资源类型

期刊论文 703

会议视频 7

年份

2024 29

2023 58

2022 65

2021 65

2020 43

2019 58

2018 35

2017 41

2016 25

2015 33

2014 29

2013 38

2012 18

2011 29

2010 24

2009 32

2008 23

2007 23

2006 2

2005 6

展开 ︾

关键词

固体氧化物燃料电池 7

燃料电池 7

催化剂 5

组织工程 4

生物质 3

SOFC 2

临床试验 2

再生医学 2

单细胞分析 2

双极板 2

干细胞 2

氢燃料电池 2

氢能 2

燃烧特性 2

生物材料 2

碳中和 2

碳基燃料 2

绿色化工 2

高压 2

展开 ︾

检索范围:

排序: 展示方式:

Review of characterization and modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cell catalyst layer: The blessing

Jun HUANG, Zhe LI, Jianbo ZHANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 334-364 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0490-6

摘要: Ionomer impregnation represents a milestone in the evolution of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) catalyst layers. Ionomer acts as the binder, facilitates proton transport, and thereby drastically improves catalyst utilization and effectiveness. However, advanced morphological and functional characterizations have revealed that up to 60% of Pt nanoparticles can be trapped in the micropores of carbon support particles. Ionomer clusters and oxygen molecules can hardly enter into micropores, leading to low Pt utilization and effectiveness. Moreover, the ionomer thin-films covering Pt nanoparticles can cause significant mass transport loss especially at high current densities. Ionomer-free ultra-thin catalyst layers (UTCLs) emerge as a promising alternative to reduce Pt loading by improving catalyst utilization and effectiveness, while theoretical issues such as the proton conduction mechanism remain puzzling and practical issues such as the rather narrow operation window remain unsettled. At present, the development of PEFC catalyst layer has come to a crossroads: staying ionomer-impregnated or going ionomer-free. It is always beneficial to look back into the past when coming to a crossroads. This paper addresses the characterization and modeling of both the conventional ionomer-impregnated catalyst layer and the emerging ionomer-free UTCLs, featuring advances in characterizing microscale distributions of Pt particles, ionomer, support particles and unraveling their interactions; advances in fundamental understandings of proton conduction and flooding behaviors in ionomer-free UTCLs; advances in modeling of conventional catalyst layers and especially UTCLs; and discussions on high-impact research topics in characterizing and modeling of catalyst layers.

关键词: polymer electrolyte fuel cell     ultra-thin catalyst layer     electrostatic interactions     characterization and modeling     structure-property-performance relation     water management    

A comprehensive assessment on the durability of gas diffusion electrode materials in PEM fuel cell stack

Arunkumar JAYAKUMAR

《能源前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第2期   页码 325-338 doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0618-y

摘要: Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the most promising among the various types of fuel cells. Though it has found its applications in numerous fields, the cost and durability are key barriers impeding the commercialization of PEM fuel cell stack. The crucial and expensive component involved in it is the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and its degradation, which limits the performance and life of the fuel cell stack. A critical analysis and comprehensive understanding of the structural and functional properties of various materials involved in the GDE can help us to address the related durability and cost issues. This paper reviews the key GDE components, and in specific, the root causes influencing the durability. It also envisages the role of novel materials and provides a critical recommendation to improve the GDE durability.

关键词: PEM fuel cell     gas diffusion electrode(GDE)     gas diffusion layer(GDL)     membrane electrode assembly     durability     fuel cell catalyst    

Modeling nanostructured catalyst layer in PEMFC and catalyst utilization

Jiejing ZHANG, Pengzhen CAO, Li XU, Yuxin WANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第3期   页码 297-302 doi: 10.1007/s11705-011-1201-1

摘要: A lattice model of the nanoscaled catalyst layer structure in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) was established by Monte Carlo method. The model takes into account all the four components in a typical PEMFC catalyst layer: platinum (Pt), carbon, ionomer and pore. The elemental voxels in the lattice were set fine enough so that each average sized Pt particulate in Pt/C catalyst can be represented. Catalyst utilization in the modeled catalyst layer was calculated by counting up the number of facets of Pt voxels where “three phase contact” are met. The effects of some factors, including porosity, ionomer content, Pt/C particle size and Pt weight percentage in the Pt/C catalyst, on catalyst utilization were investigated and discussed.

关键词: catalyst layer     PEM fuel cell     lattice model     Monte Carlo method     catalyst utilization    

A facile synthesis of high activity cube-like Pt/carbon composites for fuel cell application

Reza B. MOGHADDAM, Samaneh SHAHGALDI, Xianguo LI

《能源前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 245-253 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0492-4

摘要: High activity catalyst with simple low-cost synthesis is essential for fuel cell commercialization. In this study, a facile procedure for the synthesis of cube-like Pt nanoparticle (Pt ) composites with high surface area carbon supports is developed by mixing precursor of Pt with carbon supports in organic batches, hence, one pot synthesis. The Pt grow with Vulcan XC-72 or Ketjen black, respectively, and then treated for 5.5 h at 185ºC (i.e., Pt /V and Pt /K). The resulting particle sizes and shapes are similar; however, Pt /K has a larger electrochemical active surface area (EASA) and a remarkably better formic acid (FA) oxidation performance. Optimization of the Pt /K composites leads to Pt /K that has been treated for 10 h at 185ºC. With a larger EASA, Pt /K is also more active in FA oxidation than the other Pt /K composites. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of the temperature treated and as-prepared (i.e., untreated) Pt /K composites indicates that Pt /K is less resistive, and has the highest limiting capacitance among the Pt /K electrodes. Consistently, the voltammetric EASA is the largest for Pt /K. Furthermore, Pt /K is compared with two commercial Pt/C catalysts, Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo (TKK), and Johnson Matthey (JM)Pt/C catalysts. The TKK Pt/C has a higher EASA than Pt /K, as expected from their relative particles sizes (3–4 nm vs. 6–7 nm for Pt /K), however, Pt /K has a significantly better FA oxidation activity.

关键词: synthesis     cube-like Pt     Pt/C composite     catalyst     impedance    

A Pt-Bi bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst for direct electro-oxidation of formic acid in fuel cells

Shu-Hong LI, Yue ZHAO, Jian CHU, Wen-Wei LI, Han-Qing YU, Gang LIU, Yang-Chao TIAN

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第3期   页码 388-394 doi: 10.1007/s11783-012-0475-y

摘要: Direct formic acid fuel cells are a promising portable power-generating device, and the development of efficient anodic catalysts is essential for such a fuel cell. In this work Pt-Bi nanoparticles supported on micro-fabricated gold wire array substrate were synthesized using an electrochemical deposition method for formic acid oxidation in fuel cells. The surface morphology and element components of the Pt-Bi/Au nanoparticles were characterized, and the catalytic activities of the three Pt-Bi/Au nanoparticle electrodes with different Pt/Bi ratios for formic acid oxidation were evaluated. It was found that Pt Bi /Au had a much higher catalytic activity than Pt Bi /Au and Pt Bi /Au, and Pt Bi /Au exhibited a current density of 2.7 mA·cm , which was 27-times greater than that of Pt/Au. The electro-catalytic activity of the Pt-Bi/Au electrode for formic acid oxidation increased with the increasing Bi content, suggesting that it would be possible to achieve an efficient formic acid oxidation on the low Pt-loading. Therefore, the Pt-Bi/Au electrode offers a promising catalyst with a high activity for direct oxidation of formic acid in fuel cells.

关键词: catalyst     electrochemical deposition     formic acid oxidation     fuel cell     gold wire array     microfabrication    

Failure mode investigation of fuel cell for vehicle application

Zhongjun HOU, Renfang WANG, Keyong WANG, Weiyu SHI, Danming XING, Hongchun JIANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 318-325 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0488-0

摘要: The durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has been posing a key technical challenge to commercial spread of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). To improve the durability, it is necessary to optimize the fuel cell system (FCS) design against failure modes. The fuel cell durability research method at FCS scale was exhibited, and the failure modes of fuel cell were experimentally investigated in this paper. It is found that the fuel cell dry operation, start/stop cycle and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding are typical failure modes of fuel cells. After the modifications against the failure modes, the durability of FCSs is improved to over 3000 h step by step.

关键词: proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)     fuel cell system (FCS)     durability     failure mode     fuel cell vehicle (FCV)     carbon corrosion     water management    

A hybrid fuel cell for water purification and simultaneously electricity generation

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1611-6

摘要:

● A novel hybrid fuel cell (F-HFC) was fabricated.

关键词: Flow-through field     Hybrid fuel cell     Polyoxometalates     Water purification     Electricity generation    

TiO supported IrO for anode reversal tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

《能源前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期   页码 852-861 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0811-7

摘要: Fuel starvation can occur and cause damage to the cell when proton exchange membrane fuel cells operate under complex working conditions. In this case, carbon corrosion occurs. Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts can alleviate carbon corrosion by introducing water electrolysis at a lower potential at the anode in fuel shortage. The mixture of hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and unsupported OER catalyst not only reduces the electrolysis efficiency, but also influences the initial performance of the fuel cell. Herein, Ti4O7 supported IrOx is synthesized by utilizing the surfactant-assistant method and serves as reversal tolerant components in the anode. When the cell reverse time is less than 100 min, the cell voltage of the MEA added with IrOx/Ti4O7 has almost no attenuation. Besides, the MEA has a longer reversal time (530 min) than IrOx (75 min), showing an excellent reversal tolerance. The results of electron microscopy spectroscopy show that IrOx particles have a good dispersity on the surface of Ti4O7 and IrOx/Ti4O7 particles are uniformly dispersed on the anode catalytic layer. After the stability test, the Ti4O7 support has little decay, demonstrating a high electrochemical stability. IrOx/Ti4O7 with a high dispersity has a great potential to the application on the reversal tolerance anode of the fuel cell.

关键词: proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)     fuel starvation     cell reverse     reversal tolerance anode     oxygen evolution reaction    

Exploration of the oxygen transport behavior in non-precious metal catalyst-based cathode catalyst layerfor proton exchange membrane fuel cells

Shiqu CHEN, Silei XIANG, Zehao TAN, Huiyuan LI, Xiaohui YAN, Jiewei YIN, Shuiyun SHEN, Junliang ZHANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 123-133 doi: 10.1007/s11708-022-0849-1

摘要: High cost has undoubtedly become the biggest obstacle to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), in which Pt-based catalysts employed in the cathodic catalyst layer (CCL) account for the major portion of the cost. Although non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) show appreciable activity and stability in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the performance of fuel cells based on NPMCs remains unsatisfactory compared to those using Pt-based CCL. Therefore, most studies on NPMC-based fuel cells focus on developing highly active catalysts rather than facilitating oxygen transport. In this work, the oxygen transport behavior in CCLs based on highly active Fe-N-C catalysts is comprehensively explored through the elaborate design of two types of membrane electrode structures, one containing low-Pt-based CCL and NPMC-based dummy catalyst layer (DCL) and the other containing only the NPMC-based CCL. Using Zn-N-C based DCLs of different thickness, the bulk oxygen transport resistance at the unit thickness in NPMC-based CCL was quantified via the limiting current method combined with linear fitting analysis. Then, the local and bulk resistances in NPMC-based CCLs were quantified via the limiting current method and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the ratios of local and bulk oxygen transport resistances in NPMC-based CCL are 80% and 20%, respectively, and that an enhancement of local oxygen transport is critical to greatly improve the performance of NPMC-based PEMFCs. Furthermore, the activity of active sites per unit in NPMC-based CCLs was determined to be lower than that in the Pt-based CCL, thus explaining worse cell performance of NPMC-based membrane electrode assemblys (MEAs). It is believed that the development of NPMC-based PEMFCs should proceed not only through the design of catalysts with higher activity but also through the improvement of oxygen transport in the CCL.

关键词: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs)     non-precious metal catalyst (NPMC)     cathode catalyst layer (CCL)     local and bulk oxygen transport resistance    

Nitrogen-doped graphene approach to enhance the performance of a membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell

Alireza AHMADIAN YAZDI, Jie XU

《能源前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第2期   页码 233-238 doi: 10.1007/s11708-018-0529-3

摘要: Heteroatom-doping of pristine graphene is an effective route for tailoring new characteristics in terms of catalytic performance which opens up potentials for new applications in energy conversion and storage devices. Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene), for instance, has shown excellent performance in many electrochemical systems involving oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and more recently glucose oxidation. Owing to the excellent sensitivity of N-graphene, the development of highly sensitive and fast-response enzymatic biosensors is made possible. However, a question that needs to be addressed is whether or not improving the anodic response to glucose detection leads to a higher overall performance of enzymatic biofuel cell (eBFC). Thus, here we first synthesized N-graphene via a catalyst-free single-step thermal process, and made use of it as the biocatalyst support in a membraneless eBFC to identify its role in altering the performance characteristics. Our findings demonstrate that the electron accepting nitrogen sites in the graphene structure enhances the electron transfer efficiency between the mediator (redox polymer), redox active site of the enzymes, and electrode surface. Moreover, the best performance in terms of power output and current density of eBFCs was observed when the bioanode was modified with highly doped N-graphene.

关键词: enzymatic fuel cell     nitrogen-doped graphene     reduced graphene oxide     catalyst-free synthesis    

Analysis on carbon emission reduction intensity of fuel cell vehicles from a life-cycle perspective

《能源前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第1期   页码 16-27 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0909-1

摘要: The hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is rapidly developing in China for carbon reduction and neutrality. This paper evaluated the life-cycle cost and carbon emission of hydrogen energy via lots of field surveys, including hydrogen production and packing in chlor-alkali plants, transport by tube trailers, storage and refueling in hydrogen refueling stations (HRSs), and application for use in two different cities. It also conducted a comparative study for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). The result indicates that hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has the best environmental performance but the highest energy cost. However, a sufficient hydrogen supply can significantly reduce the carbon intensity and FCV energy cost of the current system. The carbon emission for FCV application has the potential to decrease by 73.1% in City A and 43.8% in City B. It only takes 11.0%–20.1% of the BEV emission and 8.2%–9.8% of the ICEV emission. The cost of FCV driving can be reduced by 39.1% in City A. Further improvement can be obtained with an economical and “greener” hydrogen production pathway.

关键词: hydrogen energy     life-cycle assessment (LCA)     fuel cell vehicle     carbon emission     energy cost    

Effect of catalyst layer mesoscopic pore-morphology on cold start process of PEM fuel cells

Ahmed Mohmed DAFALLA, Fangming JIANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第2期   页码 460-472 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0733-4

摘要: Water transport is of paramount importance to the cold start of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Analysis of water transport in cathode catalyst layer (CCL) during cold start reveals the distinct characteristics from the normal temperature operation. This work studies the effect of CCL mesoscopic pore-morphology on PEMFC cold start. The CCL mesoscale morphology is characterized by two tortuosity factors of the ionomer network and pore structure, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the mesoscale morphology of CCL has a significant influence on the performance of PEMFC cold start. It was found that cold-starting of a cell with a CCL of less tortuous mesoscale morphology can succeed, whereas starting up a cell with a CCL of more tortuous mesoscale morphology may fail. The CCL of less tortuous pore structure reduces the water back diffusion resistance from the CCL to proton exchange membrane (PEM), thus enhancing the water storage in PEM, while reducing the tortuosity in ionomer network of CCL is found to enhance the water transport in and the water removal from CCL. For the sake of better cold start performance, novel preparation methods, which can create catalyst layers of larger size primary pores and less tortuous pore structure and ionomer network, are desirable.

关键词: cold start     energy conversion     fuel cells     mesoscale morphology     tortuosity     water management    

基于一维纳米结构阵列的质子交换膜燃料电池电极设计的研究进展 Review

杜尚峰

《工程(英文)》 2021年 第7卷 第1期   页码 33-49 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2020.09.014

摘要:

一维(1D)铂基电催化剂对氧还原反应(ORR)展现出了良好的催化活性和稳定性。基于一维铂基纳米结构阵列的三维(3D)有序电极的研究进展表明,它们在解决现有铂/碳(Pt/C)纳米颗粒电极在高性能质子交换膜燃料电池(PEMFC)的传质特性和持久性挑战方面具有巨大的潜力。本文综述了该领域的最新进展,重点介绍了基于独立的铂纳米线阵列的三维有序结构电极,讨论了纳米结构薄膜(NSTF)催化剂以及沉积在聚合物纳米线、碳和二氧化钛纳米管阵列上的铂基纳米颗粒电极,并回顾了铂基纳米管阵列电极的研究进展。本文指出了一维催化剂纳米结构的尺寸、表面性质和分配控制的重要性。最后,讨论了一维纳米结构阵列电极在增大电化学比表面积(ECSA)和氧传质阻力定量研究方面面临的挑战和未来的发展机遇。

关键词: 质子交换膜燃料电池(PEMFC)     电极     一维(1D)     氧还原反应(ORR)     催化剂     有序化    

电化学氢-水转化系统中电解水和氢燃料电池催化剂的设计 Review

彭立山, 魏子栋

《工程(英文)》 2020年 第6卷 第6期   页码 653-679 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2019.07.028

摘要:

在当前的能源需求和气候变化的背景下,可持续能源系统的研究已取得实质性进展。氢-水电化学转化是一种理想的、无化石原料使用的可持续能源系统。然而,该能源系统中两种核心技术的能量转换,即电解水和燃料电池,仍有很大的改进空间。本文分析了氢-水能源系统中电解水和燃料电池的能量耗散,并讨论了在催化剂表面发生的涉及氢-氧反应的主要障碍。通过反应性中间体与表观催化性能之间的标度关系,本文总结了催化活性趋势的框架,为高活性氢-氧反应电催化剂的设计提供了思路。文中介绍了一系列基于催化性能的结构工程方法(包括纳米结构化、晶面工程、相工程、非晶化、缺陷工程、元素掺杂、界面工程和合金化)及其应用,着重介绍从以往的理论和实验研究中得到的合理指导,并概述了电化学氢-水转化系统中的关键科学问题,提出了开发具有高能量转化率的催化剂的研究方向。

关键词: 可再生能源系统     氢–水电化学循环     电催化     电催化剂工程     结构设计     水电解     燃料电池    

Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis bio-oil to jet fuel: A review

《能源前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s11708-024-0924-8

摘要: Bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis cannot directly substitute traditional fuel due to compositional deficiencies. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is the critical and efficient step to upgrade crude bio-oil to high-quality bio-jet fuel by lowering the oxygen content and increasing the heating value. However, the hydrocracking reaction tends to reduce the liquid yield and increase the gas yield, causing carbon loss and producing hydrocarbons with a short carbon-chain. To obtain high-yield bio-jet fuel, the elucidation of the conversion process of biomass catalytic HDO is important in providing guidance for metal catalyst design and optimization of reaction conditions. Considering the complexity of crude bio-oil, this review aimed to investigate the catalytic HDO pathways with model compounds that present typical bio-oil components. First, it provided a comprehensive summary of the impact of physical and electronic structures of both noble and non-noble metals that include monometallic and bimetallic supported catalysts on regulating the conversion pathways and resulting product selectivity. The subsequent first principle calculations further corroborated reaction pathways of model compounds in atom-level on different catalyst surfaces with the experiments above and illustrated the favored C–O/C=O scission orders thermodynamically and kinetically. Then, it discussed hydrogenation effects of different H-donors (such as hydrogen and methane) and catalysts deactivation for economical and industrial consideration. Based on the descriptions above and recent researches, it also elaborated on catalytic HDO of biomass and bio-oil with multi-functional catalysts. Finally, it presented the challenges and future prospective of biomass catalytic HDO.

关键词: biomass pyrolysis oil     bio-jet fuel     catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO)     metal catalyst     reaction pathways    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Review of characterization and modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cell catalyst layer: The blessing

Jun HUANG, Zhe LI, Jianbo ZHANG

期刊论文

A comprehensive assessment on the durability of gas diffusion electrode materials in PEM fuel cell stack

Arunkumar JAYAKUMAR

期刊论文

Modeling nanostructured catalyst layer in PEMFC and catalyst utilization

Jiejing ZHANG, Pengzhen CAO, Li XU, Yuxin WANG

期刊论文

A facile synthesis of high activity cube-like Pt/carbon composites for fuel cell application

Reza B. MOGHADDAM, Samaneh SHAHGALDI, Xianguo LI

期刊论文

A Pt-Bi bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst for direct electro-oxidation of formic acid in fuel cells

Shu-Hong LI, Yue ZHAO, Jian CHU, Wen-Wei LI, Han-Qing YU, Gang LIU, Yang-Chao TIAN

期刊论文

Failure mode investigation of fuel cell for vehicle application

Zhongjun HOU, Renfang WANG, Keyong WANG, Weiyu SHI, Danming XING, Hongchun JIANG

期刊论文

A hybrid fuel cell for water purification and simultaneously electricity generation

期刊论文

TiO supported IrO for anode reversal tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

期刊论文

Exploration of the oxygen transport behavior in non-precious metal catalyst-based cathode catalyst layerfor proton exchange membrane fuel cells

Shiqu CHEN, Silei XIANG, Zehao TAN, Huiyuan LI, Xiaohui YAN, Jiewei YIN, Shuiyun SHEN, Junliang ZHANG

期刊论文

Nitrogen-doped graphene approach to enhance the performance of a membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell

Alireza AHMADIAN YAZDI, Jie XU

期刊论文

Analysis on carbon emission reduction intensity of fuel cell vehicles from a life-cycle perspective

期刊论文

Effect of catalyst layer mesoscopic pore-morphology on cold start process of PEM fuel cells

Ahmed Mohmed DAFALLA, Fangming JIANG

期刊论文

基于一维纳米结构阵列的质子交换膜燃料电池电极设计的研究进展

杜尚峰

期刊论文

电化学氢-水转化系统中电解水和氢燃料电池催化剂的设计

彭立山, 魏子栋

期刊论文

Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis bio-oil to jet fuel: A review

期刊论文