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藏北高原草地生态治理与畜牧业协同发展模式研究

干珠扎布,胡国铮,高清竹,江村旺扎,旦久罗布,参木友,巴桑旺堆,杨富裕,魏学红,杨永平

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第5期   页码 93-98 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.05.013

摘要:

藏北高原是我国重要的生态安全屏障和高原特色畜牧业基地,而高寒草地退化严重制约着其生态和生产功能,给生态保护和畜牧业发展带来了挑战。本文在深入分析藏北高原生态治理与畜牧业发展状况的基础上,探讨了藏北高寒草地生态与生产功能的主要影响因素,提出了藏北高原草地生态治理与畜牧业协同发展的模式体系。研究表明,通过草地生态恢复、优化放牧管理方式、人工牧草种植、低海拔农区种草高海拔牧区养畜的“低草高牧”模式、冬季半舍饲养殖等一系列措施,能够推进高寒草地生态功能提升、促进草地畜牧业转型升级,实现“保护中发展”与“发展中保护”。相关研究将为治边稳藏、保障国家生态安全、增加牧民收入提供战略引导和科技支撑。

关键词: 藏北高原     生态修复     草地畜牧业     协同发展    

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM LIVESTOCK IN CHINA AND MITIGATION OPTIONS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CARBON NEUTRALITY

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第2期   页码 226-233 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023486

摘要:

● Livestock is major greenhouse gas source in agriculture in China.

关键词: animal husbandry     emission reduction solutions     feed improvement     greenhouse gases emission     manure management    

论我国饲料工业入关前后面临的挑战

张子仪

《中国工程科学》 1999年 第1卷 第1期   页码 88-93

摘要:

改革开放以来,我国肉、蛋、奶总产量比70年代末期增长了6~8倍,1998年饲料工业的产品产量已达到了8568万t,比70年代后期高出80多倍;我国饲料工业在进入WTO前后将面临着市场竞争的压力;中长期内我国饲料蛋白质资源大约缺口一半,入关后,优质廉价的进口添加剂及饲料用农产品将对我国饲料市场形成冲击。

建立健全具有中国特色的饲料工业生产体系,认真贯彻《饲料和饲料添加剂管理条例》至关重要;知识经济实质上是信息经济,尽快联合起来加速中国饲料工业信息网的建设,提高决策水平,才能有备无患地迎战入关前后可能遇到的种种冲击。

关键词: 饲料工业     WTO     养殖业    

Phosphorus status, use and recycling in a Chinese peri-urban region with intensive animal husbandry and

Marco ROELCKE, Lisa HEIMANN, Yong HOU, Jianbin GUO, Qiaoyun XUE, Wei JIA, Anne OSTERMANN, Roxana Mendoza HUAITALLA, Moritz ENGBERS, Clemens OLBRICH, Roland W. SCHOLZ, Joachim CLEMENS, Frank SCHUCHARDT, Rolf NIEDER, Xuejun LIU, Fusuo ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第4期   页码 388-402 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019286

摘要:

The Sino-German research collaboration project, “Recycling of organic residues from agricultural and municipal origin in China” (2008–2012), comprising different interdisciplinary research groups, and also German small and medium-sized enterprises, aimed at developing integrated strategies and solutions for the recycling of organic residues in China. In an intensive crop-livestock agricultural region in the Shunyi District of Beijing, five typical cropping systems were investigated. The research was conducted in the form of analyses of phosphorus (P) in soil, plants, animal feed, animal products, manures, mineral and organic fertilizers and the derivation of the corresponding nutrient balances and P flows. The mean annual P balance surplus was 492 kg·ha ·yr P for the vegetable production system, significantly higher ( <0.05) than that for orchards (130 kg·ha ·yr P) and cereal crops (83 kg·ha ·yr P). Plant-available P (Olsen-P) concentrations of topsoils (0–20 cm) had good correlations with the amounts of P applied (from mineral and organic sources). Compared to results from the Second Chinese National Soil Survey of 1981, mean concentrations of available P in soils of 19 plots investigated in Shunyi District increased 10-fold (from 7.3 to 60 mg·kg ) from 1981 to 2009. On average, the critical limit for Olsen-P concentrations (>30 mg·kg ) that can lead to increased risk of P loss was exceeded in all five cropping systems. With feed additives, the “natural background value” (Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils) of copper and zinc in topsoils was exceeded at several sites. Screening for several substances in the veterinary antibiotic classes of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones revealed widespread topsoil contamination. Calculated livestock densities were 10.6 livestock units per ha arable land in 2007. Animal husbandry is increasingly conducted in large operations, making traditional ways of reuse difficult to apply. Comparing three management systems for treatment of organic residues from a pig farm via aerobic (composting) or anaerobic (biogas) treatment in a life cycle assessment, the resulting cropland demand for a sustainable land application of biogas effluent varied between 139 and 288 ha·yr , well above the cropland area owned by the farm (10 ha). The mismatch problems in the above context between business-as-usual and improving performance are framed and discussed as (1) the mismatch between centralized animal husbandry and smallholder farming, (2) the mismatch between livestock density and cropland, (3) nutrient (including P) recycling and increasing organic matter content versus energy production, (4) subsidies for compost production and biogas, as well as (5) advances in the regulatory framework in China.

关键词: cropping systems     life cycle assessment     North China Plain     balances and nutrient flows     transdisciplinary approach    

Fighting for the poverty: a case study for human migration in the context of sustainable dryland farming development in the Southern Ningxia Hilly Area

Yongqing MA, Jie CHEN, Shuqi DONG, Lun SHAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第1期   页码 62-68 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014027

摘要: The Southern Ningxia Hilly Area is one of the most impoverished areas of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (a province) of China due to an economy that mainly relies on agriculture, which is affected by droughts in two out of every three years. Government programs have attempted to develop an increased and sustainable level of scientifically based agricultural production while restoring the environment. However, since the population exceeds the capacity of the land to adequately support it, a program is underway to move 350000 people to more suitable locations. This paper outlines the past improvements to the Southern Ningxia Hilly Area and considers future development in the context of migration for ecological reasons.

关键词: agricultural production     animal husbandry     development strategy     ecological migration    

生物技术在养羊业科学研究中的应用

刘守仁

《中国工程科学》 2001年 第3卷 第7期   页码 37-41

摘要:

介绍了冷冻精液、胚胎移植、胚胎冷冻、胚胎分割、体外受精、核移植克隆、基因导入等技术。这些技术的应用使养羊业育种和生产水平大为提高,产生了显著的经济效益。同时,为养羊业科研和生产开辟了新的途径。

关键词: 生物技术     养羊业    

新时期我国农业结构调整战略研究

罗其友, 刘洋, 唐华俊, 周振亚, 尤飞, 高明杰

《中国工程科学》 2018年 第20卷 第5期   页码 31-38 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2018.05.005

摘要:

在新形势下,我国农业的主要矛盾已由总量不足转变为结构性矛盾。适应农业发展新常态,调整优化农业结构,加快转变发展方式,推进农业供给侧结构性改革,成为当前我国农业发展的重要任务。本文从种植业结构、畜牧结构、产业结构、产品结构、空间结构5 个方面分析了当前我国农业结构存在的主要问题,阐述了新时期我国农业结构调整的战略构想,提出了种植业结构、畜牧业结构和产业结构的调整优化方案及相应的政策建议。

关键词: 结构调整     种植业结构     畜牧业结构     区域布局    

Highlights for special issue on “Large Animal Stem Cells”

Jianyong HAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第1期   页码 1-2 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019251

A brief review of genome editing technology for generating animal models

Haoyi WANG, Sen WU, Mario R. CAPECCHI, Rudolf JAENISCH

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第2期   页码 123-128 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019309

摘要:

The recent development of genome editing technologies has given researchers unprecedented power to alter DNA sequences at chosen genomic loci, thereby generating various genetically edited animal models. This mini-review briefly summarizes the development of major genome editing tools, focusing on the application of these tools to generate animal models in multiple species.

关键词: animal model     CRISPR     genome editing     TALEN     ZFN    

Cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos: recent updates and progress

Zhengyuan HUANG, Lei GAO, Yunpeng HOU, Shien ZHU, Xiangwei FU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第1期   页码 42-53 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018231

摘要:

Cryopreservation has undergone tremendous advances and is widely used in animal production based on decades of study of cellular permeability, freezability and empirical generalization. Several improvement are particularly important: the cryopreservation protocol has been continuously refined over the years to achieve greater reproductive performance; cryoprotective agents are more effective and less toxic than previously; there has been significant innovation in advanced cryopreservation systems and carriers. Despite this, there are still problems that urgently require practical solutions, such as remedies for cryodamage and encouraging the use of frozen–thawed porcine sperm in pig production.

关键词: vitrification     gametes     embryo     animal production     cryoprotective agent     freezability    

The speciation, leachability and bioaccessibility of Cu and Zn in animal manure-derived biochar: effect

Qi Lin, Xin Xu, Lihua, Wang, Qian Chen, Jing Fang, Xiaodong Shen, Liping Lou, Guangming Tian

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0924-8

摘要: Biochars derived from animal manures may accumulate potentially toxic metals and cause a potential risk to ecosystem. The synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy, sequential fractionation schemes, bioaccessibility extraction and leaching procedure were performed on poultry and swine manure-derived biochars (denoted PB and SB, respectively) to evaluate the variance of speciation and activity of Cu and Zn as affected by the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. The results showed that Cu speciation was dependent on the feedstock with Cu-citrate-like in swine manure and species resembling Cu-glutathione and CuO in poultry manure. Pyrolyzed products, however, had similar Cu speciation mainly with species resembling Cu-citrate, CuO and CuS/Cu S. Organic bound Zn and Zn (PO ) -like species were dominant in both feedstock and biochars. Both Cu and Zn leaching with synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) decreased greatly with the rise of pyrolysis temperature, which were consistent with the sequential extraction results that pyrolysis converted Cu and Zn into less labile phases such as organic/sulfide and residual fractions. The potential bioaccessibility of Zn decreased for both the PB and SB, closely depending on the content of non-residual Zn. The bioaccessibility of Cu, however, increased for the SB prepared at 300°C–700°C, probably due to the increased proportion of CuO. Concerning the results of sequential fractionation schemes, bioaccessibility extraction and leaching procedure, pyrolysis at 500°C was suggested as means of reducing Cu/Zn lability and poultry manure was more suitable for pyrolysis treatment.

关键词: Animal manure     Biochar     Metals     Molecular species     Pyrolysis    

Highlights of special issue on Animal Science

Jun REN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第3期   页码 257-259 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017165

Antimicrobial use in food animal production: situation analysis and contributing factors

Ziping WU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第3期   页码 301-311 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018207

摘要:

By measuring the quantity and ways in which antimicrobials are used, and reviewing different technical and socioeconomic factors influencing antimicrobial use at farm level, this study discusses the main knowledge gaps in antimicrobial use in food animal production and provides recommendations for future research and policy development. The review reveals that antimicrobial use in food animals exhibit strong regional and species differences, and there are still large information gaps concerning the current state of antimicrobial use. Factors associated with animal health (including antimicrobial resistance), animal health improvement, economic costs and benefits relevant to animal diseases, and potential technological alternatives or alternative systems all have an impact on antimicrobial use on the farm. There is a clear need to resolve the data gap by monitoring antimicrobial use and developing an analytical framework to better understand farmer behaviors under different technical, economic and environmental circumstances.

关键词: antimicrobial use     drivers for antimicrobial use     food animal production    

Electrolyzed water and its application in animal houses

Weichao ZHENG,Li NI,Baoming LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第3期   页码 195-205 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016109

摘要: Electrolyzed water (EW) can be produced by electrolysis of a dilute salt solution. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0–6.5) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW, pH 6.5–8.5) are considered healthy and environmentally friendly because no hazardous chemicals are added in its production, there is reduced corrosion of surfaces and it minimizes the potential for damage to animal and human health. Over the last decade, EW has become increasingly popular as an alternative disinfectant for decontamination in animal houses. However, there have been some issues related to EW that are not well known, including different mechanisms for generation of SAEW and NEW, and the antimicrobial mechanism of EW. This review covers the definitions of SAEW and NEW, different generation systems for SAEW and NEW, the antimicrobial mecha- nism of EW, and recent developments related to the application of SAEW and NEW in animal houses.

关键词: disinfection     poultry and livestock     slightly acidic electrolyzed water     neutral electrolyzed water    

Animal stem cells: the engineering development front of 2018

Wenye YUAN, Jianxiang XU, Chenying LI, Lijuan SHI, Aidong YANG, Yan WANG, Lu XING, Shaozhong KANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第1期   页码 93-95 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018250

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

藏北高原草地生态治理与畜牧业协同发展模式研究

干珠扎布,胡国铮,高清竹,江村旺扎,旦久罗布,参木友,巴桑旺堆,杨富裕,魏学红,杨永平

期刊论文

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM LIVESTOCK IN CHINA AND MITIGATION OPTIONS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CARBON NEUTRALITY

期刊论文

论我国饲料工业入关前后面临的挑战

张子仪

期刊论文

Phosphorus status, use and recycling in a Chinese peri-urban region with intensive animal husbandry and

Marco ROELCKE, Lisa HEIMANN, Yong HOU, Jianbin GUO, Qiaoyun XUE, Wei JIA, Anne OSTERMANN, Roxana Mendoza HUAITALLA, Moritz ENGBERS, Clemens OLBRICH, Roland W. SCHOLZ, Joachim CLEMENS, Frank SCHUCHARDT, Rolf NIEDER, Xuejun LIU, Fusuo ZHANG

期刊论文

Fighting for the poverty: a case study for human migration in the context of sustainable dryland farming development in the Southern Ningxia Hilly Area

Yongqing MA, Jie CHEN, Shuqi DONG, Lun SHAN

期刊论文

生物技术在养羊业科学研究中的应用

刘守仁

期刊论文

新时期我国农业结构调整战略研究

罗其友, 刘洋, 唐华俊, 周振亚, 尤飞, 高明杰

期刊论文

Highlights for special issue on “Large Animal Stem Cells”

Jianyong HAN

期刊论文

A brief review of genome editing technology for generating animal models

Haoyi WANG, Sen WU, Mario R. CAPECCHI, Rudolf JAENISCH

期刊论文

Cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos: recent updates and progress

Zhengyuan HUANG, Lei GAO, Yunpeng HOU, Shien ZHU, Xiangwei FU

期刊论文

The speciation, leachability and bioaccessibility of Cu and Zn in animal manure-derived biochar: effect

Qi Lin, Xin Xu, Lihua, Wang, Qian Chen, Jing Fang, Xiaodong Shen, Liping Lou, Guangming Tian

期刊论文

Highlights of special issue on Animal Science

Jun REN

期刊论文

Antimicrobial use in food animal production: situation analysis and contributing factors

Ziping WU

期刊论文

Electrolyzed water and its application in animal houses

Weichao ZHENG,Li NI,Baoming LI

期刊论文

Animal stem cells: the engineering development front of 2018

Wenye YUAN, Jianxiang XU, Chenying LI, Lijuan SHI, Aidong YANG, Yan WANG, Lu XING, Shaozhong KANG

期刊论文