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Toward sustainable intensification of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa

Andreas BUERKERT, Eva SCHLECHT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第4期   页码 401-405 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020341

摘要:

Across the African continent efforts to intensify agriculture have been limited to specific commodities, locations or particular production schemes. The causes for the widespread failure to overcome low land and labor productivity while maintaining ecosystem services have often be analyzed but remain poorly understood. A social-ecological system approach may help to better understand the complex nature of ecological disadvantages, postcolonial structures, limited connect between producers and consumer markets, low off-farm livelihood opportunities, partial underpopulation and lacking experience with the concept of sustainable production as a major impediment for sustainable intensification of the agricultural sector. Nevertheless, recent success stories in agro-pastoral systems as well as urban vegetable and animal production and associated value chains in West Africa, and in intensive mixed-cropping systems of the Great Lakes Region show the potential of stakeholder-driven agricultural intensification. Proper interpretation of these cases may provide lessons for a more widespread eco-intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.

关键词: colonial heritage     land use     marketing     property rights     subsistence agriculture     urbanization     value chains    

Conservation and adaptive reuse of industrial heritage in Shanghai

ZHANG Song

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第4期   页码 481-490 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0065-4

摘要: This paper takes a retrospective review of the evolution of the conservation of industrial heritage in urban Shanghai since the 1990s within the context of the international industrial heritage conservation movement, with the emph

关键词: evolution     industrial     international industrial     retrospective     Shanghai    

Creating technical heritage object replicas in a virtual environment

Olga EGOROVA,Dmitry SHCHERBININ

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第11卷 第1期   页码 108-115 doi: 10.1007/s11465-016-0363-4

摘要:

The paper presents innovative informatics methods for creating virtual technical heritage replicas, which are of significant scientific and practical importance not only to researchers but to the public in general. By performing 3D modeling and animation of aircrafts, spaceships, architectural-engineering buildings, and other technical objects, the process of learning is achieved while promoting the preservation of the replicas for future generations. Modern approaches based on the wide usage of computer technologies attract a greater number of young people to explore the history of science and technology and renew their interest in the field of mechanical engineering.

关键词: 3D document     history of science and technology     technical knowledge     popularization     virtual environment     replica     mechanism and machine science (MMS)    

“中国南方喀斯特”的世界自然遗产价值对比分析

熊康宁,肖时珍,刘子琦,陈品冬

《中国工程科学》 2008年 第10卷 第4期   页码 17-28

摘要:

从地质地貌特征与演化历史方面,结合世界遗产第viii条评价标准,将“中国南方喀斯特”第一批三个遗产地置于全球视角进行对比研究,揭示其全球显著价值:云南石林形成演化历史最复杂,石柱的形态最丰富,代表一种独特的石林形成演化机制;荔波锥状喀斯特锥峰单体最典型,地貌组合形态最丰富,代表典型的锥状喀斯特地貌特征,反映出大陆热带—亚热带锥状喀斯特的地质演化模式与过程;武隆峡谷喀斯特完整地展示了整个峡谷喀斯特发育演化系统,例证了正在进行的新构造运动背景下峡谷喀斯特系统的演化过程。因此,第一批遗产地代表中国南方喀斯特地区自古生代以来长期、多期演化历史;代表地球热带 —亚热带典型的锥状、石林和峡谷喀斯特地貌特征、形成演化机制及正在进行的地质过程;代表地球三大喀斯特片区之最大片区的独特的自然地理特征。

关键词: 世界遗产     对比研究     中国南方喀斯特    

Simplified seismic scenario analysis of existing masonry buildings accounting for local site effects

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期   页码 309-318 doi: 10.1007/s11709-024-0982-5

摘要: This study discusses the effects of local sites and hazard amplification on the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing masonry buildings. In this context, a rapid seismic evaluation procedure was implemented on an old masonry building stock in the historical center Galata, located in İstanbul, to determine the seismic risk priority of the built heritage. Damage scenarios were generated for all soil classes, different moment magnitudes, and source-to-site distances to obtain more accurate results for the seismic vulnerability assessment of the studied building stock. Consequently, damage distributions estimated under nine different scenarios with/without site effects were compared and illustrated in maps to discuss changes in vulnerability owing to amplification effects. In this study, by re-examining the rapid seismic evaluation procedure by including geo-hazard-based assessment, the importance of site effects on the vulnerability and risk assessment of built heritage was underlined. The proposed framework integrating field data and local site effects is believed to advance the current applications for vulnerability assessment of masonry buildings and provide an improvement in the application of rapid seismic assessment procedures with more reliable results.

关键词: masonry buildings     seismic vulnerability assessment     cultural heritage     local site effect    

深空安全研究现状与未来发展

吴克,张哲,杨文飞,何建峰,张天柱,简抗抗,吴伟仁

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第4期   页码 240-248 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.04.023

摘要:

世界各国深空探测活动日益增多、探测环境趋于复杂、任务难度越来越大,开展深空安全问题研究具有现实意义。本文从深空安全的基本内涵出发,概述了深空安全的研究意义与关键问题,梳理了空间辐射威胁、行星保护、太空遗产保护、空间立法等深空安全关键问题的研究现状并展望了未来发展。空间辐射具有威胁类型多、辐射强度大的特点,应从物理防护、生物医学防护、化学防护等角度开展研究。行星保护主要面临深空航天器的污染和撞击挑战,应从深空微生物检测与消毒杀菌技术、应对政策制定等角度开展研究。太空遗产保护因各国间的政治、文化、法律差异而在评估及保护措施方面存在争议,应从国际协作、深空航天器以及人类影响降低等角度开展研究。深空立法因各国间存在复杂的国际关系而导致当前的法律法规效力难以成为国际社会共识,应从国际立法组织、国内研究机构、国内法律体系完善等方面开展研究。

关键词: 深空安全     空间辐射威胁     行星保护     太空遗产保护     空间立法    

Marble epistyles under shear: an experimental study of the role of “Relieving Space”

E. D. PASIOU, I. STAVRAKAS, D. TRIANTIS, S. K. KOURKOULIS

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第4期   页码 767-786 doi: 10.1007/s11709-019-0515-9

摘要: The mechanical response of mutually interconnected epistyles is studied experimentally. The specimens are made of two marble blocks connected to each other with an “I”-shaped titanium connector placed in grooves sculptured on the blocks and covered with cementitious material. The specific way of connecting epistyles simulates the one used by scientists restoring the ancient “connections” of the epistyles of the Parthenon Temple. This “connection,” although designed to sustain mainly tensile loading, undertakes, also, shear load, in case of excitations imposing to the epistyles displacements normal to the connector’s axis. Attention is focused to enlighten the role of a novel design technique aiming to relieve the stress field around the connector. According to this technique, part of the connector’s web is left uncovered, forming the so-called “ ,” assisting the unconstrained deformation of the connector. Both traditional and innovative sensing techniques were employed in an effort to obtain data from the interior of the three-material-complex (marble-cementitious material-titanium). Analysis of the data indicated that the “Relieving Space” reduces the overall stiffness of the system, protecting marble in case of over-loading. Moreover, it was concluded that the innovative techniques employed provide pre-failure indicators well in advance of the catastrophic failure of the specimens.

关键词: monuments of cultural heritage     marble epistyles     pressure stimulated currents     acoustic emission     digital image correlation    

煤炭资源型城市矿山遗址旅游开发潜力测度与开发模式选择

汪秋菊,周佳丽,彭苏萍

《中国工程科学》 2020年 第22卷 第6期   页码 158-166 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2020.06.021

摘要:

旅游开发是关闭煤矿经济转型的重要渠道之一,煤炭资源型城市矿山遗址旅游开发的适宜性与开发模式取决于其所具有的旅游开发潜力,测度矿山遗址旅游开发潜力、识别开发类型已成为旅游开发领域亟待研究的课题。本文从矿山旅游资源、矿山开发条件、城市开发环境 3 个维度着手,构建了矿山遗址旅游开发潜力测度模型,完成了我国煤炭资源型城市矿山遗址的旅游开发潜力实证研究。结果表明:煤炭资源型城市矿山遗址的旅游开发潜力存在明显的差异性,综合潜力排名前十位的城市为:徐州、邯郸、枣庄、邢台、焦作、张家口、大同、淮南、平顶山、抚顺;开发潜力空间格局呈现“两核、三中心”集聚特征。为此建议,煤炭资源型城市应根据资源价值、开发潜力及其空间格局的不同,选择相应的开发模式;适时编制矿山遗址旅游开发规划,探索构建“政府主导、多方合作”的矿山遗址旅游开发新机制,支持矿山遗址向旅游功能的转型升级。

关键词: 煤炭资源型城市     工业遗产     旅游开发     潜力测度     开发模式    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Toward sustainable intensification of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa

Andreas BUERKERT, Eva SCHLECHT

期刊论文

Conservation and adaptive reuse of industrial heritage in Shanghai

ZHANG Song

期刊论文

Creating technical heritage object replicas in a virtual environment

Olga EGOROVA,Dmitry SHCHERBININ

期刊论文

“中国南方喀斯特”的世界自然遗产价值对比分析

熊康宁,肖时珍,刘子琦,陈品冬

期刊论文

Simplified seismic scenario analysis of existing masonry buildings accounting for local site effects

期刊论文

深空安全研究现状与未来发展

吴克,张哲,杨文飞,何建峰,张天柱,简抗抗,吴伟仁

期刊论文

Marble epistyles under shear: an experimental study of the role of “Relieving Space”

E. D. PASIOU, I. STAVRAKAS, D. TRIANTIS, S. K. KOURKOULIS

期刊论文

煤炭资源型城市矿山遗址旅游开发潜力测度与开发模式选择

汪秋菊,周佳丽,彭苏萍

期刊论文