《医学前沿（英文）》 2023年 第17卷 第1期 页码 43-57 doi: 10.1007/s11684-022-0980-8
Lei Lv, Qunying Lei
《医学前沿（英文）》 2021年 第15卷 第3期 页码 383-403 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0818-1
《医学前沿（英文）》 2022年 第16卷 第3期 页码 483-495 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0872-3
《医学前沿（英文）》 2017年 第11卷 第3期 页码 319-332 doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0569-9
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common microvascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients and is characterized by thickened glomerular basement membrane, increased extracellular matrix formation, and podocyte loss. These phenomena lead to proteinuria and altered glomerular filtration rate, that is, the rate initially increases but progressively decreases. DN has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Its prevalence shows a rapid growth trend and causes heavy social and economic burden in many countries. However, this disease is multifactorial, and its mechanism is poorly understood due to the complex pathogenesis of DN. In this review, we highlight the new molecular insights about the pathogenesis of DN from the aspects of immune inflammation response, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage, epigenetics, and podocyte–endothelial communication. This work offers groundwork for understanding the initiation and progression of DN, as well as provides ideas for developing new prevention and treatment measures.
《医学前沿（英文）》 2013年 第7卷 第2期 页码 180-190 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0249-3
Schizophrenia is a widespread mental disease with a prevalence of about 1% in the world population, and heritability of up to 80%. Drug therapy is an important approach to treating the disease. However, the curative effect of antipsychotic is far from satisfactory in terms of tolerability and side effects. Many studies have indicated that about 30% of the patients exhibit little or no improvements associated with antipsychotics. The response of individual patients who are given the same dose of the same drug varies considerably. In addition, antipsychotic drugs are often accompanied by adverse drug reactions (ADRs), which can cause considerable financial loss in addition to the obvious societal harm. So, it is strongly recommended that personalized medicine should be implemented both to improve drug efficacy and to minimize adverse events and toxicity. There is therefore a need for pharmacogenomic studies into the factors affecting response of schizophrenia patients to antipsychotic drugs to provide informed guidance for clinicians. Individual differences in drug response is due to a combination of many complex factors including ADEM (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) process, transporting, binding with receptor and intracellular signal transduction. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies have successfully identified genetic variants that contribute to this interindividual variability in antipsychotics response. In addition, epigenetic factors such as methylation of DNA and regulation by miRNA have also been reported to play an important role in the complex interactions between the multiple genes and environmental factors which influence individual drug response phenotypes in patients. In this review, we will focus on the latest research on polymorphisms of candidate genes that code for drug metabolic enzymes (CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, etc.), drug transporters (mainly ABCB1) and neurotransmitter receptors (dopamine receptors and serotonin receptors, etc.). We also discuss the genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of schizophrenia and review the current state of knowledge on epigenetics and potential clinical applications.
Xiao-Mei ZHANG, Ming-Zhou GUO,
《医学前沿（英文）》 2010年 第4卷 第4期 页码 378-384 doi: 10.1007/s11684-010-0230-3
《医学前沿（英文）》 2018年 第12卷 第4期 页码 481-489 doi: 10.1007/s11684-018-0654-8
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common post-transcriptional RNA modification throughout the transcriptome, affecting fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism. m6A modification could be installed by m6A “writers” composed of core catalytic components (METTL3/METTL14/WTAP) and newly defined regulators and removed by m6A “erasers” (FTO and ALKBH5). The function of m6A is executed by m6A “readers” that bind to m6A directly (YTH domain-containing proteins, eIF3 and IGF2BPs) or indirectly (HNRNPA2B1). In the past few years, advances in m6A modulators (“writers,” “erasers,” and “readers”) have remarkably renewed our understanding of the function and regulation of m6A in different cells under normal or disease conditions. However, the mechanism and the regulatory network of m6A are still largely unknown. Moreover, investigations of the m6A physiological roles in human diseases are limited. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in m6A research and highlight the functional relevance and importance of m6A modification in in vitro cell lines, in physiological contexts, and in cancers.
《医学前沿（英文）》 2013年 第7卷 第2期 页码 231-241 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0253-7
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is characterized by the presence of epigenetic alterations, including promoter DNA hypermethylation and post-translational modifications of histone, which profoundly affect expression of a wide repertoire of genes critical for cancer development. Emerging data suggest that deregulation of polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which are key chromatin modifiers repressing gene transcription during developmental stage, plays a causative role in oncogenesis. PcG proteins assemble into polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to impose the histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) modification for repression. In this review, we will first recapitulate the mechanisms of two key epigenetic pathways: DNA methylation and histone modifications. Specifically, we will focus our discussion on the molecular roles of PcG proteins. Next, we will highlight recent findings on PcG proteins, their clinicopathological implication and their downstream molecular consequence in hepatocarcinogenesis. Last but not least, we will consider the therapeutic potential of targeting enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as a possible treatment for HCC. Improving our understanding on the roles of PcG proteins in hepatocarcinogenesis can benefit the development of epigenetic-based therapy.
Jiahui Xu, Qianqian Wang, Elaine Lai Han Leung, Ying Li, Xingxing Fan, Qibiao Wu, Xiaojun Yao, Liang Liu
《医学前沿（英文）》 2020年 第14卷 第1期 页码 60-67 doi: 10.1007/s11684-019-0694-8
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