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Soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil slopes

ZHAN Liangtong

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 198-204 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0023-1

摘要: The intensive soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil is one of the major reasons for slope failures. In this paper, the soil-water interaction is investigated with the full-scale field inspection of rainwater infiltration and comprehensive experiments, including wetting-induced softening tests, swelling, and shrinkage tests. It is demonstrated that the soil-water interaction induced by seasonal wetting-drying cycles is very complex, and it involves coupled effects among the changes in water content, suction, stress, deformation and shear strength. In addition, the abundant cracks in the expansive soil play an important role in the soil-water interaction. The cracks disintegrate the soil mass, and more importantly, provide easy pathways for rainfall infiltration. Infiltration of rainwater not only results in wetting-induced softening of the shallow unsaturated soil layers, but also leads to the increase of horizontal stress. The increase of horizontal stress may lead to a local passive failure. The seasonal wetting-drying cycles tend to result in a down-slope creeping of the shallow soil layer, which leads to progressive slope failure.

关键词: strength     intensive soil-water     comprehensive     Infiltration     wetting-induced softening    

Application of fractal theory to unsaturated soil mechanics

XU Yongfu, TONG Lixin

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第4期   页码 411-421 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0056-5

摘要: The mechanical properties of unsaturated soils are a function of the saturation degree or matric suction, and can be obtained based on currently available procedures. However, each procedure has its limitations and consequently, care should be taken in the selection of a proper procedure. The fractal approach seems to be a potentially useful tool to describe hierarchical systems and is suitable to model the structure and hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. In this paper, the soil-water characteristics, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function, unsaturated shear strength, swelling deformation and compression were derived from the fractal model for the pore-size distribution, and were expressed by only two independent physical parameters, the fractal dimension and the air entry value. The predictions of the proposed soil-water characteristics, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, unsaturated shear strength, swelling deformation and compression were in good agreement with published experimental data. Comparisons between the experimental results of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and the predictions of the both fractal model and the van Genuchten-Mualem model were also performed, and it was found that the predictions of the fractal model were better than that of the van Genuchten-Mualem model.

关键词: selection     soil-water     independent physical     unsaturated     strength    

REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF SOIL NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN DIVERSE CROPLAND OF A REPRESENTATIVE INTENSIVE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第4期   页码 530-540 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023515

摘要:

Soil nitrogen mineralization (Nmin) is a key process that converts organic N into mineral N that controls soil N availability to plants. However, regional assessments of soil Nmin in cropland and its affecting factors are lacking, especially in relation to variation in elevation. In this study, a 4-week incubation experiment was implemented to measure net soil Nmin rate, gross nitrification (Nit) rate and corresponding soil abiotic properties in five field soils (A–C, maize; D, flue-cured tobacco; and E, vegetables; with elevation decreasing from A to E) from different altitudes in a typical intensive agricultural area in Dali City, Yunnan Province, China. The results showed that soil Nmin rate ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 mg·kg−1·d−1 N, with the highest value observed in field E, followed by fields D, C, B, and A, which indicated that soil Nmin and Nit rates varied between fields, decreasing with elevation. The soil Nit rate ranged from 434.2 to 827.1 µg·kg−1·h−1 N, with the highest value determined in field D, followed by those in fields E, C, B, and A. The rates of soil Nmin and Nit were positively correlated with several key soil parameters, including total soil N, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic N across all fields, which indicated that soil variables regulated soil Nmin and Nit in cropland fields. In addition, a strong positive relationship was observed between soil Nmin and Nit. These findings provide a greater understanding of the response of soil Nmin among cropland fields related to spatial variation. It is suggested that the soil Nmin from cropland should be considered in the evaluation of the N transformations at the regional scale.

关键词: cropland     gross nitrification rate     regulatory factors     soil nitrogen mineralization     spatial variation    

Functional trait differences between native bunchgrasses and the invasive grass

Huiqin HE, Thomas A. MONACO, Thomas A. JONES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第1期   页码 139-147 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017175

摘要: We conducted 30- and 60-d greenhouse experiments to compare functional traits of (invasive annual grass) and four perennial bunchgrasses under well-watered or drought conditions. Even under drought, experienced significantly less stress (i.e., higher xylem pressure potential and greater shoot water content, water use per day and water-use efficiency) and biomass production than the perennial grasses after 30 d. However, after 60 d, its superiority was reduced under infrequent watering. Differences among perennial grasses were more pronounced for physiological traits under infrequent watering and for morphological traits under frequent watering. (fast-growing species) had a higher transpiration rate, lower leaf temperature, and lower water-use efficiency than the other grasses after 30 d. In contrast, (slow-growing) had lower xylem pressure potential and higher leaf temperature than all other grasses under infrequent watering. Under frequent watering, shoot dry mass and specific leaf area of was matched by (moderate-growing species). Our results indicate that multiple-species plantings or seedings are necessary to foster greater weed resistance against . We also emphasize that when choosing plant material for restoration, performance during both pulse (resource-rich) and inter-pulse (resource-poor) periods should be considered.

关键词: annual grass     comparative growth     drought response     invasive plant     native grass     specific leaf area     soil-water use    

Numerical evaluation of group-pile foundation subjected to cyclic horizontal load

Youngji JIN, Xiaohua BAO, Yoshimitsu KONDO, Feng ZHANG,

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第2期   页码 196-207 doi: 10.1007/s11709-010-0021-6

摘要: In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses of a real-scale group-pile foundation subjected to horizontal cyclic loading are conducted using a program named DBLEAVES. In the simulations, nonlinear behaviors of ground and piles are described by subloading model and the axial-force dependent model (AFD model) which considered the axial-force dependency in the nonlinear moment-curvature relations. In order to consider the influence of an effective stress path on the prediction of the group-pile foundation, the analyses are conducted within the framework of the soil-water coupling method with finite-difference and finite-element regime. The material parameters of soils are determined based on conventional triaxial drained compression tests on undisturbed and remolded specimens. The applicability of the proposed numerical method is encouraging, and therefore, it is quite confident to say that the method can be used to predict the mechanical behaviors of group-pile foundation to a satisfactory accuracy, particularly with the effective stress analysis.

关键词: group-pile foundation     real-scale cyclic loading test     three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM)     soil-water coupling analysis     undisturbed and remolded specimens    

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-558 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2020349

摘要:

Agriculture uses a large proportion of global and regional water resources. Due to the rapid increase of population in the world, the increasing competition for water resources has led to an urgent need in increasing crop water productivity for agricultural sustainability. As the medium for crop growth, soils and their properties are important in affecting crop water productivity. This review examines the effects of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties on crop water productivity and the quantitative relationships between them. A comprehensive view of these relationships may provide important insights for soil and water management in arable land for agriculture in the future.

 

关键词: crop water productivity     crop yield     soil chemical properties     soil microbial properties     soil physical properties     water consumption    

Suitability of common models to estimate hydrology and diffuse water pollution in North-eastern Germanlowland catchments with intensive agricultural land use

Muhammad WASEEM, Frauke KACHHOLZ, Jens TRÄNCKNER

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第4期   页码 420-431 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018243

摘要:

Various process-based models are extensively being used to analyze and forecast catchment hydrology and water quality. However, it is always important to select the appropriate hydrological and water quality modeling tools to predict and analyze the watershed and also consider their strengths and weaknesses. Different factors such as data availability, hydrological, hydraulic, and water quality processes and their desired level of complexity are crucial for selecting a plausible modeling tool. This review is focused on suitable model selection with a focus on desired hydrological, hydraulic and water quality processes (nitrogen fate and transport in surface, subsurface and groundwater bodies) by keeping in view the typical lowland catchments with intensive agricultural land use, higher groundwater tables, and decreased retention times due to the provision of artificial drainage. In this study, four different physically based, partially and fully distributed integrated water modeling tools, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool), SWIM (soil and water integrated model), HSPF (hydrological simulation program– FORTRAN) and a combination of tools from DHI (MIKE SHE coupled with MIKE 11 and ECO Lab), have been reviewed particularly for the Tollense River catchment located in North-eastern Germany. DHI combined tools and SWAT were more suitable for simulating the desired hydrological processes, but in the case of river hydraulics and water quality, the DHI family of tools has an edge due to their integrated coupling between MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 and ECO Lab. In case of SWAT, it needs to be coupled with another tool to model the hydraulics in the Tollense River as SWAT does not include backwater effects and provision of control structures. However, both SWAT and DHI tools are more data demanding in comparison to SWIM and HSPF. For studying nitrogen fate and transport in unsaturated, saturated, and river zone, HSPF was a better model to simulate the desired nitrogen transformation and transport processes. However, for nitrogen dynamics and transformations in shallow streams, ECO Lab had an edge due its flexibility for inclusion of user-desired water quality parameters and processes. In the case of SWIM, most of the input data and governing equations are similar to SWAT but it does not include water bodies (ponds and lakes), wetlands and drainage systems. In this review, only the processes that were needed to simulate the Tollense River catchment were considered, however the resulted model selection criteria can be generalized to other lowland catchments in Australia, North-western Europe and North America with similar complexity.

关键词: diffuse pollution     ECO Lab     HSPF     lowland catchment     MIKE 11     MIKE SHE     modeling tools     SWAT     SWIM     Tollense River     water quality    

Characterising populations living close to intensive farming and composting facilities in England

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1332-z

摘要:

• Bioaerosol emitted from farming and composting facilities may pose health risks.

关键词: Composting     Intensive farming     Bioaerosol     Population characteristics     Public health    

HIGH QUALITY DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION ON THE

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 501-511 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021425

摘要:

The Loess Plateau is the core area in the Yellow River basin for implementing environmental protection and high-quality development strategies. A series of ecological projects has implemented aimed at soil and water conservation and ecological management on the Loess Plateau over the past 70 years. The effects of the ecological projects are apparent mainly through a marked increase in vegetation cover, controlled soil erosion and reduced flow of sediment into the Yellow River, continual optimization of the industrial structure and increased production from arable land, poverty alleviation and greater prosperity, and optimal allocation of space for biological organisms. Major problems have also been analyzed in ecological management including the fragile ecosystem of the region, maintaining the stability of vegetation, lower agricultural productivity and continued risk from natural disasters. Some suitable schemes and models have been developed for the coordinated development of the region through research and demonstration, striking the optimum balance between rural industry and ecology, and increased regional capacity to supply high-quality ecological products. Countermeasures to address the problems are suggested to guide ecological management and high-quality development in the future.

 

关键词: ecological management     high quality development     industrial structure     soil erosion     soil and water conservation     Loess Plateau    

Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China

Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第4期   页码 295-310 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015074

摘要: The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production area in China, but the current winter wheat-summer maize system has resulted in a large water deficit. This water-shortage necessitates the improvement of crop water productivity in the NCP. A crop water model, AquaCrop, was adopted to investigate yield and water productivity (WP) for rain-fed summer maize on the piedmont of the NCP. The data sets to calibrate and validate the model were obtained from a 3-year (2011–2013) field experiment conducted on the Yanshan piedmont of the NCP. The range of root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured biomass was 0.67–1.25 t·hm , and that of relative error (RE) was 9.4%–15.4%, the coefficient of determination ( ) ranged from 0.992 to 0.994. The RMSE between the simulated and measured soil water storage at depth of 0–100 cm ranged from 4.09 to 4.39 mm; and RE and in the range of 1.07%–1.20% and 0.880–0.997, respectively. The WP as measured by crop yield per unit evapotranspiration was 2.50–2.66 kg·m . The simulated impact of long-term climate (i.e., 1980–2010) and groundwater depth on crop yield and WP revealed that the higher yield and WP could be obtained in dry years in areas with capillary recharge from groundwater, and much lower values elsewhere. The simulation also suggested that supplementary irrigation in areas without capillary groundwater would not result in groundwater over-tapping since the precipitation can meet the water required by both maize and ecosystem, thus a beneficial outcome for both food and ecosystem security can be assured.

关键词: AquaCrop     summer maize     soil water balance     water productivity    

太湖流域农业经营集约化管理研究

史健鹏,金苗,任泽,黄贤忠,李旭祥

《中国工程科学》 2010年 第12卷 第6期   页码 104-107

摘要:

就解决太湖水体富营养化最主要的污染源——农业面污染源,根据微观经济学原理建立了农业集约化管理模型。以GIS为平台估算其耕地面积和化肥的科学施用量,用SPSS相关性分析当地居民的问卷调查,对集约化管理产生的经济效益和环境效益进行详细分析,得出农业面源污染物总氮、总磷排放比2005年各下降21 %和16 %。结论显示在太湖流域套用集约化管理能够很好地控制农业面污染源,将农业面污染源的问题与实际社会成本、农业体制改革结合,从根本上解决农业面污染源。

关键词: 太湖     农业面源污染     集约化管理     GIS     SPSS    

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

Di WU, Allan A. ANDALES, Hui YANG, Qing SUN, Shichao CHEN, Xiuwei GUO, Donghao LI, Taisheng DU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-558 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020349

摘要: Agriculture uses a large proportion of global and regional water resources. Due to the rapid increase of population in the world, the increasing competition for water resources has led to an urgent need in increasing crop water productivity for agricultural sustainability. As the medium for crop growth, soils and their properties are important in affecting crop water productivity. This review examines the effects of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties on crop water productivity and the quantitative relationships between them. A comprehensive view of these relationships may provide important insights for soil and water management in arable land for agriculture in the future.

关键词: crop water productivity     crop yield     soil chemical properties     soil microbial properties     soil physical properties     water consumption    

Effect of mulching with maize straw on water infiltration and soil loss at different initial soil moistures

Yifu ZHANG,Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Qingjie WANG,Ying CHEN,Wanzhi CHEN,Shaochun MA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第2期   页码 161-170 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2016104

摘要: Mulching and soil water content (SWC) have a significant impact on soil erosion, and this study investigated the effect of straw mulching on water infiltration and soil loss under different initial SWC treatments in a rainfall simulation experiment conducted in northern China. Increasing initial SWC can decrease soil infiltration and increase soil loss. During an 80 mm rainfall event (80 mm·h for 60 min), 8%, 12% and 16% initial SWC treatments decreased cumulative infiltration by 8.7%, 42.5% and 58.1%, and increased total sediment yield by 44, 146 and 315 g, respectively, compared to 4% initial SWC. However, in all the straw mulching treatments, there was no significant difference in stable infiltration rate between the different initial SWC treatments. For all initial SWC treatments, straw mulching of 30% or more significantly enhanced water infiltration by over 31% and reduced soil loss by over 49%, compared to the unmulched treatment. Taking into consideration the performance of no-till planters, a maize straw mulching rate of 30% to 60% (1400–3100 kg·hm ) is recommended for the conservation of water and soil in northern China.

关键词: infiltration     initial soil water content     rainfall simulation     soil loss     straw mulching    

Assessment of future climate change impacts on water-heat-salt migration in unsaturated frozen soil using

Hanli Wan, Jianmin Bian, Han Zhang, Yihan Li

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1302-5

摘要: Abstract • A model coupling water-heat-salt of unsaturated frozen soil was established. • Future temperature, precipitation, and evaporation increase in freeze–thaw period. • Soil water, heat, and salt transport are closely coupled during freeze–thaw period. • Freeze–thaw cycles and future climate change can exacerbate salinization. The transport mechanisms of water, heat, and salt in unsaturated frozen soil, as well as its response to future climate change are in urgent need of study. In this study, western Jilin Province in north-eastern China was studied to produce a model of coupled water-heat-salt in unsaturated frozen soil using CoupModel. The water, heat, and salt dynamics of unsaturated frozen soil under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios were simulated to analyze the effects of future climate change on unsaturated frozen soil. The results show that water, heat, and salt migration are tightly coupled, and the soil salt concentration in the surface layer (10 cm) exhibits explosive growth after freezing and thawing. The future (2020–2099) meteorological factors in the study area were predicted using the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). For RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, future temperatures during the freeze–thaw period increased by 2.68°C, 3.18°C, and 4.28°C, respectively; precipitation increased by 30.28 mm, 28.41 mm, and 32.17 mm, respectively; and evaporation increased by 93.57 mm, 106.95 mm, and 130.57 mm, respectively. Climate change will shorten the freeze–thaw period, advance the soil melting time from April to March, and enhance water and salt transport. Compared to the baseline period (1961–2005), future soil salt concentrations at 10 cm increased by 1547.54 mg/L, 1762.86 mg/L, and 1713.66 mg/L under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5, respectively. The explosive salt accumulation is more obvious. Effective measures should be taken to prevent the salinization of unsaturated frozen soils and address climate change.

关键词: Soil salinization     Climate change     Unsaturated frozen soil     Water-heat-salt balance     Soil environment change    

Effects of mulching for water conservation on soil carbon, nitrogen and biological properties

Xiaomin PI, Tongxun ZHANG, Benhua SUN, Quanhong CUI, Yun GUO, Mingxia GAO, Hao FENG, David W. HOPKINS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 146-154 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017136

摘要: The effect of mulching with straw, white plastic film and black plastic film for improving soil water storage and on the soil properties was examined in a wheat-maize rotation system on Loess soil in northwestern China. All the mulches improved the water storage to some extent and led to warmer soils. However, the organic C and total N contents of the soils declined significantly under the mulches, particularly the plastic film mulches, and this could have long-term detrimental effects on soil quality and the sustainability of the some mulching practices.

关键词: biomass     carbon     mulch     nitrogen     plastic films     soil     straw     water storage    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil slopes

ZHAN Liangtong

期刊论文

Application of fractal theory to unsaturated soil mechanics

XU Yongfu, TONG Lixin

期刊论文

REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF SOIL NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN DIVERSE CROPLAND OF A REPRESENTATIVE INTENSIVE

期刊论文

Functional trait differences between native bunchgrasses and the invasive grass

Huiqin HE, Thomas A. MONACO, Thomas A. JONES

期刊论文

Numerical evaluation of group-pile foundation subjected to cyclic horizontal load

Youngji JIN, Xiaohua BAO, Yoshimitsu KONDO, Feng ZHANG,

期刊论文

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

期刊论文

Suitability of common models to estimate hydrology and diffuse water pollution in North-eastern Germanlowland catchments with intensive agricultural land use

Muhammad WASEEM, Frauke KACHHOLZ, Jens TRÄNCKNER

期刊论文

Characterising populations living close to intensive farming and composting facilities in England

期刊论文

HIGH QUALITY DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION AND ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION ON THE

期刊论文

Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China

Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

期刊论文

太湖流域农业经营集约化管理研究

史健鹏,金苗,任泽,黄贤忠,李旭祥

期刊论文

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

Di WU, Allan A. ANDALES, Hui YANG, Qing SUN, Shichao CHEN, Xiuwei GUO, Donghao LI, Taisheng DU

期刊论文

Effect of mulching with maize straw on water infiltration and soil loss at different initial soil moistures

Yifu ZHANG,Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Qingjie WANG,Ying CHEN,Wanzhi CHEN,Shaochun MA

期刊论文

Assessment of future climate change impacts on water-heat-salt migration in unsaturated frozen soil using

Hanli Wan, Jianmin Bian, Han Zhang, Yihan Li

期刊论文

Effects of mulching for water conservation on soil carbon, nitrogen and biological properties

Xiaomin PI, Tongxun ZHANG, Benhua SUN, Quanhong CUI, Yun GUO, Mingxia GAO, Hao FENG, David W. HOPKINS

期刊论文