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Distinct community assembly processes underlie significant spatiotemporal dynamics of abundant and rare

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1513-4

摘要:

• Season and landform influenced spatiotemporal patterns of abundant and rare taxa.

关键词: Rare taxa     Biogeography     Community assembly     Bacterioplankton     The Yangtze River    

Clinical factors associated with composition of lung microbiota and important taxa predicting clinical

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第3期   页码 389-402 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0856-3

摘要: Few studies have described the key features and prognostic roles of lung microbiota in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). We prospectively enrolled consecutive SCAP patients admitted to ICU. Bronchoscopy was performed at bedside within 48 h of ICU admission, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The primary outcome was clinical improvements defined as a decrease of 2 categories and above on a 7-category ordinal scale within 14 days following bronchoscopy. Sixty-seven patients were included. Multivariable permutational multivariate analysis of variance found that positive bacteria lab test results had the strongest independent association with lung microbiota (R2=0.033; P=0.018), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI; R2=0.032; P=0.011) and plasma MIP-1β level (R2=0.027; P=0.044). Random forest identified that the families Prevotellaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Staphylococcaceae were the biomarkers related to the positive bacteria lab test results. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the increase in α-diversity and the abundance of the families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae were associated with clinical improvements. The positive bacteria lab test results, AKI, and plasma MIP-1β level were associated with patients’ lung microbiota composition on ICU admission. The families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae on admission predicted clinical improvements.

关键词: severe community-acquired pneumonia     lung microbiota     clinical improvements     7-category ordinal scale     Prevotellaceae    

Recovery of rare and precious metals from urban mines—A review

Mengmeng Wang, Quanyin Tan, Joseph F. Chiang, Jinhui Li

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0963-1

摘要: Urban mining is essential for continued natural resource extraction. The recovery of rare and precious metals (RPMs) from urban mines has attracted increasing attention from both academic and industrial sectors, because of the broad application and high price of RPMs, and their low content in natural ores. This study summarizes the distribution characteristics of various RPMs in urban mines, and the advantages and shortcomings of various technologies for RPM recovery from urban mines, including both conventional (pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and biometallurgical processing), and emerging (electrochemical, supercritical fluid, mechanochemical, and ionic liquids processing) technologies. Mechanical/physical technologies are commonly employed to separate RPMs from nonmetallic components in a pre-treatment process. A pyrometallurgical process is often used for RPM recovery, although the expensive equipment required has limited its use in small and medium-sized enterprises. Hydrometallurgical processing is effective and easy to operate, with high selectivity of target metals and high recovery efficiency of RPMs, compared to pyrometallurgy. Biometallurgy, though, has shown the most promise for leaching RPMs from urban mines, because of its low cost and environmental friendliness. Newly developed technologies—electrochemical, supercritical fluid, ionic liquid, and mechanochemical—have offered new choices and achieved some success in laboratory experiments, especially as efficient and environmentally friendly methods of recycling RPMs. With continuing advances in science and technology, more technologies will no doubt be developed in this field, and be able to contribute to the sustainability of RPM mining.

关键词: Rare and precious metals (RPMs)     Distribution characteristics     Recycling technology     Emerging technology     Supercritical fluid    

我国“三稀矿产”的资源特征及开发利用研究

王登红,孙艳,代鸿章,郭唯明,赵芝,赵汀,李建康,王成辉,黄凡,于扬,李德先

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第1期   页码 119-127 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.01.017

摘要:

我国“三稀矿产”总体上资源丰富,既是资源大国,也是主要生产国和出口国,但往往因为深加工技术落后、环境代价太大、战略意识不强等原因而始终拿不到市场的话语权。中国已经进入科技创新引领社会发展的关键时期,“三稀矿产”恰恰具有无限的创新潜力。本文通过梳理2011年以来全国“三稀矿产”资源调查和找矿过程中积累的资料,概略性地总结了我国稀有、稀土和稀散元素矿产的主要特点,提出了一些开发利用建议,进一步强调“稀土不土,稀有常有,稀散不散”的禀赋特征,提出了开发利用过程中“稀土管得着,稀有找得到,稀散用得好”的基本思路。

关键词: 三稀矿产     资源特征     开发利用    

Migration of ammonium nitrogen in ion-absorbed rare earth soils during and post mining: a column study

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第8期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1702-4

摘要:

● Column experiments with an inclined slope were applied to simulate NH4–N transport.

关键词: Ion-absorbed rare earth     Ammonium nitrogen transport     HYDRUS-2D     Numerical simulation    

Rare tumors: a blue ocean of investigation

《医学前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第2期   页码 220-230 doi: 10.1007/s11684-023-0984-z

摘要: Advances in novel drugs, therapies, and genetic techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of cancers, substantially improving cancer patients’ prognosis. Although rare tumors account for a non-negligible number, the practice of precision medicine and development of novel therapies are largely hampered by many obstacles. Their low incidence and drastic regional disparities result in the difficulty of informative evidence-based diagnosis and subtyping. Sample exhaustion due to difficulty in diagnosis also leads to a lack of recommended therapeutic strategies in clinical guidelines, insufficient biomarkers for prognosis/efficacy, and inability to identify potential novel therapies in clinical trials. Herein, by reviewing the epidemiological data of Chinese solid tumors and publications defining rare tumors in other areas, we proposed a definition of rare tumor in China, including 515 tumor types with incidences of less than 2.5/100 000 per year. We also summarized the current diagnosis process, treatment recommendations, and global developmental progress of targeted drugs and immunotherapy agents on the status quo. Lastly, we pinpointed the current recommendation chance for patients with rare tumors to be involved in a clinical trial by NCCN. With this informative report, we aimed to raise awareness on the importance of rare tumor investigations and guarantee a bright future for rare tumor patients.

关键词: rare tumors     diagnosis flowchart     treatment strategy     clinical trials recommendation    

Arsenic trioxide induced rhabdomyolysis, a rare but severe side effect, in an APL patient: a case report

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第2期   页码 284-286 doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0514-y

摘要:

Arsenic trioxide (ATO), a component of the traditional Chinese medicine arsenic sublimate, promotes apoptosis and induces leukemic cell differentiation. Combined with all-trans-retinotic acid (ATRA), ATO has become the first-line induction therapy in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The most common side effects of ATO include hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal symptoms, water-sodium retention, and nervous system damage. In this report, we present a rare side effect, rhabdomyolysis, in a 68-year-old female APL patient who was treated with ATO. After taking 10 mg ATO daily for 6 days, she presented shortness of breath, myodynia, elevated creatine kinase, and acute renal insufficiency. This report describes the first case of ATO-induced rhabdomyolysis.

关键词: arsenic trioxide     APL     rhabdomyolysis    

Rare-earth separation based on the differences of ionic magnetic moment via quasi-liquid strategy

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第10期   页码 1584-1594 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2189-4

摘要: The separation of rare earth elements is particularly difficult due to their similar physicochemical properties. Based on the tiny differences of ionic radius, solvent extraction has been developed as the “mass method” in industry with hundreds of stages, extremely intensive chemical consumption and large capital investments. The differences of the ionic magnetic moment among rare earths are greater than that of ionic radius. Herein, a novel method based on the large ionic magnetic moment differences of rare earth elements was proposed to promote the separation efficiency. Rare earths were firstly dissolved in the ionic liquid, then the ordering degree of them was improved with the Z-bond effect, and finally the magnetic moment differences between paramagnetic and diamagnetic rare earths in quasi-liquid system were enhanced. Taking the separation of Er/Y, Ho/Y and Er/Ho as examples, the results showed that Er(III) and Ho(III) containing ionic liquids had obvious magnetic response, while ionic liquids containing Y(III) had no response. The separation factors of Er/Y and Ho/Y were achieved at 9.0 and 28.82, respectively. Magnetic separation via quasi-liquid system strategy provides a possibility of the novel, green, and efficient method for rare earth separation.

关键词: rare earth element     different magnetic moment     magnetic separation     ionic liquid    

Assessment of leaching behavior and human bioaccessibility of rare earth elements in typical hospital

Chunfeng Wang, Guanfei Chen, Yanchen Zhu, Dan Yao, Wanfeng Wang, Lianjun Wang

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0946-2

摘要: Leaching behavior and gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of rare earth elements (REEs) from hospital waste incineration (HWI) fly and bottom ash samples collected from Beijing and Nanjing Cities were assessed. In the same ash sample, the leaching concentrations of individual REEs determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were higher than those detected by the European standard protocol (EN-type test), thereby suggesting that the low pH value of leaching solution was an important factor influencing the leachability of REE. The REE bioaccessibility results, which were evaluated using the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), indicated that REEs were highly absorbed during gastric phase by dissolution; and subsequently precipitated and/or re-adsorbed in small intestinal phase. The relative amounts of the total REEs extracted by the TCLP method, EN-type test and PBET test were compared. In addition to the pH value of extraction solutions, the chelating role of REEs with organic ligands used in the PBET method was also an important parameter affecting REE adsorption in human body. Additionally, this study showed that REEs were extracted by these methods as concomitants of heavy metals and anions (NO , F , SO , and Cl ) from HWI ash, which probably caused the remarkably complex toxicity on human body by the exposure pathway.

关键词: Assessment     Rare earth elements     Leaching behavior     Bioaccessibility     Hospital waste    

Preparation of rare-earth metal complex oxide catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation

LI Ning, LI Guangming, YAO Zhenya, ZHAO Jianfu

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 190-195 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0033-1

摘要: Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most promising technologies for pollution abatement. Developing catalysts with high activity and stability is crucial for the application of the CWAO process. The Mn/Ce complex oxide catalysts for CWAO of high concentration phenolcontaining wastewater were prepared by coprecipitation. The catalyst preparation conditions were optimized by using an orthogonal layout method and single-factor experimental analysis. The Mn/Ce serial catalysts were characterized by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) analysis and the metal cation leaching was measured by inductively coupled plasma torch-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the catalysts have high catalytic activities even at a low temperature (80?C) and low oxygen partial pressure (0.5 MPa) in a batch reactor. The metallic ion leaching is comparatively low (Mn<6.577 mg/L and Ce<0.6910 mg/L, respectively) in the CWAO process. The phenol, COD, and TOC removal efficiencies in the solution exceed 98.5% using the optimal catalyst (named CSP). The new catalyst would have a promising application in CWAO treatment of high concentration organic wastewater.

关键词: torch-atomic emission     Brunauer     Catalytic     process     stability    

稀土永磁体的前景与展望 Review

J.M.D. Coey

《工程(英文)》 2020年 第6卷 第2期   页码 118-130 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2018.11.034

摘要:

稀土永磁是一项成熟的技术,但2011年稀土危机的冲击导致人们重新考量20世纪80年代和90年代的许多关于几乎不含稀土(或重稀土)的新型硬磁材料的想法。Nd-Fe-B永磁通过精心巧妙的优化,适用于需要以合理成本获得高性能的广泛应用领域。当需要高温稳定性时,Sm-Co是首选材料,而某些应用也逐渐开始使用Sm-Fe-N磁体。对这些基本材料的元素替代改进的范围已经进行了相当深入的探讨,同时制备技术对微观结构和磁滞现象的影响也已深入了解。上一代的一个很宏大的想法,即制备交换耦合硬/软纳米复合的各向异性磁体,来显著提高创纪录的磁能积。然而,事实证明这很难实现。尽管如此,该领域已取得发展,而其他领域的创新也在不断蓬勃发展。例如,电动私人交通已经从电动自行车发展到电驱动的汽车和卡车成为主流,并且由此可见,电动运输很有可能结束内燃机的主导地位。随着越来越清晰地了解特定永磁体的局限性,人们开始围绕它进行具有独创性和想象力的设计,并最有效地利用了可用的稀土资源混合物。此外,机器人技术正在吸引着巨大的新市场,而且人们才刚刚开始探索增材制造所提供的机会。提高磁体高温稳定性的新方法也正在开发中,并且具有其他有用特性的硬磁体的集成多功能性也正在设想中。这些研究课题将在本文中通过各种示例进行详细说明。

关键词: 稀土永磁体,磁各向异性,矫顽力,能积,磁性复合材料,增材制造    

面向21世纪的稀土工业

杨遇春

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第9期   页码 91-100

摘要:

中国拥有世界上最丰富的稀土资源。1998年中国稀土氧化物(REO)的生产能力已达到20000 t,几乎为世界需求的2倍,严重依赖出口,出口童占生产童的2/3。文章论述了稀土在冶金、永磁、储氢合金、催化剂、固体氧化物燃料电池和激光材料等方面的应用进展;指出我国未来稀土工业的方向是开发髙技术含童和高附加值的产品,拓宽国内和国际市场。

关键词: 稀土氧化物     永磁材料     储氢合金     催化剂     燃料电池     激光材料    

稀土功能材料2035 发展战略研究

朱明刚,孙旭,刘荣辉,徐会兵

《中国工程科学》 2020年 第22卷 第5期   页码 37-43 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2020.05.006

摘要:

稀土功能材料作为我国最具有资源特色的关键战略材料之一,是支撑新一代信息技术、航空航天与现代武器装备、先进轨道交通、节能与新能源汽车、高性能医疗器械等高技术领域的核心材料。本文介绍了稀土功能材料产业的背景和发展现状,分析了我国稀土功能材料产业发展存在的问题,提出了面向新材料强国2035 发展战略的发展思路和重点发展方向,从强化稀土领域的战略预判和政策扶植、加强稀土领域的基础研究和应用基础、加强稀土优势团队和人才建设等方面提出政策建议,为促进稀土功能材料的领域发展,实现我国从稀土大国向稀土强国的战略性转变提供参考。

关键词: 稀土功能材料,关键战略材料,新材料强国2035    

Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate over rare earth oxide supported catalyst

JIANG Qi, CHENG Jiye, GAO Zhiqin

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 300-303 doi: 10.1007/s11705-007-0055-z

摘要: Solid base catalysts for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from carbon dioxide, methanol, and propylene oxide were prepared by loading KCl and KCO on the surface of LaO, YO, CeO and NdO. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The catalytic activities were efficiently influenced by the preparation conditions. The optimal loading amount of KCO is 17.6% (mass) for KCl-KCO/YO and 22.2% for other catalysts. Supports affected the activity of catalyst. KCl-KCO/NdO exhibited the highest activity. The activity of KCl-KCO/YO increased with the increase of calcination temperature in the range of 800ºC–900ºC. The formation of KYO, YOCl or YO species probably promoted the catalysts.

关键词: thermogravimetric analysis     increase     KCl-KCO/NdO     catalytic     KCl-KCO/YO    

A rare chronic constrictive pericarditis with localized adherent visceral pericardium and normal parietal

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第3期   页码 356-359 doi: 10.1007/s11684-016-0467-6

摘要:

Classic constrictive pericarditis (CP) is characterized by fibrous scarring and adhesion of both the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium, which leads to restricted cardiac filling. However, diagnosing CP with normal thickness pericardium and without calcification is still a challenge. The predominant cause in the developed world is idiopathic or viral pericarditis, followed by post-cardiac surgery and post-radiation. Tuberculosis still remains a common cause of CP in developing countries. In this report, we describe a rare case of idiopathic localized constrictive visceral pericardium with normal thickness of the parietal pericardium in a middle-aged man. The patient presented with unexplained right heart failure and echocardiography showed moderate bi-atrial enlargement which should be?identified with the restrictive cardiomyopathy.?After 10 months of conservative treatment, the progression of right heart failure was remaining. A pericardiectomy was performed and the patient recovered. This case serves as a reminder to consider CP in patients with unexplained right heart failure, so that timely investigation and treatment can be initiated.

关键词: constrictive pericarditis     heart failure     pericardiectomy    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Distinct community assembly processes underlie significant spatiotemporal dynamics of abundant and rare

期刊论文

Clinical factors associated with composition of lung microbiota and important taxa predicting clinical

期刊论文

Recovery of rare and precious metals from urban mines—A review

Mengmeng Wang, Quanyin Tan, Joseph F. Chiang, Jinhui Li

期刊论文

我国“三稀矿产”的资源特征及开发利用研究

王登红,孙艳,代鸿章,郭唯明,赵芝,赵汀,李建康,王成辉,黄凡,于扬,李德先

期刊论文

Migration of ammonium nitrogen in ion-absorbed rare earth soils during and post mining: a column study

期刊论文

Rare tumors: a blue ocean of investigation

期刊论文

Arsenic trioxide induced rhabdomyolysis, a rare but severe side effect, in an APL patient: a case report

null

期刊论文

Rare-earth separation based on the differences of ionic magnetic moment via quasi-liquid strategy

期刊论文

Assessment of leaching behavior and human bioaccessibility of rare earth elements in typical hospital

Chunfeng Wang, Guanfei Chen, Yanchen Zhu, Dan Yao, Wanfeng Wang, Lianjun Wang

期刊论文

Preparation of rare-earth metal complex oxide catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation

LI Ning, LI Guangming, YAO Zhenya, ZHAO Jianfu

期刊论文

稀土永磁体的前景与展望

J.M.D. Coey

期刊论文

面向21世纪的稀土工业

杨遇春

期刊论文

稀土功能材料2035 发展战略研究

朱明刚,孙旭,刘荣辉,徐会兵

期刊论文

Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate over rare earth oxide supported catalyst

JIANG Qi, CHENG Jiye, GAO Zhiqin

期刊论文

A rare chronic constrictive pericarditis with localized adherent visceral pericardium and normal parietal

null

期刊论文