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Diagnostic criteria of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA): a review and reflection

Yu Liao, Yufei Xiang, Zhiguang Zhou

《医学前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第3期   页码 243-247 doi: 10.1007/s11684-012-0201-y

摘要: Diabetes has become a major public health problem in China nowadays. There are almost 97 million diabetic patients nationwide. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a subtype of autoimmune diabetes. Although it has been reported for about 20 years, the diagnostic criteria of this disease remain controversial. The discussion mainly focused on serum autoantibodies, period of insulin need and age of diagnosis. Besides, β cell function, metabolic parameters, genetic factors and cell immunity may also contribute to the formulation of the criteria. Here, we aim to review and discuss the diagnostic criteria of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.

关键词: LADA     diagnostic criteria     autoantibodies     insulin independence     age of diagnosis    

Inhibition of protein kinase B by Palmitate in the insulin signaling of HepG2 cells and the preventiveeffect of Arachidonic acid on insulin resistance

XIA Yanzhi, WAN Xuedong, DUAN Qiuhong, HE Shansu, WANG Ximing

《医学前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 200-206 doi: 10.1007/s11684-007-0038-y

摘要: Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) may contribute to insulin resistance (IR) that is characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the effects of two fatty acids, palmitate (PA) and arach

关键词: palmitate     characteristic     study     plasma     resistance    

Mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity: a role of ATP

《医学前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期   页码 372-382 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0862-5

摘要: Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes through the induction of insulin resistance. The mechanism of insulin resistance has been extensively investigated for more than 60 years, but the essential pathogenic signal remains missing. Existing hypotheses include inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, glucotoxicity, and lipotoxicity. Drug discoveries based on these hypotheses are unsuccessful in the development of new medicines. In this review, multidisciplinary literature is integrated to evaluate ATP as a primary signal for insulin resistance. The ATP production is elevated in insulin-sensitive cells under obese conditions independent of energy demand, which we have named “mitochondrial overheating.” Overheating occurs because of substrate oversupply to mitochondria, leading to extra ATP production. The ATP overproduction contributes to the systemic insulin resistance through several mechanisms, such as inhibition of AMPK, induction of mTOR, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Insulin resistance represents a feedback regulation of energy oversupply in cells to control mitochondrial overloading by substrates. Insulin resistance cuts down the substrate uptake to attenuate mitochondrial overloading. The downregulation of the mitochondrial overloading by medicines, bypass surgeries, calorie restriction, and physical exercise leads to insulin sensitization in patients. Therefore, ATP may represent the primary signal of insulin resistance in the cellular protective response to the substrate oversupply. The prevention of ATP overproduction represents a key strategy for insulin sensitization.

关键词: type 2 diabetes     energy expenditure     mitochondria     hyperinsulinemia     hyperglucagonemia     AMPK    

Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 14-24 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0262-6

摘要:

Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes through induction of insulin resistance. Treatment of type 2 diabetes has been limited by little translational knowledge of insulin resistance although there have been several well-documented hypotheses for insulin resistance. In those hypotheses, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and lipotoxicity have been the major concepts and have received a lot of attention. Oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, genetic background, aging, fatty liver, hypoxia and lipodystrophy are active subjects in the study of these concepts. However, none of those concepts or views has led to an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes. The reason is that, there has been no consensus for a unifying mechanism of insulin resistance. In this review article, literature is critically analyzed and reinterpreted for a new energy-based concept of insulin resistance, in which insulin resistance is a result of energy surplus in cells. The energy surplus signal is mediated by ATP and sensed by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Decreasing ATP level by suppression of production or stimulation of utilization is a promising approach in the treatment of insulin resistance. In support, many of existing insulin sensitizing medicines inhibit ATP production in mitochondria. The effective therapies such as weight loss, exercise, and caloric restriction all reduce ATP in insulin sensitive cells. This new concept provides a unifying cellular and molecular mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity, which may apply to insulin resistance in aging and lipodystrophy.

关键词: type 2 diabetes     energy expenditure     inflammation     lipotoxicity     mitochondria     hyperinsulinemia     adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)    

Insulin resistance and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 53-59 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0255-5

摘要:

Insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of metabolic syndrome and subsequently causes serious health problems with an increased risk of several common metabolic disorders. IR related metabolic disturbance is not restricted to carbohydrates but impacts global metabolic network. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), namely valine, leucine and isoleucine, are among the nine essential amino acids, accounting for 35% of the essential amino acids in muscle proteins and 40% of the preformed amino acids required by mammals. The BCAAs are particularly responsive to the inhibitory insulin action on amino acid release by skeletal muscle and their metabolism is profoundly altered in insulin resistant conditions and/or insulin deficiency. Although increased circulating BCAA concentration in insulin resistant conditions has been noted for many years and BCAAs have been reported to be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and body weight, it is only recently that BCAAs are found to be closely associated with IR. This review will focus on the recent findings on BCAAs from both epidemic and mechanistic studies.

关键词: branched-chain amino acids     leucine     isoleucine     valine     insulin resistance    

Overcoming oral insulin delivery barriers: application of cell penetrating peptide and silica-based nanoporous

Huining HE, Junxiao YE, Jianyong SHENG, Jianxin WANG, Yongzhuo HUANG, Guanyi CHEN, Jingkang WANG, Victor C YANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 9-19 doi: 10.1007/s11705-013-1306-9

摘要: Oral insulin delivery has received the most attention in insulin formulations due to its high patient compliance and, more importantly, to its potential to mimic the physiologic insulin secretion seen in non-diabetic individuals. However, oral insulin delivery has two major limitations: the enzymatic barrier that leads to rapid insulin degradation, and the mucosal barrier that limits insulin’s bioavailability. Several approaches have been actively pursued to circumvent the enzyme barrier, with some of them receiving promising results. Yet, thus far there has been no major success in overcoming the mucosal barrier, which is the main cause in undercutting insulin’s oral bioavailability. In this review of our group’s research, an innovative silica-based, mucoadhesive oral insulin formulation with encapsulated-insulin/cell penetrating peptide (CPP) to overcome both enzyme and mucosal barriers is discussed, and the preliminary and convincing results to confirm the plausibility of this oral insulin delivery system are reviewed. In vitro studies demonstrated that the CPP-insulin conjugates could facilitate cellular uptake of insulin while keeping insulin’s biologic functions intact. It was also confirmed that low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) behaves like a CPP peptide, with a cell translocation potency equivalent to that of the widely studied TAT. The mucoadhesive properties of the produced silica-chitosan composites could be controlled by varying both the pH and composition; the composite consisting of chitosan (25 wt-%) and silica (75 wt-%) exhibited the greatest mucoadhesion at gastric pH. Furthermore, drug release from the composite network could also be regulated by altering the chitosan content. Overall, the universal applicability of those technologies could lead to development of a generic platform for oral delivery of many other bioactive compounds, especially for peptide or protein drugs which inevitably encounter the poor bioavailability issues.

关键词: insulin     cell penetrating peptide     mucoadhesive composites     oral delivery    

Role of exercise training on insulin resistance and TNF-α in high-fat diet rats

Hui SUN MD, Xiuling DENG MM, Fangxi XIAO MD, Lulu CHEN MD, Huiqing LI MD,

《医学前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第4期   页码 403-407 doi: 10.1007/s11684-009-0071-0

摘要: This study investigated the effect of exercise training on insulin resistance and serum and adipose TNF-α in high-fat diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group (NC; =8) that accepted normal chow and high-fat diet group (HF; =22) that fed on high-fat diet to induce insulin resistance model. The HF group was randomly assigned to two subgroups after 18 weeks: sedentary group (SE; =10) and exercise training group (ET; =12) that performed swimming exercise training for 6 weeks, while both groups continued high-fat diet. Changes of body weight, lipid profile, and fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. Serum concentration of TNF-α was detected by ELISA. The expression of TNF-α mRNA and protein in adipose tissue was examined by using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot, respectively. After 18 weeks, compared with the NC group, body weight, blood lipid, glucose, and insulin in the HF group were significantly elevated, while the ISI decreased obviously, which suggested that insulin resistance appeared in the HF group. After exercise training for 6 weeks, compared with the SE group, both ISI and serum TNF-α concentration in the ET group were decreased significantly; however, the expression levels of TNF-α mRNA and protein in adipose tissue increased by 27.5% and 20.5%, respectively. In conclusion, exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance. The reduction of the level of serum TNF-α and the increased expression of TNF-α in adipose tissue by exercise training may be involved in this mechanism.

关键词: exercise training     insulin resistance     tumor necrosis factor-α    

Lingguizhugan Decoction, a Chinese herbal formula, improves insulin resistance in overweight/obese subjects

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期   页码 745-759 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0880-3

摘要: Lingguizhugan Decoction (LGZG) has been investigated in basic studies, with satisfactory effects on insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This translational approach aimed to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of LGZG in clinical setting. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed. A total of 243 eligible participants with NAFLD were equally allocated to receive LGZG (two groups: standard dose and low dose) or placebo for 12 weeks on the basis of lifestyle modifications. The primary efficacy variable was homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Analyses were performed in two populations in accordance with body mass index (BMI; overweight/obese, BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2; lean, BMI < 24 kg/m 2). For overweight/obese participants, low-dose LGZG significantly decreased their HOMA-IR level compared with placebo (−0.19 (1.47) versus 0.08 (1.99),P = 0.038). For lean subjects, neither dose of LGZG showed a superior effect compared with placebo. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing and real-time qPCR found that the DNA N6-methyladenine modification levels of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3A (PPP1R3A) and autophagy related 3 (ATG3) significantly increased after LGZG intervention in overweight/obese population. Low-dose LGZG effectively improved insulin resistance in overweight/obese subjects with NAFLD. The underlying mechanism may be related to the regulation of DNA N6-methyladenine modification of PPP1R3A and ATG3. Lean subjects may not be a targeted population for LGZG.

关键词: insulin resistance     non-alcoholic fatty liver disease     Chinese herbal medicine     randomized controlled trial     DNA N6-methyladenine modification    

Interaction and independence on methane oxidation of landfill cover soil among three impact factors:

Pinjing HE, Na YANG, Wenjuan FANG, Fan Lü, Liming SHAO

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第2期   页码 175-185 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0320-8

摘要: To understand the influence patterns and interactions of three important environmental factors, i.e. soil water content, oxygen concentration, and ammonium addition, on methane oxidation, the soils from landfill cover layers were incubated under full factorial parameter settings. In addition to the methane oxidation rate, the quantities and community structures of methanotrophs were analyzed to determine the methane oxidation capacity of the soils. Canonical correspondence analysis was utilized to distinguish the important impact factors. Water content was found to be the most important factor influencing the methane oxidation rate and Type II methanotrophs, and the optimum value was 15% (w/w), which induced methane oxidation rates 10- and 6- times greater than those observed at 5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w), respectively. Ambient oxygen conditions were more suitable for methane oxidation than 3% oxygen. The addition of of ammonium induced different effects on methane oxidation capacity when conducted at low or high water content. With regard to the methanotrophs, Type II was sensitive to the changes of water content, while Type I was influenced by oxygen content. Furthermore, the methanotrophic acidophile, , was detected in soils with a pH of 4.9, which extended their known living environments.

关键词: quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)     denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)     principal component analysis (PCA)     canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)    

Effects of resistin on insulin signaling in endothelial cells

Zhizhen LI, Fangping LI, Jianhong YE, Li YAN, Zuzhi FU

《医学前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 136-140 doi: 10.1007/s11684-009-0029-2

摘要: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on insulin signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were incubated with recombinant human resistin (0-100 ng/mL) for 24 h. Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation levels of endothelial cells under basal or insulin stimulated conditions were measured by Western blot. Nitric oxide (NO) production of HUVECs was also detected. The results showed that resistin could significantly inhibit Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in endothelial cells under insulin stimulated conditions ( < 0.05 control). But under basal conditions, treatment with resistin could result in a decrease in eNOS phosphorylation ( < 0.05 control) but had no effect on NO production and Akt phosphorylation levels. These findings suggested that resistin exerted an inhibitory effect on NO production by inhibiting insulin signaling and eNOS phosphorylation in endothelial cells.

关键词: resistin     endothelium     nitric oxide     endothelial nitric oxide synthase     Akt-binding protein     mouse    

用智能药丸提供胰岛素?

Elizabeth K. Wilson

《工程(英文)》 2019年 第5卷 第4期   页码 603-604 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2019.07.008

新的充分条件和哈密尔顿图

赵克文

《中国工程科学》 2003年 第5卷 第11期   页码 61-64

摘要:

记δ和α分别表示图G的最小度和独立数,1991年Faudree等人得到图G不相邻的任意2点x,y均有|N(x)∪N(y)|≥n-δ的Hamiltonian结果。1993年美国乔治亚州立大学的陈冠涛教授深化Fan条件并且得到满足1≤|N (x)∩N(y)|≤α-1的不相邻的任2点x,y均有max{d(x),d(y)}≥n/2的Hamiltonian结果。进一步改进Faudree等人的条件和综合陈冠涛教授的思路,研究满足1≤|N(x)∩N(y)|≤α-1的不相邻的任2点x,y均有|N(x)∪N(y)|≥n-δ-1,则是哈密尔顿图或G∈{K(n-1)/2, (n + 1)/2, K2* V3K(n-2)/3}。

关键词: 哈密尔顿图     邻域并     最小度     独立数    

Molecular mechanisms of fatty liver in obesity

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第3期   页码 275-287 doi: 10.1007/s11684-015-0410-2

摘要:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of liver disorders ranging from simple steatosis to advanced pathologies, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in developed societies. Insulin resistance associated with central obesity is the major cause of hepatic steatosis, which is characterized by excessive accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipid droplets in the liver. Accumulating evidence supports that dysregulation of adipose lipolysis and liver de novo lipogenesis (DNL) plays a key role in driving hepatic steatosis. In this work, we reviewed the molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced adipose lipolysis and increased hepatic DNL that lead to hepatic lipid accumulation in the context of obesity. Delineation of these mechanisms holds promise for developing novel avenues against NAFLD.

关键词: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease     insulin resistance     obesity    

The relevance of James Lovelock’s research and philosophy to environmental science and academia

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1639-7

摘要: James E. Lovelock, famed for his Gaia hypothesis, which views the Earth as a living integrated and interconnected self-regulating system whose equilibrium comes about from complex energy-based interactions and feedback loops, ultimately sustaining life, passed away at the end of July, 2022 at the age of 103. Not only are the adaptive mechanisms of Gaia central to the conversation of environmental homeostasis, they lie at the heart of climate change and global warming. Lovelock is also remembered as the co-inventor of the electron capture detector that eventually allowed for the sensitive detection of chlorofluorocarbons and pesticides. Finally, Lovelock’s free-spirited nature and research independence allow academia to rethink current research’s modus operandi.

关键词: Academic independence     Climate change     Electron capture detector     Environmental equilibrium     Global warming     Homeostasis    

Zinc homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第1期   页码 31-52 doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0251-9

摘要:

Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral that is required for various cellular functions. Zn dyshomeostasis always is related to certain disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications. The associations of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications, thus, stem from the multiple roles of Zn: (1) a constructive component of many important enzymes or proteins, (2) a requirement for insulin storage and secretion, (3) a direct or indirect antioxidant action, and (4) an insulin-like action. However, whether there is a clear cause-and-effect relationship of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or diabetic complications remains unclear. In fact, it is known that Zn deficiency is a common phenomenon in diabetic patients. Chronic low intake of Zn was associated with the increased risk of diabetes and diabetes also impairs Zn metabolism. Theoretically Zn supplementation should prevent the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications; however, limited available data are not always supportive of the above notion. Therefore, this review has tried to summarize these pieces of available information, possible mechanisms by which Zn prevents the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. In the final part, what are the current issues for Zn supplementation were also discussed.

关键词: zinc     zinc transporters     metallothionein     diabetes     diabetic complications     insulin resistance     antioxidant    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Diagnostic criteria of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA): a review and reflection

Yu Liao, Yufei Xiang, Zhiguang Zhou

期刊论文

Inhibition of protein kinase B by Palmitate in the insulin signaling of HepG2 cells and the preventiveeffect of Arachidonic acid on insulin resistance

XIA Yanzhi, WAN Xuedong, DUAN Qiuhong, HE Shansu, WANG Ximing

期刊论文

Mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity: a role of ATP

期刊论文

Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

null

期刊论文

Insulin resistance and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids

null

期刊论文

Overcoming oral insulin delivery barriers: application of cell penetrating peptide and silica-based nanoporous

Huining HE, Junxiao YE, Jianyong SHENG, Jianxin WANG, Yongzhuo HUANG, Guanyi CHEN, Jingkang WANG, Victor C YANG

期刊论文

Role of exercise training on insulin resistance and TNF-α in high-fat diet rats

Hui SUN MD, Xiuling DENG MM, Fangxi XIAO MD, Lulu CHEN MD, Huiqing LI MD,

期刊论文

Lingguizhugan Decoction, a Chinese herbal formula, improves insulin resistance in overweight/obese subjects

期刊论文

Interaction and independence on methane oxidation of landfill cover soil among three impact factors:

Pinjing HE, Na YANG, Wenjuan FANG, Fan Lü, Liming SHAO

期刊论文

Effects of resistin on insulin signaling in endothelial cells

Zhizhen LI, Fangping LI, Jianhong YE, Li YAN, Zuzhi FU

期刊论文

用智能药丸提供胰岛素?

Elizabeth K. Wilson

期刊论文

新的充分条件和哈密尔顿图

赵克文

期刊论文

Molecular mechanisms of fatty liver in obesity

null

期刊论文

The relevance of James Lovelock’s research and philosophy to environmental science and academia

期刊论文

Zinc homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes

null

期刊论文