction temperature of 130 °C and oxygen flow rate of 200 mL·min–1, which is due to its optimal VOx dispersion, excellent reducibility and abundant active species. Therefore, the finding here may contribute to the fundamental understanding of structure-activity in ultra-deep ODS and inspire the advancement of highly-efficient catalyst.

关键词: oxidative desulfurization     boron nitride     vanadium     MXene     intercalation confinement    

Dendritic BiVO4 decorated with MnOx co-catalyst as an efficient hierarchical catalyst for photocatalytic ozonation

Jin Yang, Xuelian Liu, Hongbin Cao, Yanchun Shi, Yongbing Xie, Jiadong Xiao

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第1期   页码 185-191 doi: 10.1007/s11705-018-1713-z

摘要: An appropriate co-catalyst can significantly promote the photocatalytic efficacy, but this has been seldom studied in the visible-light photocatalysis combined with ozone, namely photocatalytic ozonation. In this work, a dendritic bismuth vanadium tetraoxide (BiVO ) material composited with highly dispersed MnO nanoparticles was synthesized, and its catalytic activity is 86.6% higher than bare BiVO in a visible light and ozone combined process. Catalytic ozonation experiments, ultra-violet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence spectra jointly indicate that MnO plays a triple role in this process. MnO strengthens the light adsorption and promotes the charge separation on the composite material, and it also shows good activity in catalytic ozonation. The key reactive species in this process is ·OH, and various pathways for its generation in this process is proposed. This work provides a new direction of catalyst preparation and pushes forward the application of photocatalytic ozonation in water treatment.

关键词: manganese oxide     bismuth vanadium tetraoxide     photocatalytic ozonation     hydroxyl radical     co-catalyst    

Redox flow batteries—Concepts and chemistries for cost-effective energy storage

Matthäa Verena HOLLAND-CUNZ, Faye CORDING, Jochen FRIEDL, Ulrich STIMMING

《能源前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第2期   页码 198-224 doi: 10.1007/s11708-018-0552-4

摘要: Electrochemical energy storage is one of the few options to store the energy from intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar. Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are such an energy storage system, which has favorable features over other battery technologies, e.g. solid state batteries, due to their inherent safety and the independent scaling of energy and power content. However, because of their low energy-density, low power-density, and the cost of components such as redox species and membranes, commercialised RFB systems like the all-vanadium chemistry cannot make full use of the inherent advantages over other systems. In principle, there are three pathways to improve RFBs and to make them viable for large scale application: First, to employ electrolytes with higher energy density. This goal can be achieved by increasing the concentration of redox species, employing redox species that store more than one electron or by increasing the cell voltage. Second, to enhance the power output of the battery cells by using high kinetic redox species, increasing the cell voltage, implementing novel cell designs or membranes with lower resistance. The first two means reduce the electrode surface area needed to supply a certain power output, thereby bringing down costs for expensive components such as membranes. Third, to reduce the costs of single or multiple components such as redox species or membranes. To achieve these objectives it is necessary to develop new battery chemistries and cell configurations. In this review, a comparison of promising cell chemistries is focused on, be they all-liquid, slurries or hybrids combining liquid, gas and solid phases. The aim is to elucidate which redox-system is most favorable in terms of energy-density, power-density and capital cost. Besides, the choice of solvent and the selection of an inorganic or organic redox couples with the entailing consequences are discussed.

关键词: electrochemical energy storage     redox flow battery     vanadium    

Vanadium oxide cathode with synergistic engineering of calcium-ion intercalation and polyaniline coating

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第9期   页码 1244-1253 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2293-5

摘要: Vanadium oxides as cathode for zinc-ion batteries have attracted much attention because of their high theoretical capacity, flexible layered structure and abundant resources. However, cathodes are susceptible to the collapse of their layered structure and the dissolution of vanadium after repeated long cycles, which worsen their capacities and cycling stabilities. Herein, a synergistic engineering of calcium-ion intercalation and polyaniline coating was developed to achieve the superior electrochemical performance of vanadium pentoxide for zinc-ion batteries. The pre-intercalation of calcium-ion between vanadium pentoxide layers as pillars increase the crystal structure’s stability, while the polyaniline coating on the cathodes improves the conductivity and inhibits the dissolution of vanadium. This synergistic engineering enables that the battery system based-on the polyaniline coated calcium vanadate cathode to deliver a high capacity of 406.4 mAh·g−1 at 1 A·g−1, an ultralong cycle life over 6000 cycles at 10 A·g−1 with 93% capacity retention and high-rate capability. The vanadium oxide cathode with synergistic engineering of calcium-ion intercalation and polyaniline coating was verified to effectively improve the electrochemical performance of zinc-ion batteries.

关键词: zinc-ion battery     CaV8O20     polyaniline coating     synergistic engineering     high capacity     long durability    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Coextraction of vanadium and manganese from high-manganese containing vanadium wastewater by a solvent

Zishuai Liu, Yimin Zhang, Zilin Dai, Jing Huang, Cong Liu

期刊论文

Optimized the vanadium electrolyte with sulfate-phosphoric mixed acids to enhance the stable operation

期刊论文

Mechanical properties of vanadium-alloyed austempered ductile iron for crankshaft applications

期刊论文

Highly efficient and selective removal of vanadium from tungstate solutions by microbubble floating-extraction

期刊论文

Characterization and comparison of organic functional groups effects on electrolyte performance for vanadium

期刊论文

Utilization of waste vanadium-bearing resources in the preparation of rare-earth vanadate catalysts for

期刊论文

Vanadium and molybdenum concentrations in particulate from Palermo (Italy): analytical methods using

Diana AMORELLO,Santino ORECCHIO

期刊论文

新型储能金属钒资源需求预测与供应分析

陈仁凤,龙涛,陈其慎,张艳飞,邢佳韵,刘敏,王琨,任鑫,商铖红,王晓

期刊论文

Vanadium metabolism investigation using substance flow and scenario analysis

Fangfang ZHANG, Huiquan LI, Bo CHEN, Xue GUAN, Yi ZHANG

期刊论文

Synthesis of cobalt vanadium nanomaterials for efficient electrocatalysis of oxygen evolution

Meifeng Hao, Mingshu Xiao, Lihong Qian, Yuqing Miao

期刊论文

Vanadium(IV) solvent extraction enhancement in high acidity using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid with

期刊论文

Engineering the electronic and geometric structure of VO/BN@TiO heterostructure for efficient aerobic oxidative desulfurization

期刊论文

Dendritic BiVO4 decorated with MnOx co-catalyst as an efficient hierarchical catalyst for photocatalytic ozonation

Jin Yang, Xuelian Liu, Hongbin Cao, Yanchun Shi, Yongbing Xie, Jiadong Xiao

期刊论文

Redox flow batteries—Concepts and chemistries for cost-effective energy storage

Matthäa Verena HOLLAND-CUNZ, Faye CORDING, Jochen FRIEDL, Ulrich STIMMING

期刊论文

Vanadium oxide cathode with synergistic engineering of calcium-ion intercalation and polyaniline coating

期刊论文