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Load shedding scheme for an interconnected hydro-thermal hybrid system with SMES

D. TYAGI, Ashwani KUMAR, Saurabh CHANANA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第3期   页码 227-236 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0198-6

摘要: The frequency of the power system varies based on the load pattern of the consumers. With continuous increase in the load, the frequency of the system keeps decreasing and may reach its minimum allowable limits. Further increase in the load will result in more frequency drop leading to the need of load shedding, if excess generation is not available to cater the need. This paper proposed a methodology in a hybrid thermal-hydro system for finding the required amount of load to be shed for setting the frequency of the system within its minimum allowable limits. The load shedding steps were obtained based on the rate of change of frequency with the increase in the load in both areas. The impact of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) was obtained on load shedding scheme. The comparison of the results was presented on the two-area system.

关键词: critical load     frequency response     load shedding     multi-area system     rate of change of frequency     superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device    

Load shedding scheme for the two-area system with linear quadratic regulator

D. TYAGI, Ashwani KUMAR, Saurabh CHANANA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 90-102 doi: 10.1007/s11708-012-0224-8

摘要: The power system is prone to many emergency conditions which may lead to emergency state of operation with decay in the system frequency. The dramatic change in the frequency can result in cascaded failure of the system. In order to avoid power system collapse, load shedding (LS) schemes are adopted with the optimal amount of load shed. This paper proposed a methodology in a two-area thermal-thermal system for finding the required amount of load to be shed for setting the frequency of the system within minimum allowable limits. The LS steps have been obtained based on the rate of change of frequency with the increase in load in steps. A systematic study has been conducted for three scenarios: the scheme with a conventional integral controller; the scheme with a linear quadratic regulator (LQR); and the scheme with an LQR and superconducting magnetic energy storage devices (SMES). A comparison of the results has been presented on the two-area system.

关键词: critical load     frequency response     load shedding (LS)     multi-area system     rate of change of frequency     linear quadratic regulator (LQR)     superconducting magnetic energy storage devices (SMES)    

Critical flow-storm approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) development: an analytical conceptual

Zhang Harry, Yu Shaw

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第3期   页码 267-273 doi: 10.1007/s11783-008-0058-0

摘要: One of the key challenges in the total maximum daily load (TMDL) development process is how to define the critical condition for a receiving waterbody. The main concern in using a continuous simulation approach is the absence of any guarantee that the most critical condition will be captured during the selected representative hydrologic period, given the scarcity of long-term continuous data. The objectives of this paper are to clearly address the critical condition in the TMDL development process and to compare continuous and event-based approaches in defining critical condition during TMDL development for a waterbody impacted by both point and nonpoint source pollution. A practical, event-based critical flow-storm (CFS) approach was developed to explicitly addresses the critical condition as a combination of a low stream flow and a storm event of a selected magnitude, both having certain frequencies of occurrence. This paper illustrated the CFS concept and provided its theoretical basis using a derived analytical conceptual model. The CFS approach clearly defined a critical condition, obtained reasonable results and could be considered as an alternative method in TMDL development.

关键词: representative hydrologic     occurrence     simulation approach     scarcity     alternative    

RESEARCH PROGRESS ON THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN DEPOSITION ON GLOBAL GRASSLANDS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第3期   页码 425-444 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2022457

摘要:

● Grasslands in many regions of the world have been impacted by atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

关键词: Acidification     biomass production     critical load     eutrophication     species composition     species richness    

Effects of acid deposition control in China: a review based on responses of subtropical forests

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-024-1837-4

摘要:

● S and N leaching from forest soils declined due to recent decreases in anthropogenic S and N emissions in China.

关键词: Acidification     Critical load     Nitrous oxide     Surface water chemistry     Recovery    

Deep reinforcement learning-based critical element identification and demolition planning of frame structures

Shaojun ZHU; Makoto OHSAKI; Kazuki HAYASHI; Shaohan ZONG; Xiaonong GUO

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第11期   页码 1397-1414 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0860-y

摘要: This paper proposes a framework for critical element identification and demolition planning of frame structures. Innovative quantitative indices considering the severity of the ultimate collapse scenario are proposed using reinforcement learning and graph embedding. The action is defined as removing an element, and the state is described by integrating the joint and element features into a comprehensive feature vector for each element. By establishing the policy network, the agent outputs the Q value for each action after observing the state. Through numerical examples, it is confirmed that the trained agent can provide an accurate estimation of the Q values, and handle problems with different action spaces owing to utilization of graph embedding. Besides, different behaviors can be learned by varying hyperparameters in the reward function. By comparing the proposed method and the conventional sensitivity index-based methods, it is demonstrated that the computational cost is considerably reduced because the reinforcement learning model is trained offline. Besides, it is proved that the Q values produced by the reinforcement learning agent can make up for the deficiencies of existing indices, and can be directly used as the quantitative index for the decision-making for determining the most expected collapse scenario, i.e., the sequence of element removals.

关键词: progressive collapse     alternate load path     demolition planning     reinforcement learning     graph embedding    

Estimation of composite load model with aggregate induction motor dynamic load for an isolated hybrid

Nitin Kumar SAXENA,Ashwani Kumar SHARMA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第4期   页码 472-485 doi: 10.1007/s11708-015-0373-7

摘要: It is well recognized that the voltage stability of a power system is affected by the load model and hence, to effectively analyze the reactive power compensation of an isolated hybrid wind-diesel based power system, the loads need to be considered along with the generators in a transient analysis. This paper gives a detailed mathematical modeling to compute the reactive power response with small voltage perturbation for composite load. The composite load is a combination of the static and dynamic load model. To develop this composite load model, the exponential load is used as a static load model and induction motors (IMs) are used as a dynamic load model. To analyze the dynamics of IM load, the fifth, third and first order model of IM are formulated and compared using differential equations solver in Matlab coding. Since the decentralized areas have many small consumers which may consist large numbers of IMs of small rating, it is not realistic to model either a single large rating unit or all small rating IMs together that are placed in the system. In place of using a single large rating IM, a group of motors are considered and then the aggregate model of IM is developed using the law of energy conservation. This aggregate model is used as a dynamic load model. For different simulation studies, especially in the area of voltage stability with reactive power compensation of an isolated hybrid power system, the transfer function of the composite load is required. The transfer function of the composite load is derived in this paper by successive derivation for the exponential model of static load and for the fifth and third order IM dynamic load model using state space model.

关键词: isolated hybrid power system (IHPS)     composite load model     static load     dynamic load     induction motor load model     aggregate load    

Microbial biodegradation of plastics: Challenges, opportunities, and a critical perspective

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第12期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-022-1596-6

摘要:

● Health hazards of plastic waste on environment are discussed.

关键词: Plastic-waste     Polymers     Health-hazards     Biodegradation     Microorganisms     Enzymes    

Scrutiny of non-linear differential equations Euler-Bernoulli beam with large rotational deviation by AGM

M. R. AKBARI,M. NIMAFAR,D. D. GANJI,M. M. AKBARZADE

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第9卷 第4期   页码 402-408 doi: 10.1007/s11465-014-0316-8

摘要:

The kinematic assumptions upon which the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is founded allow it to be extended to more advanced analysis. Simple superposition allows for three-dimensional transverse loading. Using alternative constitutive equations can allow for viscoelastic or plastic beam deformation. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can also be extended to the analysis of curved beams, beam buckling, composite beams and geometrically nonlinear beam deflection. In this study, solving the nonlinear differential equation governing the calculation of the large rotation deviation of the beam (or column) has been discussed. Previously to calculate the rotational deviation of the beam, the assumption is made that the angular deviation of the beam is small. By considering the small slope in the linearization of the governing differential equation, the solving is easy. The result of this simplification in some cases will lead to an excessive error. In this paper nonlinear differential equations governing on this system are solved analytically by Akbari-Ganji’s method (AGM). Moreover, in AGM by solving a set of algebraic equations, complicated nonlinear equations can easily be solved and without any mathematical operations such as integration solving. The solution of the problem can be obtained very simply and easily. Furthermore, to enhance the accuracy of the results, the Taylor expansion is not needed in most cases via AGM manner. Also, comparisons are made between AGM and numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

关键词: AGM     critical load of columns     large deformations of beam     nonlinear differential equation    

Machine learning in building energy management: A critical review and future directions

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第2期   页码 239-256 doi: 10.1007/s42524-021-0181-1

摘要: Over the past two decades, machine learning (ML) has elicited increasing attention in building energy management (BEM) research. However, the boundary of the ML-BEM research has not been clearly defined, and no thorough review of ML applications in BEM during the whole building life-cycle has been published. This study aims to address this gap by reviewing the ML-BEM papers to ascertain the status of this research area and identify future research directions. An integrated framework of ML-BEM, composed of four layers and a series of driving factors, is proposed. Then, based on the hype cycle model, this paper analyzes the current development status of ML-BEM and tries to predict its future development trend. Finally, five research directions are discussed: (1) the behavioral impact on BEM, (2) the integration management of renewable energy, (3) security concerns of ML-BEM, (4) extension to other building life-cycle phases, and (5) the focus on fault detection and diagnosis. The findings of this study are believed to provide useful references for future research on ML-BEM.

关键词: building energy management     machine learning     integrated framework     knowledge evolution    

Calculation method of load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load

Shoujun CHEN, Lianxin GAO, Qi AN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第6卷 第2期   页码 241-248 doi: 10.1007/s11465-011-0219-x

摘要:

This paper presents a new calculation method that can calculate the load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load. On the basis of elastic mechanics, the new method was developed by analyzing each thread tooth, and a new deformation and covariant equation by making a mechanics analysis on each thread tooth was obtained. Compared with the traditional method proposed by the previous references, the new deformation and covariant equation could be used to describe the relation between the previous and the next thread tooth. By applying the new method on the sample of P-110S pipe threaded connection, the obtained results show that the load on thread tooth mainly concentrates on the four or five threads engaged and the middle teeth were not utilized well to bear the loads. The model offers a new way to calculate the loads carried on the thread teeth under tension load.

关键词: load distribution     calculation method     pipe threaded connections     tension load    

Reducing environmental impacts through socioeconomic transitions: critical review and prospects

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1624-1

摘要:

● Reducing environmental impacts through socioeconomic structural transitions.

关键词: Environmental pressures     Environmental impacts     Nexus     Supply chains     Trade     Coupled systems    

Comparison of optimal capacitor placement methods in radial distribution system with load growth andZIP load model

Veera Venkata Satya Naryana MURTY, Ashwani KUMAR

《能源前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第2期   页码 197-213 doi: 10.1007/s11708-013-0249-7

摘要: In this paper, a combined power loss sensitivity (PLS) index-based approach is proposed to determine the optimal location of the capacitors in the radial distribution system (RDS) based on the real and reactive combined loss sensitivity index, as capacitor placement not only reduces real power loss with voltage profile improvement but also reduces reactive power loss due to the reactive power compensation in the network. The results have been obtained with the existing methods of power loss index (PLI) and index vector (IV) method for comparison. Besides, the optimal placement has been obtained with the proposed method as well as existing methods and the total kVar support has been obtained. In addition, the results of net cost savings for the 10-, 34-, and 69-bus systems are obtained for comparison. Moreover, the results have been obtained for a large system of 85 buses to validate the results with combined sensitivity based approach. Furthermore, the load growth factor has been considered in the study which is essential for the planning and expansion of the existing systems, whereas the impact of the realistic load model as ZIP load model has been considered for the study of all the systems.

关键词: load growth     load models     reactive power compensation     radial distribution system     power loss index (PLI)     power loss sensitivity (PLS)     index vector (IV)    

Advances in airborne microorganisms detection using biosensors: A critical review

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1420-8

摘要:

Humanity has been facing the threat of a variety of infectious diseases. Airborne microorganisms can cause airborne infectious diseases, which spread rapidly and extensively, causing huge losses to human society on a global scale. In recent years, the detection technology for airborne microorganisms has developed rapidly; it can be roughly divided into biochemical, immune, and molecular technologies.

关键词: Biosensor     Airborne microorganisms     Microbiological detection technology    

Effects of critical geometric parameters on the optical performance of a conical cavity receiver

Hu XIAO, Yanping ZHANG, Cong YOU, Chongzhe ZOU, Quentin FALCOZ

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第4期   页码 673-683 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0630-2

摘要: The optical performance of a receiver has a great influence on the efficiency and stability of a solar thermal power system. Most of the literature focuses on the optical performance of receivers with different geometric shapes, but less research is conducted on the effects of critical geometric parameters. In this paper, the commercial software TracePro was used to investigate the effects of some factors on a conical cavity receiver, such as the conical angle, the number of loops of the helical tube, and the distance between the focal point of the collector and the aperture. These factors affect the optical efficiency, the maximum heat flux density, and the light distribution in the conical cavity. The optical performance of the conical receiver was studied and analyzed using the Monte Carlo ray tracing method. To make a reliable simulation, the helical tube was attached to the inner wall of the cavity in the proposed model. The results showed that the amount of light rays reaching the helical tube increases with the increasing of the conical angle, while the optical efficiency decreases and the maximum heat flux density increases. The increase in the number of loops contributed to an increase in the optical efficiency and a uniform light distribution. The conical cavity receiver had an optimal optical performance when the focal point of the collector was near the aperture.

关键词: parabolic collector     conical cavity receiver     critical geometric parameters     optical performance    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Load shedding scheme for an interconnected hydro-thermal hybrid system with SMES

D. TYAGI, Ashwani KUMAR, Saurabh CHANANA

期刊论文

Load shedding scheme for the two-area system with linear quadratic regulator

D. TYAGI, Ashwani KUMAR, Saurabh CHANANA

期刊论文

Critical flow-storm approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) development: an analytical conceptual

Zhang Harry, Yu Shaw

期刊论文

RESEARCH PROGRESS ON THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN DEPOSITION ON GLOBAL GRASSLANDS

期刊论文

Effects of acid deposition control in China: a review based on responses of subtropical forests

期刊论文

Deep reinforcement learning-based critical element identification and demolition planning of frame structures

Shaojun ZHU; Makoto OHSAKI; Kazuki HAYASHI; Shaohan ZONG; Xiaonong GUO

期刊论文

Estimation of composite load model with aggregate induction motor dynamic load for an isolated hybrid

Nitin Kumar SAXENA,Ashwani Kumar SHARMA

期刊论文

Microbial biodegradation of plastics: Challenges, opportunities, and a critical perspective

期刊论文

Scrutiny of non-linear differential equations Euler-Bernoulli beam with large rotational deviation by AGM

M. R. AKBARI,M. NIMAFAR,D. D. GANJI,M. M. AKBARZADE

期刊论文

Machine learning in building energy management: A critical review and future directions

期刊论文

Calculation method of load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load

Shoujun CHEN, Lianxin GAO, Qi AN

期刊论文

Reducing environmental impacts through socioeconomic transitions: critical review and prospects

期刊论文

Comparison of optimal capacitor placement methods in radial distribution system with load growth andZIP load model

Veera Venkata Satya Naryana MURTY, Ashwani KUMAR

期刊论文

Advances in airborne microorganisms detection using biosensors: A critical review

期刊论文

Effects of critical geometric parameters on the optical performance of a conical cavity receiver

Hu XIAO, Yanping ZHANG, Cong YOU, Chongzhe ZOU, Quentin FALCOZ

期刊论文