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Investigating the role of exiting vehicles and turn indicator usage in gap acceptance at single-lane

Nathan P. BELZ

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第1期   页码 8-16 doi: 10.1007/s11709-016-0365-7

摘要: Roundabouts are becoming a preferred form of intersection control type due to their safety and capacity benefits. Yield control at roundabout entries inherently reduces fuel consumption and emissions when compared to other conventional intersection types. However, these benefits can be limited by poor driver behavior and judgment when entering the roundabout. This research addresses the nature of gap distributions and use of turn indicators by exiting vehicles at three single-lane roundabouts in Vermont, New York, and Alaska. Presented here is a comparison of vehicle headways measured at two different locations in each roundabout. Rejected headways are analyzed in the context of priority abstaining events when entering drivers yield to vehicles exiting on the same leg of the roundabout suggesting that “true” critical gaps are being overestimated. Results indicate that exiting vehicles, particularly those that do not use their turn indicators when departing from the major-stream of traffic have an influence on the entry decision of drivers on the same approach. This behavior is of particular concern for intersection efficiency (i.e., delay) and sustainability (i.e., excess fuel consumption and emissions). Results prompt the consideration of more consistent guidance on and enforcement of turn indicator use during roundabout negotiations.

关键词: roundabouts     exiting vehicles     turn indicator use     headways    

Extended model predictive control scheme for smooth path following of autonomous vehicles

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第1期   页码 4-4 doi: 10.1007/s11465-021-0660-4

摘要: This paper presents an extended model predictive control (MPC) scheme for implementing optimal path following of autonomous vehicles, which has multiple constraints and an integrated model of vehicle and road dynamics. Road curvature and inclination factors are used in the construction of the vehicle dynamic model to describe its lateral and roll dynamics accurately. Sideslip, rollover, and vehicle envelopes are used as multiple constraints in the MPC controller formulation. Then, an extended MPC method solved by differential evolution optimization algorithm is proposed to realize optimal smooth path following based on driving path features. Finally, simulation and real experiments are carried out to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the extended MPC scheme. Results indicate that the proposed method can obtain the smooth transition to follow the optimal drivable path and satisfy the lateral dynamic stability and environmental constraints, which can improve the path following quality for better ride comfort and road availability of autonomous vehicles.

关键词: autonomous vehicles     vehicle dynamic modeling     model predictive control     path following     optimization algorithm    

Research on the theory and application of adsorbed natural gas used in new energy vehicles: A review

Zhengwei NIE,Yuyi LIN,Xiaoyi JIN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第11卷 第3期   页码 258-274 doi: 10.1007/s11465-016-0381-2

摘要:

Natural gas, whose primary constituent is methane, has been considered a convincing alternative for the growth of the energy supply worldwide. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG), the most promising methane storage method, has been an active field of study in the past two decades. ANG constitutes a safe and low-cost way to store methane for natural gas vehicles at an acceptable energy density while working at substantially low pressures (3.5–4.0 MPa), allowing for conformable store tank. This work serves to review the state-of-the-art development reported in the scientific literature on adsorbents, adsorption theories, ANG conformable tanks, and related technologies on ANG vehicles. Patent literature has also been searched and discussed. The review aims at illustrating both achievements and problems of the ANG technologies-based vehicles, as well as forecasting the development trends and critical issues to be resolved of these technologies.

关键词: adsorbed natural gas (ANG)     adsorbent     adsorption theory     conformable tank     natural gas vehicles (NGVs)    

从有缆遥控水下机器人到自治水下机器人

封锡盛

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第12期   页码 29-33

摘要:

文章给出了水下机器人的定义,依据定义进行了分类,简要回顾了几类重要水下机器人的进展,指出了无人无缆自治水下机器人(AUVs)是当今水下机器人研究与开发的热点,介绍了最近20年沈阳自动化研究所与国内外有关单位合作,在水下机器人领域从无人有缆遥控水下机器人(ROVs)到AUVs的研究开发工作,它从一个侧面反映了我国在这一领域的进展情况

关键词: 水下机器人     AUVs     ROVs     潜水器     海洋开发     海洋工程    

Implementation of a flexible Major Vacation Toll-free Program for small passenger vehicles in China

Meng XU, Ziyou GAO

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第4期   页码 498-499 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2017111

Integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors

FENG Jinzhi, LI Jun, Goodall R. M.

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第3卷 第3期   页码 239-250 doi: 10.1007/s11465-008-0053-y

摘要: This paper studies the development of integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors. First, a non-linear vehicle dynamic model and motor drive strategy are presented, which are followed by an investigation of the integrated control of stabilization, steering, and traction for the vehicle. Meanwhile a reformulated Kalman filter is developed and applied to estimate the required feedback by the control system. Finally, the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed integrated controller are examined and assessed by real-time simulation based on host-target computer technology provided by Matlab/Simulink.

关键词: development     independently-driven     non-linear     stabilization     reformulated    

对我国电动汽车产业化问题的思考

郭孔辉

《中国工程科学》 2011年 第13卷 第9期   页码 4-7

摘要:

简单介绍了电动车的特点和发展情况,认为电池比重量大、比价格高是电动汽车的特点,成本、寿命和重量是发展电动汽车的关键;提出了我国电动车行业的一些不合理的现象;指出发展小型高效电动汽车是我国汽车产业发展的战略选择;最后给出了电动汽车发展的路线:市场引导、扶小带大、低端切入、多样发展。

关键词: 电动汽车     产业化     战略选择     发展路线    

Coordinated shift control of nonsynchronizer transmission for electric vehicles based on dynamic tooth

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第16卷 第4期   页码 887-900 doi: 10.1007/s11465-021-0653-3

摘要: Multispeed transmissions can enhance the dynamics and economic performance of electric vehicles (EVs), but the coordinated control of the drive motor and gear shift mechanism during gear shifting is still a difficult challenge because gear shifting may cause discomfort to the occupants. To improve the swiftness of gear shifting, this paper proposes a coordinated shift control method based on the dynamic tooth alignment (DTA) algorithm for nonsynchronizer automated mechanical transmissions (NSAMTs) of EVs. After the speed difference between the sleeve (SL) and target dog gear is reduced to a certain value by speed synchronization, angle synchronization is adopted to synchronize the SL quickly to the target tooth slot’s angular position predicted by the DTA. A two-speed planetary NSAMT is taken as an example to carry out comparative simulations and bench experiments. Results show that gear shifting duration and maximum jerk are reduced under the shift control with the proposed method, which proves the effectiveness of the proposed coordinated shift control method with DTA.

关键词: electric vehicle     nonsynchronizer automated mechanical transmission (NSAMT)     planetary gear     coordinated shift control     dynamic tooth alignment    

Real-world fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles using on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems

Xuan Zheng, Sheng Lu, Liuhanzi Yang, Min Yan, Guangyi Xu, Xiaomeng Wu, Lixin Fu, Ye Wu

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-019-1212-6

摘要: • Fuel consumption (FC) from LDPVs is measured using on-board diagnostic method (OBD). • The FC of the OBD is 7.1% lower than that of the carbon balance results. • The discrepancy between the approved FC and real-world FC is 13%±18%. • There is a strong relationship (R2=0.984) between the average speed and relative FC. An increasing discrepancy between real-world and type-approval fuel consumption for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs) has been reported by several studies. Normally, real-world fuel consumption is measured primarily by a portable emission measurement system. The on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, which is flexible and offers high-resolution data collection, is a promising fuel consumption monitoring method. Three LDPVs were tested with a laboratory dynamometer based on a type-approval cycle, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Fuel consumption was measured by the OBD and constant-volume sampling system (CVS, a regulatory method) to verify the accuracy of the OBD values. The results of the OBD method and the regulatory carbon balance method exhibited a strong linear correlation (e.g., R2 = 0.906-0.977). Compared with the carbon balance results, the fuel consumption results using the OBD were 7.1%±4.3% lower on average. Furthermore, the real-world fuel consumption of six LDPVs was tested in Beijing using the OBD. The results showed that the normalized NEDC real-world fuel consumption of the tested vehicles was 13%±17% higher than the type-approval-based fuel consumption. Because the OBD values are lower than the actual fuel consumption, using a carbon balance method may result in a larger discrepancy between real-word and type-approval fuel consumption. By means of the operating mode binning and micro trip methods, a strong relationship (R2 = 0.984) was established between the average speed and relative fuel consumption. For congested roads (average vehicle speed less than 25 km/h), the fuel consumption of LDPVs is highly sensitive to changes in average speed.

关键词: Fuel consumption     Light-duty passenger vehicles     On-board diagnostic systems    

Regenerative braking control strategy in mild hybrid electric vehicles equipped with automatic manual

QIN Datong, YE Ming, LIU Zhenjun

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第2卷 第3期   页码 364-369 doi: 10.1007/s11465-007-0064-0

摘要: The actual regenerative braking force of an integrated starter/generator (ISG), which is varied with desired braking deceleration and vehicle speed, is calculated based on an analysis of the required deceleration, maximum braking force of ISG, engine braking force and state of charge (SOC) of battery. Braking force distribution strategies are presented according to the actual regenerative braking force of ISG. To recover the vehicle s kinetic energy maximally, braking shift rules for a mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with automatic manual transmission (AMT) are brought forward and effects of transmission ratios are considered. A test-bed is built up and regenerative braking tests are carried out. The results show that power recovered by the braking shift rules is more than that recovered by the normal braking control rules.

关键词: SOC     Braking     battery     regenerative braking     starter/generator    

Levelized costs of the energy chains of new energy vehicles targeted at carbon neutrality in China

《工程管理前沿(英文)》   页码 392-408 doi: 10.1007/s42524-022-0212-6

摘要: The diffusion of new energy vehicles (NEVs), such as battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), is critical to the transportation sector’s deep decarbonization. The cost of energy chains is an important factor in the diffusion of NEVs. Although researchers have addressed the technological learning effect of NEVs and the life cycle emissions associated with the diffusion of NEVs, little work has been conducted to analyze the life cycle costs of different energy chains associated with different NEVs in consideration of technological learning potential. Thus, relevant information on investment remains insufficient to promote the deployment of NEVs. This study proposes a systematic framework that includes various (competing or coordinated) energy chains of NEVs formed with different technologies of power generation and transmission, hydrogen production and transportation, power-to-liquid fuel, and fuel transportation. The levelized costs of three typical carbon-neutral energy chains are investigated using the life cycle cost model and considering the technological learning effect. Results show that the current well-to-pump levelized costs of the energy chains in China for BEVs, FCVs, and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) are approximately 3.60, 4.31, and 2.21 yuan/GJ, respectively, and the well-to-wheel levelized costs are 4.50, 6.15, and 7.51 yuan/GJ, respectively. These costs primarily include raw material costs, and they vary greatly for BEVs and FCVs from resource and consumer costs. In consideration of the technological learning effect, the energy chains’ well-to-wheel levelized costs are expected to decrease by 24.82% for BEVs, 27.12% for FCVs, and 19.25% for ICEVs by 2060. This work also summarizes policy recommendations on developing energy chains to promote the diffusion of NEVs in China.

关键词: energy chain     new energy vehicle     internal combustion engine vehicle     life cycle cost     technological learning    

智能无人潜水器技术发展研究

吴有生,赵羿羽,郎舒妍,王传荣

《中国工程科学》 2020年 第22卷 第6期   页码 26-31 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2020.06.004

摘要:

无人潜水器是开展深海探测与作业的重要工具,成为世界海洋装备的重点发展方向。本文着眼我国智能无人潜水器( AUV) 2035 年技术体系布局,梳理世界 AUV 在发展规划、技术研发与应用等方面的进展,凝练 AUV 技术发展趋势和2035 年发展远景;进一步总结我国 AUV 在发展现状,研判规划、设备、产业化等方面存在的问题。研究分析了包括感知、通信导航、能源、自主航行、协同作业在内的领域未来关键技术攻关方向,以材料、可靠性为重点的基础研究方向,论证了AUV 谱系化、国产化研制重大科技专项初步方案。研究提出顶层规划、行业协同、政策引导、人才培养等方面的对策建议,以期为我国 AUV 产业的高质量发展提供理论参考。

关键词: 深海探测     智能无人潜水器     发展趋势     关键技术     基础研究    

Abating transport GHG emissions by hydrogen fuel cell vehicles: Chances for the developing world

Han HAO, Zhexuan MU, Zongwei LIU, Fuquan ZHAO

《能源前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 466-480 doi: 10.1007/s11708-018-0561-3

摘要:

Fuel cell vehicles, as the most promising clean vehicle technology for the future, represent the major chances for the developing world to avoid high-carbon lock-in in the transportation sector. In this paper, by taking China as an example, the unique advantages for China to deploy fuel cell vehicles are reviewed. Subsequently, this paper analyzes the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 19 fuel cell vehicle utilization pathways by using the life cycle assessment approach. The results show that with the current grid mix in China, hydrogen from water electrolysis has the highest GHG emissions, at 3.10 kgCO2/km, while by-product hydrogen from the chlor-alkali industry has the lowest level, at 0.08 kgCO2/km. Regarding hydrogen storage and transportation, a combination of gas-hydrogen road transportation and single compression in the refueling station has the lowest GHG emissions. Regarding vehicle operation, GHG emissions from indirect methanol fuel cell are proved to be lower than those from direct hydrogen fuel cells. It is recommended that although fuel cell vehicles are promising for the developing world in reducing GHG emissions, the vehicle technology and hydrogen production issues should be well addressed to ensure the life-cycle low-carbon performance.

关键词: hydrogen     fuel cell vehicle     life cycle assessment     energy consumption     greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions     China    

智能网联汽车信息安全管理的实施对策

赵世佳,徐可,薛晓卿,乔英俊

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第3期   页码 108-113 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.03.006

摘要:

新一轮科技和产业变革加速融合,智能网联汽车为消费者提供了便利的使用方式、丰富的应用内容和安全的驾驶环境,但同时,由智能化、网联化带来的信息安全问题也面临着多重风险。近年来黑客攻击频发,信息安全问题不仅会影响行车安全、造成用户数据泄露,更使国家安全受到威胁。安全问题已经引发各国政府的高度重视,美国、欧洲和日本等主要发达国家和地区都在积极行动。在此背景下,我国应尽快推动统筹智能网联汽车信息安全的发展和管理,积极布局、合理规划,全力保障智能网联汽车信息安全,推动智能网联汽车的稳步发展。

关键词: 智能网联汽车     信息安全     汽车产业     管理    

无人机仿射编队跟踪控制研究 Research Articles

李慧铭,陈浩,王祥科

《信息与电子工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第23卷 第6期   页码 909-919 doi: 10.1631/FITEE.2100109

摘要:

本文聚焦固定翼无人机集群仿射编队跟踪控制问题,其中固定翼无人机被建模为具有非对称速度约束的独轮车。无人机集群控制目标是生成并跟踪一个由名义编队仿射变换得到的时变目标编队。针对这一目标,在领航跟随者编队控制框架下,提出一种基于应力矩阵的分布式编队控制策略,并从理论上证明,跟随者在跟踪不同飞行轨迹的同时,能够收敛到由领航者位置决定的期望位置,实现编队队形的仿射变换。进一步,为满足固定翼无人机飞行速度约束,提出一种基于饱和函数的控制策略。数值仿真结果证实,所提仿射编队控制策略能有效提高机动性。

关键词: 仿射编队;固定翼无人机;多智能体系统    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Investigating the role of exiting vehicles and turn indicator usage in gap acceptance at single-lane

Nathan P. BELZ

期刊论文

Extended model predictive control scheme for smooth path following of autonomous vehicles

期刊论文

Research on the theory and application of adsorbed natural gas used in new energy vehicles: A review

Zhengwei NIE,Yuyi LIN,Xiaoyi JIN

期刊论文

从有缆遥控水下机器人到自治水下机器人

封锡盛

期刊论文

Implementation of a flexible Major Vacation Toll-free Program for small passenger vehicles in China

Meng XU, Ziyou GAO

期刊论文

Integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors

FENG Jinzhi, LI Jun, Goodall R. M.

期刊论文

对我国电动汽车产业化问题的思考

郭孔辉

期刊论文

Coordinated shift control of nonsynchronizer transmission for electric vehicles based on dynamic tooth

期刊论文

Real-world fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles using on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems

Xuan Zheng, Sheng Lu, Liuhanzi Yang, Min Yan, Guangyi Xu, Xiaomeng Wu, Lixin Fu, Ye Wu

期刊论文

Regenerative braking control strategy in mild hybrid electric vehicles equipped with automatic manual

QIN Datong, YE Ming, LIU Zhenjun

期刊论文

Levelized costs of the energy chains of new energy vehicles targeted at carbon neutrality in China

期刊论文

智能无人潜水器技术发展研究

吴有生,赵羿羽,郎舒妍,王传荣

期刊论文

Abating transport GHG emissions by hydrogen fuel cell vehicles: Chances for the developing world

Han HAO, Zhexuan MU, Zongwei LIU, Fuquan ZHAO

期刊论文

智能网联汽车信息安全管理的实施对策

赵世佳,徐可,薛晓卿,乔英俊

期刊论文

无人机仿射编队跟踪控制研究

李慧铭,陈浩,王祥科

期刊论文