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水资源 17

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WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 512-524 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2021393

摘要:

Settlement patterns and social structures have been shaped by access to water since the onset of human societies. This review covers historical and recent examples from Cambodia, Central Asia, India, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula to analyze the role of water resources in determining the rise and collapse of civilizations. Over recent decades increasing globalization and concomitant possibilities to externalize water needs as virtual water have obscured global dependence on water resources via telecoupling, but rapid urbanization brings it now back to the political agenda. It is foremost in the urban arena of poorer countries where competing claims for water increasingly lead to scale-transcendent conflicts about ecosystem services. Solutions to the dilemma will require broad stakeholder-based agreements on water use taking into account the available data on water resources, their current and potential use efficiency, recycling of water after effective treatment, and social-ecological approaches of improved governance and conflict resolution.

 

关键词: agroecology     historical water use     water footprint     water governance     urbanization    

State versus private sector provision of water services in Armenia

Naira HARUTYUNYAN

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第5期   页码 620-630 doi: 10.1007/s11783-012-0425-8

摘要: Despite increasing advocacy and adaptation of public-private model of water governance worldwide since the 1990s, today only 5% of the world’s population is served by water utilities with private involvement. The present article examines the experience of the water sector in Armenia with private sector participation. The study describes the process of the introduction of public-private partnerships in the water sector and focuses on analyzing the impact of privatization on water utility performance. The analysis employs the partial indicator method for evaluating the impacts in relation to operational, finance, and environmental performance, done by drawing on the database for the five water companies in Armenia. The empirical evidence shows that private participation in general led to improved overall performance. In particular, private involvement resulted in increased operational efficiency in terms of labor productivity, water metering, continuity of service, and revenue collection efficiency. There were mixed improvements in the operating cost coverage ratio. As for environmental performance, there were gains in the reduction of residential water consumption, accompanied, however, by an increase in non-revenue water.

关键词: water governance     water privatization     public-private partnership     operational efficiency     Armenia     transition economy    

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

Andreas BUERKERT, Kotiganahalli Narayanagowda GANESHAIAH, Stefan SIEBERT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 512-524 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021393

摘要: Since the onset of human societies, settlement patterns and social structures have been shaped by access to water. This review covers historical and recent examples from Cambodia, Central Asia, India, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula to analyze the role of water resources in determining the rise and collapse of civilizations. Over recent decades increasing globalization and concomitant possibilities to externalize water needs as have obscured global dependence on water resources via telecoupling, but rapid urbanization brings it now back to the political agenda. It is foremost in the urban arena of poorer countries where competing claims for water increasingly lead to scale-transcendent conflicts about ecosystem services. Solutions to the dilemma will require broad stakeholder-based agreements on water use taking into account the available data on water resources, their current and potential use efficiency, recycling of water after effective treatment, and social-ecological approaches of improved governance and conflict resolution.

关键词: agroecology     historical water use     water footprint     water governance     urbanization    

Platform governance in the era of AI and the digital economy

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第1期   页码 177-182 doi: 10.1007/s42524-022-0241-1

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Value and governance of high-speed railway

Xiaoyan LIN, Zehua ZHANG, Meng WANG

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第4期   页码 463-482 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2017054

摘要: This paper considers multiple perspectives to explore the concept of high-speed railway (HSR), rationally abstract its value formation mechanism, and quantitatively measure its actual performance. This paper analyzes the governance potential of major countries in the high-speed railway value chain and studies the feasible ways and development strategies to enhance the high-speed railway governance in China. Findings of this paper are as follows. First, the government, as the early manager of high-speed railway governance, has given way to Siemens and other integrated enterprises. Second, the high-speed railway standard output has become the core competitiveness that embodies high-speed railway. Third, the global high-speed railway market presents a hierarchical high-speed railway governance model and changes to a modular approach to governance.

关键词: high-speed railway value     communication value     high-speed railway value governance     governance path upgrade    

Decision-making governance for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge in China

Yongling ZHU, Qianqian SHI, Qian LI, Zhimei YIN

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第1期   页码 30-39 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018087

摘要: The complexity of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and the political environment of “One country, Two systems” have brought a vital influence on the decision-making recognition, decision-making analysis, and decision-making management related to this cross-border infrastructure mega-project. Based on case study, this study systematically analyzes the complexity of the decision-making related to the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, and explains the general principles that were used for its decision-making management. The research examines the decision-making management system of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, its adaptive behavior, and specific coordination mechanism on different decision-making problems in different decision-making stages. This result provides reference for decision-making management system design of cross-border projects.

关键词: decision-making governance     Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge     governance mechanism    

Corporate governance impact on banking risk

Mahdi JEMMALI, Bassem SALHI

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第2期   页码 182-195 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0034-3

摘要: This study aims to determine the relationship between several factors of governance and the level of risk in 10 Tunisian banks during an analysis period of eight years. We propose an important empirical question and examine the internal mechanisms of governance aimed at reducing financial risks. This estimation is based on a model with a single equation that examines variables relative to governance and credit risk to determine their impact on banking financials. Results demonstrate that the internal mechanisms of governance present diverging effects on the financial risk of the Tunisian banks in our case study (i.e., credit risk). Moreover, making applications work by putting together a process and model for banking risk is important. This model can be applied in any bank, and the results can be used to make decisions in real time.

关键词: bank governance     banking risk     process decision     modeling     architecture    

Digital technology-driven smart society governance mechanism and practice exploration

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第2期   页码 319-338 doi: 10.1007/s42524-022-0200-x

摘要: A smart society is an advanced form of society following agricultural society, industrial society, and information society, with digital data processing system as its main carrier. However, the governance of a smart society still faces many challenges. In view of this problem, first, this research constructs a smart society governance modernization strategy. Second, the innovation mode of a society governance mechanism driven by digital technology is proposed, including the precise intellectual control of a digital twin, the intelligent ubiquitous sensing of the Internet of Things, the empowerment remodeling of a blockchain and the livelihood service of artificial intelligence. Third, this study systematically explores the practice of smart society governance modernization from the aspects of basic information platform construction, evaluation system construction, application demonstration of epidemic prevention and control driven by big data, support of spatial intelligence and artificial intelligence technology for people’s livelihood, smart campus, public resources, and data governance application demonstration to provide theoretical guidance for promoting digital technology innovation in the process of the governance of a smart society.

关键词: digital technology     new infrastructure     smart society     governance system     governance modernization    

Large-scale App privacy governance

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第4期   页码 640-652 doi: 10.1007/s42524-022-0228-y

摘要: Recently, the problem of mobile applications (Apps) leaking users’ private information has aroused wide concern. As the number of Apps continuously increases, effective large-scale App governance is a major challenge. Currently, the government mainly filters out Apps with potential privacy problems manually. Such approach is inefficient with limited searching scope. In this regard, we propose a quantitative method to filter out problematic Apps on a large scale. We introduce Privacy Level (P-Level) to measure an App’s probability of leaking privacy. P-Level is calculated on the basis of Permission-based Privacy Value (P-Privacy) and Usage-based Privacy Value (U-Privacy). The former considers App permission setting, whereas the latter considers App usage. We first illustrate the privacy value model and computation results of both values based on real-world dataset. Subsequently, we introduce the P-Level computing model. We also define the P-Level computed on our dataset as the PL standard. We analyze the distribution of average usage and number of Apps under the levels given in the PL standard, which may provoke insights into the large-scale App governance. Through P-Privacy, U-Privacy, and P-Level, potentially problematic Apps can be filtered out efficiently, thereby making up for the shortcoming of being manual.

关键词: privacy risk     Privacy Level     quantification     large-scale App governance    

FULL TIME-SPACE GOVERNANCE STRATEGY AND TECHNOLOGY FOR CROPLAND NON-POINT POLLUTION CONTROL IN CHINA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第4期   页码 593-606 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023522

摘要:

Ensuring food safety while reducing agricultural non-point source pollution is quite challenging, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. Effective systematic strategies and comprehensive technologies need to be developed for agricultural non-point source pollution control at the watershed scale to improve surface water quality. In this review, a proposal is made for a full time-space governance strategy that prioritizes source management followed by endpoint water pollution control. The 4R chain technology system is specifically reviewed, including source reduction, process retention, nutrient reuse and water restoration. The 4R chain technology system with the full time-space governance strategy was applied at the scale of an administrative village and proved to be a feasible solution for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution in China. In the future, a monitoring system needs to be established to trace N and P transport. Additionally, new smart fertilizer and intelligent equipment need to be developed, and relevant governance standards and supportive policies need to be set to enhance the efficacy of agricultural non-point source pollution control.

关键词: 4R chain technology system     agricultural non-point source pollution     case study     full time-space governance strategy    

Appreciating the role of big data in the modernization of environmental governance

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期   页码 163-169 doi: 10.1007/s42524-021-0185-x

Distributed governance of Solar Radiation Management geoengineering: A possible solution to SRM’s “free-driver

Andrew LOCKLEY

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 551-556 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0055-y

摘要: Geoengineering (deliberate climate modification) is a possible way to limit Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) (Shepherd, 2009; National Research Council, 2015). Solar Radiation Management geoengineering (SRM) offers relatively inexpensive, rapid temperature control. However, this low cost leads to a risk of controversial unilateral intervention—the “free-driver” problem (Weitzman, 2015). Consequently, this creates a risk of counter-geoengineering (deliberate warming) (Parker et al., 2018), resulting in governance challenges (Svoboda, 2017) akin to an arms race. Free-driver deployment scenarios previously considered include the rogue state, Greenfinger (Bodansky, 2013), or power blocs (Ricke et al., 2013), implying disagreement and conflict. We propose a novel distributed governance model of consensually-constrained unilateralism: Countries’ authority is limited to each state’s fraction of the maximum realistic intervention (e.g., pre-industrial temperature). We suggest a division of authority based on historical emissions (Rocha et al., 2015)—noting alternatives (e.g., population). To aid understanding, we offer an analogue: An over-heated train carriage, with passenger-controlled windows. We subsequently discuss the likely complexities, notably Coasian side-payments. Finally, we suggest further research: Algebraic, bot and human modeling; and observational studies.

关键词: geoengineering     Solar Radiation Management     governance     decentralised    

Making central-local relations work: Comparing America and China environmental governance systems

Dan GUTTMAN, SONG Yaqin

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第4期   页码 418-433 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0068-3

摘要: The challenge of making central requirements work at local levels is a common problem for environmental governance throughout the world. Countries can learn from one another s approaches, but must understand the local context in w

城乡社区治理标准体系构建研究

王艳芳,朱伟,白波

《中国工程科学》 2021年 第23卷 第3期   页码 32-39 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2021.03.013

摘要:

随着我国社会治理重心下沉,城乡社区逐渐成为社会治理的着力点,与此同时,现有城乡社区治理标准面临难以满足城乡社区治理现代化新需求的严峻挑战,亟需构建城乡社区治理标准体系。本文旨在开展城乡社区治理标准体系的发展战略研究,分析了当前我国城乡社区治理发展的标准化需求,梳理了国内外与城乡社区治理相关的标准体系发展现状,凝练了我国城乡社区治理标准化发展存在的问题,研究提出了我国城乡社区治理标准体系的初步架构方案及重点发展方向,涵盖总体、社区基础设施、社区信息化平台、社区自治、社区管理、社区服务6 个方面。结合新时代城乡社区治理重点和短板,本文从加强标准化顶层设计、开展试点示范、注重多方参与、坚持城乡统筹、加强人才培养5 个方面提出了对策建议。

关键词: 城乡社区     社区治理     标准体系     社区服务     社区信息化    

我国乡村公共服务治理现代化战略研究

马晨, 李瑾, 赵春江, 张骞, 孙宁, 宋太春, 冯献, 曹冰雪

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第2期   页码 160-169 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.02.017

摘要:

乡村公共服务治理现代化作为我国乡村治理的重要内容,是补齐农村基本公共服务短板、提高公共服务质量的需要, 也是保障和改善民生、实现乡村振兴的重要基础。本文基于我国22 个省份乡村公共服务治理情况的调研,梳理了乡村公共服务治理的历史演进与制度变迁,剖析了乡村公共服务治理现代化面临的主要问题,提出了面向2050 年的乡村公共服务治理现代化的战略目标、发展路线图和重点任务。研究发现,当前乡村公共服务治理在公共教育、医疗卫生、社会保障、就业培训、公共文化体育服务等方面仍存在问题,亟需深入推进乡村公共服务治理现代化;后续的重点任务为:构建城乡协同的基础设施体系,促进乡村教育治理现代化, 改善乡村文体基础设施建设,优化乡村公共卫生服务体系,提升乡村社会保障体系。为了巩固脱贫攻坚成果、切实提升乡村公共服务治理的现代化水平,应明确乡村公共服务重点治理对象与供给清单,加快推进乡村公共服务治理的智能化、数字化建设,推进乡村公共服务治理多元主体协同共治。

关键词: 公共服务治理     农村现代化     乡村治理     多元共治     协同发展    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

期刊论文

State versus private sector provision of water services in Armenia

Naira HARUTYUNYAN

期刊论文

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

Andreas BUERKERT, Kotiganahalli Narayanagowda GANESHAIAH, Stefan SIEBERT

期刊论文

Platform governance in the era of AI and the digital economy

期刊论文

Value and governance of high-speed railway

Xiaoyan LIN, Zehua ZHANG, Meng WANG

期刊论文

Decision-making governance for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge in China

Yongling ZHU, Qianqian SHI, Qian LI, Zhimei YIN

期刊论文

Corporate governance impact on banking risk

Mahdi JEMMALI, Bassem SALHI

期刊论文

Digital technology-driven smart society governance mechanism and practice exploration

期刊论文

Large-scale App privacy governance

期刊论文

FULL TIME-SPACE GOVERNANCE STRATEGY AND TECHNOLOGY FOR CROPLAND NON-POINT POLLUTION CONTROL IN CHINA

期刊论文

Appreciating the role of big data in the modernization of environmental governance

期刊论文

Distributed governance of Solar Radiation Management geoengineering: A possible solution to SRM’s “free-driver

Andrew LOCKLEY

期刊论文

Making central-local relations work: Comparing America and China environmental governance systems

Dan GUTTMAN, SONG Yaqin

期刊论文

城乡社区治理标准体系构建研究

王艳芳,朱伟,白波

期刊论文

我国乡村公共服务治理现代化战略研究

马晨, 李瑾, 赵春江, 张骞, 孙宁, 宋太春, 冯献, 曹冰雪

期刊论文