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WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 512-524 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2021393

摘要:

Settlement patterns and social structures have been shaped by access to water since the onset of human societies. This review covers historical and recent examples from Cambodia, Central Asia, India, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula to analyze the role of water resources in determining the rise and collapse of civilizations. Over recent decades increasing globalization and concomitant possibilities to externalize water needs as virtual water have obscured global dependence on water resources via telecoupling, but rapid urbanization brings it now back to the political agenda. It is foremost in the urban arena of poorer countries where competing claims for water increasingly lead to scale-transcendent conflicts about ecosystem services. Solutions to the dilemma will require broad stakeholder-based agreements on water use taking into account the available data on water resources, their current and potential use efficiency, recycling of water after effective treatment, and social-ecological approaches of improved governance and conflict resolution.

 

关键词: agroecology     historical water use     water footprint     water governance     urbanization    

The calculation of equivalence factor for ecological footprints in China: a methodological note

Moucheng LIU,Wenhua LI,Dan ZAHNG,Ning SU

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第6期   页码 1015-1024 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0670-0

摘要: The Ecological Footprint (EF), a physical indicator to measure the extent of humanity’s use of natural resources, has gained much attention since it was first used by Wackernagel and Rees in 1996. In order to appraise land area types with different levels of productivity, they introduced the concept of an equivalence factor. This relates to the average primary biomass productivities of different types of land (i.e. arable land, pasture, forest, water/fishery, built-up land and fossil energy land) to the regional average primary biomass productivity of all land types in a given year. Hence, the equivalence factor is an important parameter in the EF model and it directly affects the reliability of all results. Thus, this article calculates equivalence factors on the national and provincial levels in China based on Net Primary Production (NPP) from MODIS 1 km data in 2008. Firstly, based on the Light Utility Efficiency and CASA model, the NPP of different biologically productive lands of China and of different provinces was calculated. Secondly, China’s equivalence factor for 6 land area types was calculated based on NPP: arable land and built-up land has an equivalence factor of 1.71, forest and fossil energy land has a factor of 1.41, pasture has a factor of 0.44 and water/fishery 0.35; Finally, the equivalence factor of 6 land area types in different provinces was also calculated. The NPP of each ecosystem type varies along with the equivalence factor in different provinces. However, the ranking of the equivalence factors in different provinces remain the same, with that of arable land being the largest, and the water/fishery being the smallest.

关键词: ecological footprint     equivalence factor     net primary production     biological capacity     land types    

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

Andreas BUERKERT, Kotiganahalli Narayanagowda GANESHAIAH, Stefan SIEBERT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 512-524 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021393

摘要: Since the onset of human societies, settlement patterns and social structures have been shaped by access to water. This review covers historical and recent examples from Cambodia, Central Asia, India, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula to analyze the role of water resources in determining the rise and collapse of civilizations. Over recent decades increasing globalization and concomitant possibilities to externalize water needs as have obscured global dependence on water resources via telecoupling, but rapid urbanization brings it now back to the political agenda. It is foremost in the urban arena of poorer countries where competing claims for water increasingly lead to scale-transcendent conflicts about ecosystem services. Solutions to the dilemma will require broad stakeholder-based agreements on water use taking into account the available data on water resources, their current and potential use efficiency, recycling of water after effective treatment, and social-ecological approaches of improved governance and conflict resolution.

关键词: agroecology     historical water use     water footprint     water governance     urbanization    

Spatiotemporal variation in water footprint of grain production in China

Pute WU,Yubao WANG,Xining ZHAO,Shikun SUN,Jiming JIN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第2期   页码 186-193 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015060

摘要: Water shortage has become a significant constraint to grain production in China. A more holistic approach is needed to understand the links between grain production and water consumption. Water footprint provides a framework to assess water utilization in agriculture production. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal variation in water footprint of grain production (WFGP) in China from 1951 to 2010. The results show that, jointly motivated by the improvement of agricultural production and water use efficiency, WFGP in all areas showed a decreasing trend. National average WFGP has decreased from 3.38 to 1.31 m ·kg . Due to regional differences in agricultural production and water use efficiency, spatial distribution of WFGP varies significantly and its pattern has changed through time. Moreover, WFGP may show significant differences within areas of similar climatic conditions and agricultural practices, indicating that there is a strong need to improve the management of water use technology. Statistical analysis revealed that regional differences in grain yield are the main cause for variations in spatiotemporal WFGP. However, the scope for further increases in grain yield is limited, and thus, the future goal of reducing WFGP is to decrease the water use per unit area.

关键词: water footprint     grain production     grain secu- rity     water scarcity     water-saving    

Reducing the environmental footprint of food and farming with Agriculture Green Development

William J. DAVIES, Jianbo SHEN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第1期   页码 1-4 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019311

Lifecycle carbon footprint and cost assessment for coal-to-liquid coupled with carbon capture, storage

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期   页码 412-427 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0879-3

摘要: The coal-to-liquid coupled with carbon capture, utilization, and storage technology has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, but its carbon footprint and cost assessment are still insufficient. In this paper, coal mining to oil production is taken as a life cycle to evaluate the carbon footprint and levelized costs of direct-coal-to-liquid and indirect-coal-to-liquid coupled with the carbon capture utilization and storage technology under three scenarios: non capture, process capture, process and public capture throughout the life cycle. The results show that, first, the coupling carbon capture utilization and storage technology can reduce CO2 footprint by 28%–57% from 5.91 t CO2/t·oil of direct-coal-to-liquid and 24%–49% from 7.10 t CO2/t·oil of indirect-coal-to-liquid. Next, the levelized cost of direct-coal-to-liquid is 648–1027 $/t of oil, whereas that of indirect-coal-to-liquid is 653–1065 $/t of oil. When coupled with the carbon capture utilization and storage technology, the levelized cost of direct-coal-to-liquid is 285–1364 $/t of oil, compared to 1101–9793 $/t of oil for indirect-coal-to-liquid. Finally, sensitivity analysis shows that CO2 transportation distance has the greatest impact on carbon footprint, while coal price and initial investment cost significantly affect the levelized cost of coal-to-liquid.

关键词: coal-to-liquid     carbon capture     utilization and storage (CCUS)     carbon footprint     levelized cost of liquid     lifecycle assessment    

Carbon footprint assessment for the waste management sector: A comparative analysis of China and Japan

Lu SUN, Zhaoling LI, Minoru FUJII, Yasuaki HIJIOKA, Tsuyoshi FUJITA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 400-410 doi: 10.1007/s11708-018-0565-z

摘要:

Waste management is becoming a crucial issue in modern society owing to rapid urbanization and the increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW). This paper evaluates the carbon footprint of the waste management sector to identify direct and indirect carbon emissions, waste recycling carbon emission using a hybrid life cycle assessment and input-output analysis. China and Japan was selected as case study areas to highlight the effects of different industries on waste management. The results show that the life cycle carbon footprints for waste treatment are 59.01 million tons in China and 7.01 million tons in Japan. The gap between these footprints is caused by the different waste management systems and treatment processes used in the two countries. For indirect carbon footprints, China’s material carbon footprint and depreciation carbon footprint are much higher than those of Japan, whereas the purchased electricity and heat carbon footprint in China is half that of Japan. China and Japan have similar direct energy consumption carbon footprints. However, CO2 emissions from MSW treatment processes in China (46.46 million tons) is significantly higher than that in Japan (2.72 million tons). The corresponding effects of waste recycling on CO2 emission reductions are considerable, up to 181.37 million tons for China and 96.76 million tons for Japan. Besides, measures were further proposed for optimizing waste management systems in the two countries. In addition, it is argued that the advanced experience that developed countries have in waste management issues can provide scientific support for waste treatment in developing countries such as China.

关键词: waste management     waste recycling     carbon footprint     hybrid LCA    

Promoting green transformation by ensuring food security while reducing the environmental footprint of EDITORIAL

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第11卷 第1期   页码 1-4 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2024549

摘要:

Reconciling the challenges of producing adequate amounts of nutritious food for the increasing global population while limiting environmental damage that can result from operations of our food systems is an enormous challenge. In many parts of the world, agriculture is undergoing major transformations and this has been and still is particularly the case in China. In many countries, historical increases in food production have largely been achieved by increasing inputs of a range of resources, resulting in increased environmental footprints of the food produced. Agricultural development in China has resulted in unprecedented environmental degradation. Demand for food in China remains high and with an emphasis on national self-sufficiency in production of many food crops. There is an urgent need for the development of productive and more environmentally-friendly agricultural systems and improved environmental-economic-social resilience.

关键词: development     transformation food security    

Carbon Footprint Drivers in China’s Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants and Mitigation Opportunities

Shen Qu,Yuchen Hu,Renke Wei,Ke Yu,Zhouyi Liu,Qi Zhou,Chenchen Wang,Lujing Zhang,

《工程(英文)》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2024.01.021

摘要: Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to address climate change is a global consensus, and municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs) should lead the way in low-carbon sustainable development. However, achieving effluent discharge standards often requires considerable energy and chemical consumption during operation, resulting in significant carbon footprints. In this study, GHG emissions are systematically accounted for, and the driving factors of carbon footprint growth in China’s MWWTPs are explored. In 2020, a total of 41.9 million tons (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) were released by the sector, with nearly two-thirds being indirect emissions resulting from energy and material usage. The intensity of electricity, carbon source, and phosphorus removing agent consumption increasingly influence carbon footprint growth over time. Through statistical inference, benchmarks for electricity and chemical consumption intensity are established across all MWWTPs under various operational conditions, and the potential for mitigation through more efficient energy and material utilization is calculated. The results suggest that many MWWTPs offer significant opportunities for emission reduction. Consequently, empirical decarbonization measures, including intelligent device control, optimization of aeration equipment, energy recovery initiatives, and other enhancements to improve operational and carbon efficiency, are recommended.

关键词: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs)     Carbon footprint     Driving Factors     Mitigation opportunities    

CONCENTRATIONS AND FLUXES OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS IN THE YANGTZE RIVER: LONG-TERM TRENDS AND ECOLOGICAL

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 559-567 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2020344

摘要:

Intensifying human activity in the Yangtze River basin has substantially increased nutrient concentrations in the Yangtze River Estuary, leading to degradation of the coastal environment. Analysis of nutrient determinations published over the past 50 years reveals a gradual decreasing trend in the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved silicate (DSi). However, both dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) concentrations have increased significantly since the 1970s. The frequency of and area covered by red tide outbreaks have increased greatly during this period, mainly due to changes in nutrient supply ratios [i.e., N/P (DIN/DIP), N/Si (DIN/DSi), P/Si (DIP/DSi)]. A strong correlation was found between the riverine DIN fluxes and the estimated DIN inputs from the major N sources, particularly fertilizers and atmospheric deposition. The data provide a comprehensive assessment of nutrients in the Yangtze River basin and their ecological impacts and indicate a potentially significant influence of atmospheric deposition on DIN loadings and fluxes.

 

关键词: atmospheric deposition / ecological impacts / nitrogen sources / nutrients / Yangtze delta    

Ecological conservation, remediation and construction for building an ecological civilization in China: concepts for ecological activity

Guofang SHEN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第4期   页码 376-379 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017186

摘要: This paper explains and discusses the concepts of ecological conservation and construction in China in three parts. The first part provides a brief description of the historical background of ecological activities in China and their major achievements in the past. The second part is a comprehensive review of various types of ecological control activity aimed at the improvement of natural and artificially established ecosystems at the landscape, regional (watershed) and higher levels. The scope of and differences between some ecological terms used in China such as ecological protection, conservation, remediation (rehabilitation), restoration as well as the reestablishment of new ecosystems are elaborated. The review suggests that the term “ecological conservation and construction” should be used to embrace all types of ecological control activity in China. Finally, five guidelines are proposed for promoting the implementation of ecological conservation and construction in China based on the two important governmental documents related to the development of ecological civilization in China.

关键词: ecological conservation     development     construction ”     description     important governmental    

Research on port ecological suitability evaluation index system and evaluation model

Yaofeng XIE,Xia LV,Ru LIU,Liuyan MAO,Xiaoxi LIU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第1期   页码 65-70 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0258-6

摘要: Along with the rapid development of port building, the negative impacts of port’s construction and operation on the coastline ecosystem are also increasingly strong. Therefore, it’s urgent to establish a scientific and complete system of port ecological suitability evaluation. This paper pointed out the characteristics of port ecological effects and the principles of selecting evaluation index, and used the “pressure-state-response (PSR)” model to analysis the various pressures on the environment caused by port construction and operation, and the system’s response. On this basis, we constructed the port ecological suitability evaluation index. This model used the combination of qualitative and quantitative analytic hierarchy process, to meet the multi-level, multi-objective characteristics of evaluation index system. The evaluation index system and evaluation model can be used to analysis the ecological suitability of port projects comprehensively and have some guiding significance to the port ecological suitability evaluation.

关键词: port     ecological suitability     press-state-response (PSR) model     evaluation index system    

HIGH QUALITY DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION ON THE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 501-511 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021425

摘要:

The Loess Plateau is the core area in the Yellow River basin for implementing environmental protection and high-quality development strategies. A series of ecological projects has implemented aimed at soil and water conservation and ecological management on the Loess Plateau over the past 70 years. The effects of the ecological projects are apparent mainly through a marked increase in vegetation cover, controlled soil erosion and reduced flow of sediment into the Yellow River, continual optimization of the industrial structure and increased production from arable land, poverty alleviation and greater prosperity, and optimal allocation of space for biological organisms. Major problems have also been analyzed in ecological management including the fragile ecosystem of the region, maintaining the stability of vegetation, lower agricultural productivity and continued risk from natural disasters. Some suitable schemes and models have been developed for the coordinated development of the region through research and demonstration, striking the optimum balance between rural industry and ecology, and increased regional capacity to supply high-quality ecological products. Countermeasures to address the problems are suggested to guide ecological management and high-quality development in the future.

 

关键词: ecological management     high quality development     industrial structure     soil erosion     soil and water conservation     Loess Plateau    

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY MANURE MANAGEMENT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CARBON NEUTRALITY IN CHINA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第3期   页码 341-362 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023509

摘要:

● Carbon reduction potential of manure treatment technologies was summarized.

关键词: valorization of animal manure     manure management     carbon emission     carbon footprint     methodology     carbon trading    

CONCENTRATIONS AND FLUXES OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS IN THE YANGTZE RIVER: LONG-TERM TRENDS AND ECOLOGICAL

Yandan FU, Jiahui KANG, Ziyue LI, Xuejun LIU, Wen XU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 559-567 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020344

摘要: Intensifying human activity in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) has substantially increased nutrient concentrations in the Yangtze River Estuary, leading to degradation of the coastal environment. Analysis of nutrient determinations published over the past 50 years reveals a gradual decreasing trend in the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved silicate (DSi). However, both dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) concentrations have increased significantly since the 1970s. The frequency and area covered by red tide outbreaks have increased greatly during this period, mainly due to changes in nutrient supply ratios [i.e., N/P (DIN/DIP), N/Si (DIN/DSi), P/Si (DIP/DSi)]. A strong correlation was found between the riverine DIN fluxes and the estimated DIN inputs from the major N sources, particularly fertilizers and atmospheric deposition. The data provide a comprehensive assessment of nutrients in the YRB and their ecological impacts and indicate a potentially significant influence of atmospheric deposition on DIN loadings and fluxes.

关键词: atmospheric deposition     ecological impacts     nitrogen sources     nutrients     Yangtze River Delta    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

期刊论文

The calculation of equivalence factor for ecological footprints in China: a methodological note

Moucheng LIU,Wenhua LI,Dan ZAHNG,Ning SU

期刊论文

WATER USE IN HUMAN CIVILIZATIONS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS OF A PERPETUAL SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE

Andreas BUERKERT, Kotiganahalli Narayanagowda GANESHAIAH, Stefan SIEBERT

期刊论文

Spatiotemporal variation in water footprint of grain production in China

Pute WU,Yubao WANG,Xining ZHAO,Shikun SUN,Jiming JIN

期刊论文

Reducing the environmental footprint of food and farming with Agriculture Green Development

William J. DAVIES, Jianbo SHEN

期刊论文

Lifecycle carbon footprint and cost assessment for coal-to-liquid coupled with carbon capture, storage

期刊论文

Carbon footprint assessment for the waste management sector: A comparative analysis of China and Japan

Lu SUN, Zhaoling LI, Minoru FUJII, Yasuaki HIJIOKA, Tsuyoshi FUJITA

期刊论文

Promoting green transformation by ensuring food security while reducing the environmental footprint of

期刊论文

Carbon Footprint Drivers in China’s Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants and Mitigation Opportunities

Shen Qu,Yuchen Hu,Renke Wei,Ke Yu,Zhouyi Liu,Qi Zhou,Chenchen Wang,Lujing Zhang,

期刊论文

CONCENTRATIONS AND FLUXES OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS IN THE YANGTZE RIVER: LONG-TERM TRENDS AND ECOLOGICAL

期刊论文

Ecological conservation, remediation and construction for building an ecological civilization in China: concepts for ecological activity

Guofang SHEN

期刊论文

Research on port ecological suitability evaluation index system and evaluation model

Yaofeng XIE,Xia LV,Ru LIU,Liuyan MAO,Xiaoxi LIU

期刊论文

HIGH QUALITY DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION ON THE

期刊论文

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY MANURE MANAGEMENT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CARBON NEUTRALITY IN CHINA

期刊论文

CONCENTRATIONS AND FLUXES OF DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS IN THE YANGTZE RIVER: LONG-TERM TRENDS AND ECOLOGICAL

Yandan FU, Jiahui KANG, Ziyue LI, Xuejun LIU, Wen XU

期刊论文