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Impact of energy structure adjustment on air quality: a case study in Beijing, China

Bin ZHAO, Jiayu XU, Jiming HAO

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第3期   页码 378-390 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0357-8

摘要: Energy consumption is a major cause of air pollution in Beijing, and the adjustment of the energy structure is of strategic importance to the reduction of carbon intensity and the improvement of air quality. In this paper, we explored the future trend of energy structure adjustment in Beijing till 2020, designed five energy scenarios focusing on the fuel substitution in power plants and heating sectors, established emission inventories, and utilized the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to evaluate the impact of these measures on air quality. By implementing this systematic energy structure adjustment, the emissions of PM , PM , SO , NO , and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) will decrease distinctly by 34.0%, 53.2%, 78.3%, 47.0%, and 30.6% respectively in the most coal-intensive scenario of 2020 compared with 2005. Correspondingly, MM5-Models-3/CMAQ simulations indicate significant reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants, implying that energy structure adjustment can play an important role in improving Beijing’s air quality. By fuel substitution for power plants and heating boilers, PM , PM , SO , NO , and NMVOCs will be reduced further, but slightly by 1.7%, 4.5%, 11.4%, 13.5%, and 8.8% respectively in the least coal-intensive scenario. The air quality impacts of different scenarios in 2020 resemble each other, indicating that the potential of air quality improvement due to structure adjustment in power plants and heating sectors is limited. However, the CO emission is 10.0% lower in the least coal-intensive scenario than in the most coal-intensive one, contributing to Beijing’s ambition to build a low carbon city. Except for energy structure adjustment, it is necessary to take further measures to ensure the attainment of air quality standards.

关键词: Beijing     energy structure adjustment     air quality     Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)     scenario    

Impact of anthropogenic heat emissions on meteorological parameters and air quality in Beijing usinga high-resolution model simulation

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1478-3

摘要:

The Large scale Urban Consumption of energ Y model was updated and coupled with WRF.

关键词: Anthropogenic heat emissions     LUCY     High-resolution     Meteorological parameters     Air quality    

Insights into the changes of amino acids, microbial community, and enzymatic activities related withthe nutrient quality of product during the composting of food waste

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1635-y

摘要:

● The highest seed germination index was achieved at 0.3 g/g total solids of food waste.

关键词: Composting     Food waste     Amino acids     Microbial community     Enzymatic activity     Nutrient quality    

A multiscale material model for heterogeneous liquid droplets in solid soft composites

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第5期   页码 1292-1299 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0771-3

摘要: Liquid droplets in solid soft composites have been attracting increasing attention in biological applications. In contrary with conventional composites, which are made of solid elastic inclusions, available material models for composites including liquid droplets are for highly idealized configurations and do not include all material real parameters. They are also all deterministic and do not address the uncertainties arising from droplet radius, volume fraction, dispersion and agglomeration. This research revisits the available models for liquid droplets in solid soft composites and presents a multiscale computational material model to determine their elastic moduli, considering nearly all relevant uncertainties and heterogeneities at different length scales. The effects of surface tension at droplets interface, their volume fraction, size, size polydispersity and agglomeration on elastic modulus, are considered. Different micromechanical material models are incorporated into the presented computational framework. The results clearly indicate both softening and stiffening effects of liquid droplets and show that the model can precisely predict the effective properties of liquid droplets in solid soft composites.

关键词: liquid in solid     soft composite     computational modeling     multiscale model     heterogeneity    

The impacts of economic restructuring and technology upgrade on air quality and human health in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei

Chao Liu, Hancheng Dai, Lin Zhang, Changchun Feng

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-019-1155-y

摘要: Impacts of industrial restructuring and upgrade on air quality & health are assessed. An integrated approach combining different models is used for the assessment. Industrial technology upgrading is more effective than economic restructuring. Ozone is much more difficult to mitigate than PM2.5. In this study, we have analyzed possible policy options to improve the air quality in an industrialized region—Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH) in China. A comprehensive model framework integrating GAINS-China, GEOS-Chem, and IMED/HEL is established to investigate the impacts of various policies on air pollution and health effects. The model establishes a data interface between economic input/output data and the emission inventory of atmospheric pollutants in the BTH region. Based on in-depth analyses of pollutant emission standards, industrial structure, pollution-intensive industries, and emission intensities in BTH and Pearl River Delta, several scenarios are constructed to explore the effectiveness of policy pathways in improving air quality in the BTH region. These scenarios include two categories: the category of “Industrial Technology Upgrade Policy” scenarios that focuses on reducing the emission intensity of industries vs. that of “Industrial Structure Adjustment Policy” scenarios that focuses on adjusting the proportion of industrial value-added. Our results show that the policy path of industrial technology upgrading can be effective and feasible, while economic structure adjustment shows complex and mixed effectiveness. We also find that the proposed policies and measures will be efficient to reduce pollution of primary pollutants and fine particles, but may not effectively mitigate ambient ozone pollution. Ozone pollution is projected to become increasingly severe in BTH, placing a challenge to pollution mitigation strategies that requires further adjustments to address it.

关键词: Economic restructuring     Cleaner production     Ambient air pollution     Health benefits     IMED model    

Target the neglected VOCs emission from iron and steel industry in China for air quality improvement

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第8期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1695-z

摘要:

● Haze formation in China is highly correlated with iron and steel industry.

关键词: Volatile organic compounds     Iron and steel industry     Air quality     Sinter flue gas emission    

A novel deep learning framework with variational auto-encoder for indoor air quality prediction

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-024-1768-7

摘要:

● PLS-VAER is proposed for modeling of PM2.5 concentration.

关键词: Indoor air quality     PM2.5 concentration     Variational auto-encoder     Latent variable     Soft measurement modeling    

Development of an integrated policy making tool for assessing air quality and human health benefits ofair pollution control

Xuezhen QIU,Yun ZHU,Carey JANG,Che-Jen LIN,Shuxiao WANG,Joshua FU,Junping XIE,Jiandong WANG,Dian DING,Shicheng LONG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第6期   页码 1056-1065 doi: 10.1007/s11783-015-0796-8

摘要: Efficient air quality management is critical to protect public health from the adverse impacts of air pollution. To evaluate the effectiveness of air pollution control strategies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has developed the Software for Model Attainment Test-Community Edition (SMAT-CE) to assess the air quality attainment of emission reductions, and the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) to evaluate the health and economic benefits of air quality improvement respectively. Since scientific decision-making requires timely and coherent information, developing the linkage between SMAT-CE and BenMAP-CE into an integrated assessment platform is desirable. To address this need, a new module linking SMAT-CE to BenMAP-CE has been developed and tested. The new module streamlines the assessment of air quality and human health benefits for a proposed air pollution control strategy. It also implements an optimized data gridding algorithm which significantly enhances the computational efficiency without compromising accuracy. The performance of the integrated software package is demonstrated through a case study that evaluates the air quality and associated economic benefits of a national-level control strategy of PM . The results of the case study show that the proposed emission reduction reduces the number of nonattainment sites from 379 to 25 based on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards, leading to more than US$334 billion of economic benefits annually from improved public health. The integration of the science-based software tools in this study enhances the efficiency of developing effective and optimized emission control strategies for policy makers.

关键词: air quality assessment     human health benefit     economic benefit     air quality attainment assessment     air pollution control strategy     decision support system    

Relations between indoor and outdoor PM

Cong Liu, Yinping Zhang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-019-1089-4

摘要:

Factors impacting indoor-outdoor relations are introduced.

Sulfate seems a fine tracer for other non-volatile species.

Particulate nitrate and ammonium desorb during outdoor-to-indoor transport.

OC load increases during the transport due to sorption of indoor SVOCs.

关键词: Indoor air quality     Exposure     SVOC     Reactive oxidative species     Oxidative potential     Chemical transport model    

Combining innovative science and policy to improve air quality in cities with refining and chemicals

David T. Allen

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 293-304 doi: 10.1007/s11705-017-1660-0

摘要: In Houston, a combination of urban emissions from a city of 4 million people, coupled with emissions from extensive petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing, leads to conditions for photochemistry that are unique in the United States, and historically, the city had experienced some of the highest ozone concentrations recorded in the United States. Large air quality field studies (the Texas Air Quality Studies or TexAQS I and II) were conducted to determine root causes of the high ozone concentrations. Hundreds of air quality investigators, from around the world, deployed instruments on aircraft, on ships, and at fixed ground sites to make extensive air quality measurements; detailed photochemical modeling was used to interpret and assess the implications of the measurements. The Texas Air Quality Studies revealed that both continuous and episodic emissions of light alkenes, which came to be called highly reactive volatile organic compounds, played a critical role in the formation of ozone and other photochemical oxidants in the region. Understanding and quantifying the role of these emissions in regional air quality required innovations in characterizing emissions and in photochemical modeling. Reducing emissions required innovative policy approaches. These coupled scientific and policy innovations are described, and the result, substantially cleaner air for Houston, is documented. The lessons learned from the Houston air quality experience are relevant to cities with similar population and industrial profiles around the world.

关键词: ozone     air quality     highly reactive volatile organic compounds     Houston    

Analysis and prediction of the influence of energy utilization on air quality in Beijing

LI Lin, HAO Jiming, HU Jingnan

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 339-344 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0058-5

摘要: This work evaluates the influence of energy consumption on the future air quality in Beijing, using 2000 as the base year and 2008 as the target year. It establishes the emission inventory of primary PM, SO and NO related to energy utilization in eight areas of Beijing. The air quality model was adopted to simulate the temporal and spatial distribution of each pollutant concentration in the eight urban areas. Their emission, concentration distribution, and sectoral share responsibility rate were analyzed, and air quality in 2008 was predicted. The industrial sector contributed above 40% of primary PM and SO resulting from energy consumption, while vehicles accounted for about 65% of NO. According to the current policy and development trend, air quality in the eight urban areas could become better in 2008 when the average concentrations of primary PM, SO and NO related to energy utilization at each monitored site are predicted to be about 25, 50 and 51 μg/m, respectively.

Challenges and perspectives of air pollution control in China

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-024-1828-z

摘要:

● Major challenges of air pollution control in China are summarized.

关键词: Air pollution     China     Health impact     Air quality standards     GHGs     Emerging pollutants    

A building-based data capture and data mining technique for air quality assessment

Ni SHENG, U Wa TANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第4期   页码 543-551 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0369-4

摘要: Recently, a building-based air quality model system which can predict air quality in front of individual buildings along both sides of a road has been developed. Using the Macau Peninsula as a case study, this paper shows the advantages of building-based model system in data capture and data mining. Compared with the traditional grid-based model systems with input/output spatial resolutions of 1–2 km, the building-based approach can extract the street configuration and traffic data building by building and therefore, can capture the complex spatial variation of traffic emission, urban geometry, and air pollution. The non-homogeneous distribution of air pollution in the Macau Peninsula was modeled in a high-spatial resolution of 319 receptors·km . The spatial relationship among air quality, traffic flow, and urban geometry in the historic urban area is investigated. The study shows that the building-based approach may open an innovative methodology in data mining of urban spatial data for environmental assessment. The results are particularly useful to urban planners when they need to consider the influences of urban form on street environment.

关键词: traffic air pollution     spatial distribution     high resolution     geographic information system    

Multiscale computation on feedforward neural network and recurrent neural network

Bin LI, Xiaoying ZHUANG

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第6期   页码 1285-1298 doi: 10.1007/s11709-020-0691-7

摘要: Homogenization methods can be used to predict the effective macroscopic properties of materials that are heterogenous at micro- or fine-scale. Among existing methods for homogenization, computational homogenization is widely used in multiscale analyses of structures and materials. Conventional computational homogenization suffers from long computing times, which substantially limits its application in analyzing engineering problems. The neural networks can be used to construct fully decoupled approaches in nonlinear multiscale methods by mapping macroscopic loading and microscopic response. Computational homogenization methods for nonlinear material and implementation of offline multiscale computation are studied to generate data set. This article intends to model the multiscale constitution using feedforward neural network (FNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN), and appropriate set of loading paths are selected to effectively predict the materials behavior along unknown paths. Applications to two-dimensional multiscale analysis are tested and discussed in detail.

关键词: multiscale method     constitutive model     feedforward neural network     recurrent neural network    

空调房间的空气品质及其控制研究

邹声华,李强,于梅春,杨景华

《中国工程科学》 2007年 第9卷 第3期   页码 82-86

摘要:

以典型的空调房间为例,分析了新风和回风对室内空气品质的影响。研究表明室内污染源的不断增加 是室内空气品质恶化的主要原因,新风的质量直接影响室内空气品质,回风是室内空气的二次污染源。导出了新 风和回风对室内空气污染的理论计算公式,通过仿真表明:基于室内空气中典型的有害气体体积分数(以CO2为 代表)的变化来控制新风量,是非常有效的。

关键词: 室内空气品质     污染物体积分数     新风量     控制     仿真    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Impact of energy structure adjustment on air quality: a case study in Beijing, China

Bin ZHAO, Jiayu XU, Jiming HAO

期刊论文

Impact of anthropogenic heat emissions on meteorological parameters and air quality in Beijing usinga high-resolution model simulation

期刊论文

Insights into the changes of amino acids, microbial community, and enzymatic activities related withthe nutrient quality of product during the composting of food waste

期刊论文

A multiscale material model for heterogeneous liquid droplets in solid soft composites

期刊论文

The impacts of economic restructuring and technology upgrade on air quality and human health in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei

Chao Liu, Hancheng Dai, Lin Zhang, Changchun Feng

期刊论文

Target the neglected VOCs emission from iron and steel industry in China for air quality improvement

期刊论文

A novel deep learning framework with variational auto-encoder for indoor air quality prediction

期刊论文

Development of an integrated policy making tool for assessing air quality and human health benefits ofair pollution control

Xuezhen QIU,Yun ZHU,Carey JANG,Che-Jen LIN,Shuxiao WANG,Joshua FU,Junping XIE,Jiandong WANG,Dian DING,Shicheng LONG

期刊论文

Relations between indoor and outdoor PM

Cong Liu, Yinping Zhang

期刊论文

Combining innovative science and policy to improve air quality in cities with refining and chemicals

David T. Allen

期刊论文

Analysis and prediction of the influence of energy utilization on air quality in Beijing

LI Lin, HAO Jiming, HU Jingnan

期刊论文

Challenges and perspectives of air pollution control in China

期刊论文

A building-based data capture and data mining technique for air quality assessment

Ni SHENG, U Wa TANG

期刊论文

Multiscale computation on feedforward neural network and recurrent neural network

Bin LI, Xiaoying ZHUANG

期刊论文

空调房间的空气品质及其控制研究

邹声华,李强,于梅春,杨景华

期刊论文