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Composition” and regularisation of architectural production in contemporary China

Hua LI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 465-473 doi: 10.1007/s11709-010-0097-z

摘要: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the “Beaux-Arts” “composition” sustained the constitution of design principles for architectural production in China in the last two decades of the twentieth century. “Composition”, a key technique of the “Beaux-Arts” system, is not a simple act of “putting elements together” into a unified whole, but also relates to an array of different “constructions” of architectural knowledge which regulate and sustain the act of design. Through analysing the structure of three “textbooks” published in the early 1980s, this paper examines three aspects of the “constructions”: the setting up of the principles for governing architectural forms, regularisation of design methods and approaches for architectural practice, and the construction of a “tradition” for the expression of “Chineseness”.

关键词: composition     “Beaux-Arts”     regulate     architectural production    

Calorie restriction and its impact on gut microbial composition and global metabolism

Xiaojiao Zheng, Shouli Wang, Wei Jia

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第6期   页码 634-644 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0670-8

摘要:

Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients. It has long been recognized as a natural strategy for promoting health, extending longevity, and prevents the development of metabolic and age-related diseases. In the present review, we focus on the general effect of CR on gut microbiota composition and global metabolism. We also propose mechanisms for its beneficial effect. Results showed that probiotic and butyrate-producing microbes increased their relative abundance, whereas proinflammatory strains exhibited suppressed relative abundance following CR. Analyses of the gut microbial and host metabolisms revealed that most host microbial co-metabolites were changed due to CR. Examples of dramatic CR-induced changes in host metabolism included a decrease in the rate of lipid biosynthesis and an increase in the rates of fatty acid catabolism, β-oxidation, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis. The observed phenotypes and the further verification of the direct link between gut microbiota and metabolome may benefit patients that are at risk for developing metabolic disease. Thus, improved gut microbiota composition and metabolome are potential biomarkers for determining the effectiveness of dietary interventions for age-related and metabolic diseases.

关键词: caloric restriction     gut microbiota     metabolome    

Effects of heavy rainfall on the composition of airborne bacterial communities

Gwang Il Jang, Chung Yeon Hwang, Byung Cheol Cho

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-018-1008-0

摘要: Wet deposition scavenges particles and particle-associated bacteria from the air column, but the impact of raindrops on various surfaces on Earth causes emission of surface-associated bacteria into the air column. Thus, after rainfall, these two mechanisms are expected to cause changes in airborne bacterial community composition (BCC). In this study, aerosol samples were collected at a suburban site in Seoul, Korea before and after three heavy rainfall events in April, May, and July 2011. BCC was investigated by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA gene in aerosol samples. Interestingly, the relative abundance of non-spore forming operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was always higher in post-rain aerosol samples. In particular, the absolute and relative abundances of airborne always increased after rainfall, whereas those of airborne , including and , consistently decreased. Marine bacterial sequences, which were temporally important in aerosol samples, also decreased after rainfall events. Further, increases in pathogen-like sequences were often observed in post-rain air samples. Rainfall events seemed to affect airborne BCCs by the combined action of the two mechanisms, with potentially adverse effects on human and plant health.

关键词: Aerosol     Bacteria     Community composition     Pyrosequencing     Rain    

Syngas composition study

Zhe WANG , Jinning YANG , Zheng LI , Yong XIANG ,

《能源前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第3期   页码 369-372 doi: 10.1007/s11708-009-0044-7

摘要: The syngas composition characteristic was investigated in the real slurry-feed gasifier using a detailed gas phase reaction mechanism. The results show that the time for syngas to reach equilibrium is much shorter than the residence time for slurry feed entrained-flow gasifiers, indicating a gas phase species partial equilibrium state. Further calculation shows that the four major species, CO, CO, H, and HO, are in equilibrium via the reaction Bayu PRABOWO,Herri SUSANTO,Kentaro UMEKI,Mi YAN,Kunio YOSHIKAWA. [J]. Front. Energy, 2015, 9(3): 362-370.Ashok Jayawant Rao KECHE, Gaddale AMBA PRASAD RAO. [J]. Front Energ, 2013, 7(3): 300-306.Souman RUDRA, H. T. KIM, Jinwook LEE, L. ROSENDAHL, . [J]. Front. Energy, 2010, 4(3): 402-413. Fuchen WANG , Xinwen ZHOU , Wenyuan GUO , Zhenghua DAI , Xin GONG , Haifeng LIU , Zunhong YU , . [J]. Front. Energy, 2009, 3(1): 117-122.

关键词: entrained-flow     gasifier     syngas    

Effect of wastewater composition on the calcium carbonate precipitation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

Shucheng YANG, Yanling HE, Charles CHOU, Pengxiang ZHANG, Dongqi WANG, Yonghong LIU,

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第2期   页码 142-149 doi: 10.1007/s11783-010-0026-3

摘要: Calcium carbonate often precipitates in anaerobic reactors treating wastewater with high calcium content. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of wastewater composition on calcium carbonate precipitation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two laboratory-scale UASB reactors were operated with calcium-containing influents using acetate and carbohydrate as substrate, respectively. There was an obvious accumulation of inorganic precipitate observed in the biogranules. Observations via scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the acclimated biogranules in the two reactors differed in microstructure. Calcium carbonate was found to have precipitated on the surface of acetate-degrading biogranules, but precipitated at the core of the carbohydrate-degrading biogranules. The results indicated that substrates had significant influence on the location of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic granular sludge, which was expected due to the different methanogens distribution and pH gradient within the granular sludge degrading various substrates. Moreover, the location of calcium carbonate precipitation substantially affected the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the granular sludge. The SMA of the acetate-degrading biogranules dropped from 1.96 gCOD·gVSS·d to 0.61 gCOD·gVSS·d after 180-d of operation in the reactor. However, the SMA of the carbohydrate-degrading biogranules was not adversely affected by calcium carbonate precipitation.

关键词: calcium carbonate     precipitation     anaerobic granular sludge     wastewater composition     microstructure     upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)    

Development and applications of functional gene microarrays in the analysis of the functional diversity, composition

Zhili HE, Joy D. VAN NOSTRAND, Ye DENG, Jizhong ZHOU

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 1-20 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0301-y

摘要: Functional gene arrays (FGAs) are a special type of microarrays containing probes for key genes involved in microbial functional processes, such as biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and metals, biodegradation of environmental contaminants, energy processing, and stress responses. GeoChips are considered as the most comprehensive FGAs. Experimentally established probe design criteria and a computational pipeline integrating sequence retrieval, probe design and verification, array construction, data analysis, and automatic update are used to develop the GeoChip technology. GeoChip has been systematically evaluated and demonstrated to be a powerful tool for rapid, specific, sensitive, and quantitative analysis of microbial communities in a high-throughput manner. Several generations of GeoChip have been developed and applied to investigate the functional diversity, composition, structure, function, and dynamics of a variety of microbial communities from different habitats, such as water, soil, marine, bioreactor, human microbiome, and extreme ecosystems. GeoChip is able to address fundamental questions related to global change, bioenergy, bioremediation, agricultural operation, land use, human health, environmental restoration, and ecological theories and to link the microbial community structure to environmental factors and ecosystem functioning.

关键词: functional gene arrays (FGAs)     GeoChip     microbial communities     functional diversity/composition/structure     environmental factor     ecosystem functioning    

Spent rechargeable lithium batteries in e-waste: composition and its implications

Xianlai ZENG,Jinhui LI

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第5期   页码 792-796 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0705-6

摘要: The amount of spent rechargeable lithium batteries (RLBs) is growing rapidly owing to wide application of these batteries in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, which obliges that spent RLBs should be handled properly. Identification of spent RLBs can supply fundamental information for spent RLBs recycling. This study aimed to determine the differences of physical components and chemical compositions among various spent RLBs. All the samplings of RLBs were rigorously dismantled and measured by an inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. The results indicate that the average of total weight of the separator, the anode and the cathode accounted for over 60% of all the RLBs. The weight ratio of valuable metals ranged from 26% to 76%, and approximately 20% of total weight was Cu and Al. Moreover, no significant differences were found among different manufacturers, applications, and electrolyte types. And regarding portable electronic devices, there is also no significant difference in the Co-Li concentration ratios in the leaching liquid of RLBs.

关键词: rechargeable lithium batteries     e-waste     physical components     difference analysis     recycling    

Visualization of amino acid composition differences between processed protein from different animal species

Xingfan ZHOU,Zengling YANG,Longjian CHEN,Lujia HAN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第2期   页码 171-179 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016095

摘要: Amino acids are the dominant organic components of processed animal proteins, however there has been limited investigation of differences in their composition between various protein sources. Information on these differences will not only be helpful for their further utilization but also provide fundamental information for developing species-specific identification methods. In this study, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) were used to visualize amino acid composition of fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM) produced from poultry, ruminants and swine. SOFM display the similarities and differences in amino acid composition between protein sources and effectively improve data transparency. Amino acid composition was shown to be useful for distinguishing fish meal from MBM due to their large concentration differences between glycine, lysine and proline. However, the amino acid composition of the three MBMs was quite similar. The SOFM results were consistent with those obtained by analysis of variance and principal component analysis but more straightforward. SOFM was shown to have a robust sample linkage capacity and to be able to act as a powerful means to link different sample for further data mining.

关键词: self-organizing feature maps     visualization     processed animal proteins (PAPs)     amino acid    

Feasibility of crack free reinforced concrete bridge deck from materials composition perspective: a state

Mahdi AREZOUMANDI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第1期   页码 91-103 doi: 10.1007/s11709-015-0274-1

摘要: Early age cracking on bridge deck has been the subject of many studies for years. Cracking is a major concern because it leads to premature deterioration of structures. Millions of dollars spent to repair the cracked bridge decks each year. To design an appropriate mixture for crack free bridge deck, it is important to study previous researches. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of the performance of different materials compositions as well as methods have been used to reduce and control bridge deck cracks. Different material compositions and methods are discussed in terms of their performances as well as advantages and disadvantages.

关键词: bridge deck     crack     fiber     shrinkage     shrinkage reducing admixture    

湿地芦苇根系微生物群落组成与环境应用 Review

王东麟, 柏耀辉, 曲久辉

《工程(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期   页码 42-50 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2021.05.016

摘要:

芦苇是自然界广泛存在的湿地植物。在人工湿地中,约15.5%的种植植物是芦苇,其在废水水质净化中起到重要的作用。尽管如此,对芦苇根系微生物群落的基本组成及每一类微生物在污染物去除中的作用仍不清晰。本文总结了已有对芦苇根系微生物群落(包括细菌、古菌及真菌)在生态及生化方面的研究。基于下一代测序,对不同环境条件下的微生物群落组成进行了分析。此外,利用培养方法进一步研究了微生物群落的功能特征,如铁的固定、有机物的降解、营养元素的转化等。芦苇根系微生物群落独特的结构和功能受芦苇种类及盐度等环境因素的高度影响。基于现有对芦苇根系微生物群落的研究,我们建议在人工湿地中应用和强化合成微生物群落和铁锰氧化物基质,以提高湿地的水净化性能。

关键词: 芦苇     根系微生物     微生物群落组成     污染修复     人工湿地    

Clinical factors associated with composition of lung microbiota and important taxa predicting clinical

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第3期   页码 389-402 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0856-3

摘要: Few studies have described the key features and prognostic roles of lung microbiota in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). We prospectively enrolled consecutive SCAP patients admitted to ICU. Bronchoscopy was performed at bedside within 48 h of ICU admission, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The primary outcome was clinical improvements defined as a decrease of 2 categories and above on a 7-category ordinal scale within 14 days following bronchoscopy. Sixty-seven patients were included. Multivariable permutational multivariate analysis of variance found that positive bacteria lab test results had the strongest independent association with lung microbiota (R2=0.033; P=0.018), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI; R2=0.032; P=0.011) and plasma MIP-1β level (R2=0.027; P=0.044). Random forest identified that the families Prevotellaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Staphylococcaceae were the biomarkers related to the positive bacteria lab test results. Multivariable Cox regression showed that the increase in α-diversity and the abundance of the families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae were associated with clinical improvements. The positive bacteria lab test results, AKI, and plasma MIP-1β level were associated with patients’ lung microbiota composition on ICU admission. The families Prevotellaceae and Actinomycetaceae on admission predicted clinical improvements.

关键词: severe community-acquired pneumonia     lung microbiota     clinical improvements     7-category ordinal scale     Prevotellaceae    

Identification of Legionella species by the composition of cellular fatty acids

Cun-Lei FANG MD, Zhao-Hui HU PhD, Qing-Yi ZHU MD, Ya-Jun SONG PhD, Ya-Fang TAN PhD, Rui-Fu YANG PhD,

《医学前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第2期   页码 208-215 doi: 10.1007/s11684-010-0031-8

摘要: One hundred and fifty-three isolates from the environment and 36 reference strains of the were studied with regards to their composition of cellular fatty acids as determined by gas chromatography, and then were classified into 41 groups by numerical analysis. Most reference strains formed only a single group, except , , , , and , which were clustered into two or three groups. Even serological types of could be clearly identified. Therefore, in this study, numerical analysis of cellular fatty acid composition is an effective method for identifying species.

关键词: Legionella     numerical analysis     identification     fatty acids composition    

Changes of microbial composition during wastewater reclamation and distribution systems revealed by high-throughput

Yiwen LIN,Dan LI,Siyu ZENG,Miao HE

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第3期   页码 539-547 doi: 10.1007/s11783-016-0830-5

摘要: This study employed 454-pyrosequencing to investigate microbial and pathogenic communities in two wastewater reclamation and distribution systems. A total of 11972 effective 16S rRNA sequences were acquired from these two reclamation systems, and then designated to relevant taxonomic ranks by using RDP classifier. The Chao index and Shannon diversity index showed that the diversities of microbial communities decreased along wastewater reclamation processes. was the most dominant phylum in reclaimed water after disinfection, which accounted for 83% and 88% in two systems, respectively. Human opportunistic pathogens, including , , and , were selected and enriched by disinfection processes. The total chlorine and nutrients (TOC, NH -N and NO -N) significantly affected the microbial and pathogenic communities during reclaimed water storage and distribution processes. Our results indicated that the disinfectant-resistant pathogens should be controlled in reclaimed water, since the increases in relative abundances of pathogenic bacteria after disinfection implicate the potential public health associated with reclaimed water.

关键词: wastewater reclamation systems     microbial community     pathogenic community     454-pyrosequencing    

基于分布式表示语义组合的查询子主题挖掘 None

Wei SONG, Ying LIU, Li-zhen LIU, Han-shi WANG

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第19卷 第11期   页码 1409-1419 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.1601476

摘要: 推断查询意图对于信息检索具有重要意义。查询子主题挖掘旨在找到可能的子主题,用于表示给定查询的潜在意图。由于查询较短,子主题挖掘具有挑战性。学习词或句子分布式表示推动和影响了很多领域的发展。然而,没有清晰的结论表明该分布式表示是否有助于应对查询子主题挖掘面临的挑战。提出并比较利用分布式表示的语义组合进行查询子主题挖掘。采用两种分布式表示策略:能学习任意长度文本分布式表示的段落向量(paragraph vector)以及词向量的语义组合。探索了语义组合策略和数据类型对查询表示的影响。在国家信息学研究所信息获取研究试验平台和社区(National Institute of Informatics Testbeds and Community for Information Access Research,NTCIR)提供的公开数据集上的实验结果表明,与传统语义表示相比,分布式语义表示能获得更优查询子主题挖掘性能。文中做了更多深入探讨。

关键词: 查询子主题挖掘;查询意图;分布式表示;语义组合    

Microbial responses to the use of NaClO in sediment treatment

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1451-1

摘要:

• Chlorine addition enhanced the release of TOC, TN from the sediment.

关键词: Sediment chlorination     Substance mobility     Microbial response     Community composition     Function    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Composition” and regularisation of architectural production in contemporary China

Hua LI

期刊论文

Calorie restriction and its impact on gut microbial composition and global metabolism

Xiaojiao Zheng, Shouli Wang, Wei Jia

期刊论文

Effects of heavy rainfall on the composition of airborne bacterial communities

Gwang Il Jang, Chung Yeon Hwang, Byung Cheol Cho

期刊论文

Syngas composition study

Zhe WANG , Jinning YANG , Zheng LI , Yong XIANG ,

期刊论文

Effect of wastewater composition on the calcium carbonate precipitation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

Shucheng YANG, Yanling HE, Charles CHOU, Pengxiang ZHANG, Dongqi WANG, Yonghong LIU,

期刊论文

Development and applications of functional gene microarrays in the analysis of the functional diversity, composition

Zhili HE, Joy D. VAN NOSTRAND, Ye DENG, Jizhong ZHOU

期刊论文

Spent rechargeable lithium batteries in e-waste: composition and its implications

Xianlai ZENG,Jinhui LI

期刊论文

Visualization of amino acid composition differences between processed protein from different animal species

Xingfan ZHOU,Zengling YANG,Longjian CHEN,Lujia HAN

期刊论文

Feasibility of crack free reinforced concrete bridge deck from materials composition perspective: a state

Mahdi AREZOUMANDI

期刊论文

湿地芦苇根系微生物群落组成与环境应用

王东麟, 柏耀辉, 曲久辉

期刊论文

Clinical factors associated with composition of lung microbiota and important taxa predicting clinical

期刊论文

Identification of Legionella species by the composition of cellular fatty acids

Cun-Lei FANG MD, Zhao-Hui HU PhD, Qing-Yi ZHU MD, Ya-Jun SONG PhD, Ya-Fang TAN PhD, Rui-Fu YANG PhD,

期刊论文

Changes of microbial composition during wastewater reclamation and distribution systems revealed by high-throughput

Yiwen LIN,Dan LI,Siyu ZENG,Miao HE

期刊论文

基于分布式表示语义组合的查询子主题挖掘

Wei SONG, Ying LIU, Li-zhen LIU, Han-shi WANG

期刊论文

Microbial responses to the use of NaClO in sediment treatment

期刊论文