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LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-558 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2020349

摘要:

Agriculture uses a large proportion of global and regional water resources. Due to the rapid increase of population in the world, the increasing competition for water resources has led to an urgent need in increasing crop water productivity for agricultural sustainability. As the medium for crop growth, soils and their properties are important in affecting crop water productivity. This review examines the effects of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties on crop water productivity and the quantitative relationships between them. A comprehensive view of these relationships may provide important insights for soil and water management in arable land for agriculture in the future.

 

关键词: crop water productivity     crop yield     soil chemical properties     soil microbial properties     soil physical properties     water consumption    

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

Di WU, Allan A. ANDALES, Hui YANG, Qing SUN, Shichao CHEN, Xiuwei GUO, Donghao LI, Taisheng DU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-558 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020349

摘要: Agriculture uses a large proportion of global and regional water resources. Due to the rapid increase of population in the world, the increasing competition for water resources has led to an urgent need in increasing crop water productivity for agricultural sustainability. As the medium for crop growth, soils and their properties are important in affecting crop water productivity. This review examines the effects of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties on crop water productivity and the quantitative relationships between them. A comprehensive view of these relationships may provide important insights for soil and water management in arable land for agriculture in the future.

关键词: crop water productivity     crop yield     soil chemical properties     soil microbial properties     soil physical properties     water consumption    

华北地区农业水资源现状和未来保障研究

黄峰,杜太生,王素芬,梅旭荣,龚道枝,陈源泉,康绍忠

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第5期   页码 28-37 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.05.024

摘要:

华北地区是我国重要的粮食和农产品生产基地,对保障国家的粮食和食物安全至关重要。华北用仅占全国6% 的水资源支撑了占全国18% 的耕地并生产出占全国23% 的粮食。但这个巨大成就是以极大的资源环境和生态成本为代价的。本文回顾华北粮食生产和用水的历史性成就,总结现在面临的主要问题和挑战,然后应用国际水资源研究界广泛应用的农业用水管理的综合分析框架,系统分析1998—2015 年华北地区水资源、农业用水以及用水效率和水分生产力,在此基础上尝试提出了未来保障华北地区食物安全的战略和政策途径。

关键词: 食物安全     农业用水     水分利用效率     作物水分生产力    

GREEN AGRICULTURE AND BLUE WATER IN CHINA: REINTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CLEAN WATER

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期

摘要:

• AGD aims for a green environment, sustainable agriculture and clean water.

• Presenting examples of the impact of agriculture on water quality.

• Presenting examples of solutions for sustainable agriculture and improved water quality.

• Integration of livestock and cropping systems is possible on a farm or among farms.

• Providing recommendations for further development of sustainable agriculture.

 

Crop and livestock production are essential to maintain food security. In China, crop and livestock production were integrated in the past. Today, small backyard systems are still integrated but the larger livestock farms are landless and largely geographically separated from crop production systems. As a result, there is less recycling of animal manures and there are lower nutrient use efficiencies in the Chinese food production systems. This, in turn, results in considerable losses of nutrients, causing water pollution and harmful algal blooms in Chinese lakes, rivers and seas. To turn the tide, there is a need for agricultural “green” development for food production through reintegrating crop and livestock production. An additional wish is to turn the Chinese water systems “blue” to secure clean water for current and future generations. In this paper, current knowledge is summarized to identify promising interventions for reintegrating crop and livestock production toward clean water. Technical, social, economic, policy and environmental interventions are addressed and examples are given. The paper highlights recommended next steps to achieve “green” agriculture and “blue” water in China.

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 185-194 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017149

摘要: This paper explores the effect of varying agricultural management practices on different water efficiency indicators: irrigation efficiency (IE), crop water use efficiency (WUE), and green and blue water footprint (WF). We take winter wheat in an experimental field in Northern China as a case study and consider a dry, average and wet year. We conducted 24 modeling experiments with the AquaCrop model, for all possible combinations of four irrigation techniques, two irrigation strategies and three mulching methods. Results show that deficit irrigation most effectively improved blue water use, by increasing IE (by 5%) and reducing blue WF (by 38%), however with an average 9% yield reduction. Organic or synthetic mulching practices improved WUE (by 4% and 10%, respectively) and reduced blue WF (by 8% and 17%, respectively), with the same yield level. Drip and subsurface drip irrigation improved IE and WUE, but drip irrigation had a relatively large blue WF. Improvements in one water efficiency indicator may cause a decline in another. In particular, WUE can be improved by more irrigation at the cost of the blue WF. Furthermore, increasing IE, for instance by installing drip irrigation, does not necessarily reduce the blue WF.

关键词: field management     irrigation efficiency     water footprint     water productivity     water use efficiency    

Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting

Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第3期   页码 231-240 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016101

摘要: Based on the diversity of the agricultural system, this research calculates the planting structures of rice, maize and soybean considering the optimal economic-social-ecological aspects. Then, based on the uncertainty and randomness of the water resources system, the interval two-stage stochastic programming method, which introduces the uncertainty of the interval number, is used to calculate the groundwater exploitation and the use efficiency of surface water. The method considers the minimum cost of water as the objective of the uncertainty model for surface water and groundwater joint scheduling optimization for different planting structures. Finally, by calculating harmonious entropy, the optimal exploitation utilization interval of surface water and groundwater is determined for optimal cultivation in the Sanjiang Plain. The optimal matching of the planting structure under the economic system is suitable when the mining ratio of the surface is in 44.13%–45.45% and the exploitation utilization of groundwater is in 54.82%–66.86%, the optimal planting structure under the social system is suitable when surface water mining ratio is in 47.84%–48.04% and the groundwater exploitation threshold is in 67.07%–72.00%. This article optimizes the economic-social-ecological-water system, which is important for the development of a water- and food-conserving society and providing a more accurate management environment.

关键词: economic-social-ecological     uncertainty     harmonious entropy     surface water and groundwater     utilization threshold    

GREEN AGRICULTURE AND BLUE WATER IN CHINA: REINTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CLEAN WATER

Maryna STROKAL, Annette B.G. JANSSEN, Xinping CHEN, Carolien KROEZE, Fan LI, Lin MA, Huirong YU, Fusuo ZHANG, Mengru WANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 72-80 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020366

摘要: Crop and livestock production are essential to maintain food security. In China, crop and livestock production were integrated in the past. Today, small backyard systems are still integrated but the larger livestock farms are landless and largely geographically separated from crop production systems. As a result, there is less recycling of animal manures and there are lower nutrient use efficiencies in the Chinese food production systems. This, in turn, results in considerable losses of nutrients, causing water pollution and harmful algal blooms in Chinese lakes, rivers and seas. To turn the tide, there is a need for agricultural “green” development for food production through reintegrating crop and livestock production. An additional wish is to turn the Chinese water systems “blue” to secure clean water for current and future generations. In this paper, current knowledge is summarized to identify promising interventions for reintegrating crop and livestock production toward clean water. Technical, social, economic, policy and environmental interventions are addressed and examples are given. The paper highlights recommended next steps to achieve “green” agriculture and “blue” water in China.

关键词: agriculture green development     China     clean water     crop-livestock reintegration    

Modelling and analysis of FMS productivity variables by ISM, SEM and GTMA approach

null

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第9卷 第3期   页码 218-232 doi: 10.1007/s11465-014-0309-7

摘要:

Productivity has often been cited as a key factor in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) performance, and actions to increase it are said to improve profitability and the wage earning capacity of employees. Improving productivity is seen as a key issue for survival and success in the long term of a manufacturing system. The purpose of this paper is to make a model and analysis of the productivity variables of FMS. This study was performed by different approaches viz. interpretive structural modelling (ISM), structural equation modelling (SEM), graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA) and a cross-sectional survey within manufacturing firms in India. ISM has been used to develop a model of productivity variables, and then it has been analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are powerful statistical techniques. CFA is carried by SEM. EFA is applied to extract the factors in FMS by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) software and confirming these factors by CFA through analysis of moment structures (AMOS 20) software. The twenty productivity variables are identified through literature and four factors extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. The four factors are people, quality, machine and flexibility. SEM using AMOS 20 was used to perform the first order four-factor structures. GTMA is a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) methodology used to find intensity/quantification of productivity variables in an organization. The FMS productivity index has purposed to intensify the factors which affect FMS.

关键词: FMS     ISM     EFA     SEM     GTMA    

Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China

Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第4期   页码 295-310 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015074

摘要: The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production area in China, but the current winter wheat-summer maize system has resulted in a large water deficit. This water-shortage necessitates the improvement of crop water productivity in the NCP. A crop water model, AquaCrop, was adopted to investigate yield and water productivity (WP) for rain-fed summer maize on the piedmont of the NCP. The data sets to calibrate and validate the model were obtained from a 3-year (2011–2013) field experiment conducted on the Yanshan piedmont of the NCP. The range of root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured biomass was 0.67–1.25 t·hm , and that of relative error (RE) was 9.4%–15.4%, the coefficient of determination ( ) ranged from 0.992 to 0.994. The RMSE between the simulated and measured soil water storage at depth of 0–100 cm ranged from 4.09 to 4.39 mm; and RE and in the range of 1.07%–1.20% and 0.880–0.997, respectively. The WP as measured by crop yield per unit evapotranspiration was 2.50–2.66 kg·m . The simulated impact of long-term climate (i.e., 1980–2010) and groundwater depth on crop yield and WP revealed that the higher yield and WP could be obtained in dry years in areas with capillary recharge from groundwater, and much lower values elsewhere. The simulation also suggested that supplementary irrigation in areas without capillary groundwater would not result in groundwater over-tapping since the precipitation can meet the water required by both maize and ecosystem, thus a beneficial outcome for both food and ecosystem security can be assured.

关键词: AquaCrop     summer maize     soil water balance     water productivity    

Can crop science really help us to produce more better-quality food while reducing the world-wide environmental

William J. DAVIES, Susan E. WARD, Alan WILSON

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第1期   页码 28-44 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019299

摘要:

This paper reviews recent developments in crop science that can be the basis of a revolution in the global food system but it is also emphasized that such a revolution requires more than changes in food production and supply. We must more effectively feed a growing global population with a healthy diet while also defining and delivering the kinds of sustainable food systems that will minimise damage to our planet. There are exciting new developments in crop production biology but much existing crop science can be exploited to increase yields with the aid of a knowledge exchange (KE) framework requiring the use of new technology now available to most people across the globe. We discuss novel approaches at both the plant and the crop level that will enhance nutrient and water productivity and we also outline ways in which energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be reduced and labor shortages combatted. Exploitation of new biology and new engineering opportunities will require development of public-private partnerships and collaborations across the disciplines to allow us to move effectively from discovery science to practical application. It is also important that consumers contribute to the debate over proposed changes to food and farming and so effective KE mechanisms are required between all relevant communities.

关键词: food security     environmental sustainability     crop water use efficiency     crop science     diet and health    

Innovative agricultural extension value chain-based models for smallholder African farmers

Bidjokazo FOFANA, Leonides HALOS-KIM, Mercy AKEREDOLU, Ande OKIROR, Kebba SIMA, Deola NAIBAKELAO, Mel OLUOCH, Fumiko ISEKI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第4期   页码 418-426 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020358

摘要: The value chain extension strategy of Sasakawa Africa Association focuses on improving the capacity of national agricultural extension systems and follows various thematic areas along the value chain to address key challenges accountable for low income households and poverty in Africa. Farmer learning platform is a model designed to increase crop productivity and encompasses demonstration plots where technological packages demonstrated significantly outperformed other technology plots in crop productivity and average profit margins. Enterprise-oriented production, postharvest and trading centers are value adding models designed to improve the effectiveness of extension and adoption of postharvest and agricultural processing technologies by producers. The use of the above along with necessary capacity building has facilitated the development of profitable business linkages of smallholder farmers with financial institutions and reliable market opportunities. The community association trader-trainer model is a market-oriented business approach applied in combination with other extension models. In 2018, 297 community-based commodity association trader-trainers were mobilized and capacitated to improve farmer group dynamics and developed collective input and output access and cluster aggregation centers at community level where various agricultural produces were mobilized and collectively aggregated, and valued at about 3.9 million USD. The supervised enterprise project model is an innovative agricultural extension model developed along with above models for capacity development of extension agents and transfer of technologies to smallholder farmers. Over 6000 supervised enterprise projects have been introduced into 27 universities in 12 African countries for training front-line extension officers and extension delivery to farming communities.

关键词: crop productivity     extension     farmer     grain yield     income     model    

Grassland management practices in Chinese steppes impact productivity, diversity and the relationship

Yingjun ZHANG, Wenjie LU, Hao ZHANG, Jiqiong ZHOU, Yue SHEN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第1期   页码 57-63 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017192

摘要: Grasslands are crucial parts of the terrestrial ecosystem, with an extremely high differentiation of productivity and diversity across spatial scales and land use patterns. The practices employed to manage grassland, such as grazing, haymaking, fertilization or reseeding, can improve the grassland condition. This study focuses on the changes in productivity and diversity and the relationship between them as affected by management practices. Productivity and diversity have unequivocally been altered in response to different management practices. When grazing intensity of a typical steppe increased from 1.5 to 9 sheep per hectare, both productivity and diversity declined. Higher grazing intensity (6 to 9 sheep per hectare) accelerated loss of diversity because of lower productivity. Productivity was significantly improved but diversity was lost by fertilizing. N fertilization also reduced the sensitivity of diversity to productivity. A similar response was found in mown grassland with increased productivity and diversity but their relationship was negatively affected. Mowing also slowed down the decline in diversity as productivity increased. Reseeding purple-flowered alfalfa led to an increased diversity, while yellow-flowered alfalfa increased productivity significantly. The negative productivity-diversity relationship was transformed to a positive one by reseeding alfalfa. These results enhance understanding of how productivity, diversity and their relationships change in response to altered grassland management practices, and support an integrated approach for improving both productivity and diversity.

关键词: diversity     fertilizing     grassland management practice     grazing     mowing     productivity     reseeding    

THE 4C APPROACH AS A WAY TO UNDERSTAND SPECIES INTERACTIONS DETERMINING INTERCROPPING PRODUCTIVITY

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 387-399 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021414

摘要:

Modern agriculture needs to develop transition pathways toward agroecological, resilient and sustainable farming systems. One key pathway for such agroecological intensification is the diversification of cropping systems using intercropping and notably cereal-grain legume mixtures. Such mixtures or intercrops have the potential to increase and stabilize yields and improve cereal grain protein concentration in comparison to sole crops. Species mixtures are complex and the 4C approach is both a pedagogical and scientific way to represent the combination of four joint effects of Competition, Complementarity, Cooperation, and Compensation as processes or effects occurring simultaneously and dynamically between species over the whole cropping cycle. Competition is when plants have fairly similar requirements for abiotic resources in space and time, the result of all processes that occur when one species has a greater ability to use limiting resources (e.g., nutrients, water, space, light) than others. Complementarity is when plants grown together have different requirements for abiotic resources in space, time or form. Cooperation is when the modification of the environment by one species is beneficial to the other(s). Compensation is when the failure of one species is compensated by the other(s) because they differ in their sensitivity to abiotic stress. The 4C approach allows to assess the performance of arable intercropping versus classical sole cropping through understanding the use of abiotic resources.

 

关键词: compensation     competition     complementarity     cooperation     interspecific interactions     land equivalent ratio     light     nutrients     species mixtures     water    

HOW MULTISPECIES INTERCROP ADVANTAGE RESPONDS TO WATER STRESS: A YIELD-COMPONENT ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 416-431 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021412

摘要:

Absolute yield and land use efficiency can be higher in multicrops. Though this phenomenon is common, it is not always the case. Also, these two benefits are frequently confused and do not necessarily occur together. Cropping choices become more complex when considering that multicrops are subject to strong spatial and temporal variation in average soil moisture, which will worsen with climate change. Intercropping in agroecosystems is expected to buffer this impact by favoring resistance to reduced humidity, but there are few empirical/experimental studies to validate this claim. It is not clear if relatively higher multicrop yield and land use efficiency will persist in the face of reduced soil moisture, and how the relation between these benefits might change. Here, we present a relatively simple framework for analyzing this situation. We propose a relative multicrop resistance (RMR) index that captures all possible scenarios of absolute and relative multicrop overyield under water stress. We dissect the ecological components of RMR to understand the relation between higher multicrop yield and land use efficiency and the ecological causes of different overyield scenarios. We demonstrate the use of this framework with data from a 128 microplot greenhouse experiment with small annual crops, arranged as seven-species multicrops and their corresponding monocrops, all under two contrasting watering regimes. We applied simple but robust statistical procedures to resulting data (based on bootstrap methods) to compare RMR, and its components, between different plants/plant parts. We also provide simple graphical tools to analyze the data.

 

关键词: agroecosystem sustainability     crop overyielding     intercrop drought resistance     overyield ecological components    

Strain and process engineering toward continuous industrial fermentation

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第10期   页码 1336-1353 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2284-6

摘要: Most current biotechnology industries are based on batch or fed-batch fermentation processes, which often show low productivity and high production costs compared to chemical processes. To increase the economic competitiveness of biological processes, continuous fermentation technologies are being developed that offer significant advantages in comparison with batch/fed-batch fermentation processes, including: (1) removal of potential substrates and product inhibition, (2) prolonging the microbial exponential growth phase and enhancing productivity, and (3) avoiding repeated fermentation preparation and lowering operation and installation costs. However, several key challenges should be addressed for the industrial application of continuous fermentation processes, including (1) contamination of the fermentation system, (2) degeneration of strains, and (3) relatively low product titer. In this study, we reviewed and discussed metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies to address these issues.

关键词: continuous fermentation     productivity     contamination     strain degeneration     metabolic engineering    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

期刊论文

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

Di WU, Allan A. ANDALES, Hui YANG, Qing SUN, Shichao CHEN, Xiuwei GUO, Donghao LI, Taisheng DU

期刊论文

华北地区农业水资源现状和未来保障研究

黄峰,杜太生,王素芬,梅旭荣,龚道枝,陈源泉,康绍忠

期刊论文

GREEN AGRICULTURE AND BLUE WATER IN CHINA: REINTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CLEAN WATER

期刊论文

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

期刊论文

Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting

Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI

期刊论文

GREEN AGRICULTURE AND BLUE WATER IN CHINA: REINTEGRATING CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR CLEAN WATER

Maryna STROKAL, Annette B.G. JANSSEN, Xinping CHEN, Carolien KROEZE, Fan LI, Lin MA, Huirong YU, Fusuo ZHANG, Mengru WANG

期刊论文

Modelling and analysis of FMS productivity variables by ISM, SEM and GTMA approach

null

期刊论文

Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China

Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

期刊论文

Can crop science really help us to produce more better-quality food while reducing the world-wide environmental

William J. DAVIES, Susan E. WARD, Alan WILSON

期刊论文

Innovative agricultural extension value chain-based models for smallholder African farmers

Bidjokazo FOFANA, Leonides HALOS-KIM, Mercy AKEREDOLU, Ande OKIROR, Kebba SIMA, Deola NAIBAKELAO, Mel OLUOCH, Fumiko ISEKI

期刊论文

Grassland management practices in Chinese steppes impact productivity, diversity and the relationship

Yingjun ZHANG, Wenjie LU, Hao ZHANG, Jiqiong ZHOU, Yue SHEN

期刊论文

THE 4C APPROACH AS A WAY TO UNDERSTAND SPECIES INTERACTIONS DETERMINING INTERCROPPING PRODUCTIVITY

期刊论文

HOW MULTISPECIES INTERCROP ADVANTAGE RESPONDS TO WATER STRESS: A YIELD-COMPONENT ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

期刊论文

Strain and process engineering toward continuous industrial fermentation

期刊论文