Brown and beige fat: the metabolic function, induction, and therapeutic potential
《医学前沿（英文）》 2015年 第9卷 第2期 页码 162-172 doi: 10.1007/s11684-015-0382-2
Adipose tissue is an important organ for energy homeostasis. White adipose tissue stores energy in the form of triglycerides, whereas brown adipocytes and recently identified beige adipocytes are specialized in dissipating energy by thermogenesis or contribution to dispose glucose and clear triglycerides in blood. The inverse correlation between the brown adipose tissue activity and body mass suggests its protective role against body fat accumulation. Thus, recruitment and activation of brown or beige adipose tissue become particularly appealing targets for increasing energy expenditure. Angiogenesis and sympathetic nerve signals are the fundamental determinants for brown and beige adipose tissue development, as well as for their metabolic functions. Secretary factors including BMPs can induce the development, the activation of brown or beige adipose tissue, which seem to be promising for therapeutic development.
Role of brown adipose tissue in metabolic syndrome, aging, and cancer cachexia
《医学前沿（英文）》 2018年 第12卷 第2期 页码 130-138 doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0555-2
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a fundamental role in maintaining body temperature by producing heat. BAT that had been know to exist only in mammals and the human neonate has received great attention for the treatment of obesity and diabetes due to its important function in energy metabolism, ever since it is recently reported that human adults have functional BAT. In addition, beige adipocytes, brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), have also been shown to take part in whole body metabolism. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that transplantation or activation of BAT or/and beige adipocytes reversed obesity and improved insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, many genes involved in BAT activation and/or the recruitment of beige cells have been found, thereby providing new promising strategies for future clinical application of BAT activation to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. This review focuses on recent advances of BAT function in the metabolic aspect and the relationship between BAT and cancer cachexia, a pathological process accompanied with decreased body weight and increased energy expenditure in cancer patients. The underlying possible mechanisms to reduce BAT mass and its activity in the elderly are also discussed.
关键词： brown adipose tissue beige adipocyte anti-obesity anti-diabetes cancer cachexia aging
The role of microRNAs in adipocyte differentiation
《医学前沿（英文）》 2013年 第7卷 第2期 页码 223-230 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0252-8
Adipocytes differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a process known as adipogenesis. The programme of adipogenesis is regulated by the sequential activation of transcription factors and several signaling pathways. There is growing evidence indicating that a class of small non-coding single-stranded RNAs known as “microRNAs (miRNAs)” also are involved in this process. In this review, we summarize the biology and functional mechanisms of miRNAs in adipocyte differentiation. In addition, we further discuss the miRNAs profiling, the miRNAs function and miRNAs target prediction in the adipogenesis.
Richa Verma, 傅明, 杨广东, 吴凌云, 王睿
《工程（英文）》 2023年 第20卷 第1期 页码 36-48 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2022.09.010
硫化氢（H2S）在脂肪细胞和脂肪组织中内源性产生并刺激脂肪形成。然而，对于H2S对肥胖发展的综合致病作用及其潜在机制尚不清楚。本研究发现降低的内源性H2S水平降低了小鼠脂肪细胞中的脂质积累。在脂肪形成诱导6 d后，外源性H2S 处理显著增加了原代小鼠前脂肪细胞的脂肪形成。在脂肪生成的早期阶段，H2S增加细胞增殖并为细胞增生做好准备。用H2S 处理10 d后，前脂肪细胞的细胞表面积和直径明显增大，表明细胞肥大。虽然H2S刺激脂质积累和脂肪生成，但对脂肪分解没有影响。随着营养过载和高葡萄糖/胰岛素孵化，H2S进一步刺激葡萄糖消耗并恶化脂肪细胞肥大。H2S上调增生基因[CCAAT/增强子结合蛋白（C/EBPβ）、细胞分裂周期25（Cdc25）、微染色体维持3（Mcm3）和细胞分裂周期（Cdc45）]和细胞周期蛋白依赖性激酶2蛋白（Cdk2），调节细胞增殖。H2S还上调了胰岛素受体 β（Irβ）激活的丝裂原活化蛋白激酶（MAPK）和蛋白激酶 B（Akt）通路，从而导致脂肪生成。总之，H2S增加脂肪细胞分化、肥大和增生，提示H2S在肥胖症中起致病作用。
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