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Progress on major genes for high fecundity in ewes

Qiuyue LIU,Zhangyuan PAN,Xiangyu WANG,Wenping HU,Ran DI,Yaxing YAO,Mingxing CHU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第4期   页码 282-290 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014042

摘要: The existence of major genes affecting fecundity in sheep flocks throughout the world has been demonstrated. Three major genes whose mutations can increase ovulation rate have been discovered, and all related to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. The mutant of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B) has an additive effect on ovulation rate. Six mutations ( , , , , , ) of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) related with fertility have been identified that share the same mechanism. All the mutants can increase ovulation rate in heterozygotes and cause complete sterility in homozygotes. Homozygous ewes with two new mutations ( ) of BMP15 had increased ovulation rate without causing sterility. There are five mutations in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) associated with sheep prolificacy where and have additive an effect on ovulation rate and litter size. The newly identified β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 ( ) gene of is proposed as a new mechanism of ovulation rate regulation in sheep. is an X-linked maternally imprinted gene which increases ovulation rate. In addition, several putative major genes need to be verified. This review is focused on the identification of the mutations and mechanisms whereby the major genes affecting ovulation rate.

关键词: major gene     ovulation rate     sheep     reproduction    

The Major Root Causes of Smog in China and Technologies and Solutions to Reduce It

Ke Liu

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第4期   页码 343-348 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2016053

摘要: This paper discusses the two major root causes of smog in China. The first one is the distributed coal combustion in many small and medium sized boilers which have no emission control systems installed. To resolve this problem, there are several ways, such as increasing the centralized coal combustion for heat and power cogeneration; or converting coal to SNG in areas where there is enough water resource and removing the pollutants of the coal in the centralized coal to SNG plant, or refining the coal and making it cleaner first before combustion. The second major cause of smog is the low quality diesel and outdated diesel engines used in China. To solve this problem, there are some ways, such as improving the diesel quality to meet the national V standard, and meanwhile, enhancing the law enforcement to eliminate these outdated diesel engines that do not meet the national emission standards; in addition, combusting cleaner and cheaper fuel such as methanol or DME in the diesel engines is also an option for certain areas where there are abundant alternative fuels such as methanol to replace diesel.

关键词: smog     emissions     coal refining     coal utilization     solutions    

Translational application of neuroimaging in major depressive disorder: a review of psychoradiological

Ziqi Chen, Xiaoqi Huang, Qiyong Gong, Bharat B. Biswal

《医学前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 528-540 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0798-1

摘要: Major depressive disorder (MDD) causes great decrements in health and quality of life with increments in healthcare costs, but the causes and pathogenesis of depression remain largely unknown, which greatly prevent its early detection and effective treatment. With the advancement of neuroimaging approaches, numerous functional and structural alterations in the brain have been detected in MDD and more recently attempts have been made to apply these findings to clinical practice. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the progress in translational application of psychoradiological findings in MDD with a specified focus on potential clinical usage. The foreseeable clinical applications for different MRI modalities were introduced according to their role in disorder classification, subtyping, and prediction. While evidence of cerebral structural and functional changes associated with MDD classification and subtyping was heterogeneous and/or sparse, the ACC and hippocampus have been consistently suggested to be important biomarkers in predicting treatment selection and treatment response. These findings underlined the potential utility of brain biomarkers for clinical practice.

关键词: psychoradiology     major depressive disorder     MRI     biomarker    

Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and the major regulators

Li XUE, Ertao WANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第7卷 第3期   页码 296-306 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020347

摘要:

Plants growing in natural soils encounter diverse biotic and abiotic stresses and have adapted with sophisticated strategies to deal with complex environments such as changing root system structure, evoking biochemical responses and recruiting microbial partners. Under selection pressure, plants and their associated microorganisms assemble into a functional entity known as a holobiont. The commonest cooperative interaction is between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. About 80% of terrestrial plants can form AM symbiosis with the ancient phylum Glomeromycota. A very large network of extraradical and intraradical mycelium of AM fungi connects the underground biota and the nearby carbon and nutrient fluxes. Here, we discuss recent progress on the regulators of AM associations with plants, AM fungi and their surrounding environments, and explore further mechanistic insights.

关键词: AM symbiosis     signal     regulators     nutrients     phosphate     microbiota    

Stock Volatility Increases the Mortality Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Suicide: A Case-Crossover

Ya Gao,Peng Yin,Haidong Kan,Renjie Chen,Maigeng Zhou,

《工程(英文)》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2024.05.010

摘要: Stock volatility constitutes an adverse psychological stressor, but few large-scale studies have focused on its impact on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and suicide. Here, we conducted an individual-level time-stratified case-crossover study to explore the association of daily stock volatility (daily returns and intra-daily oscillations for three kinds of stock indices) with MACEs and suicide among more than 12 million individual decedents from all counties in the mainland of China between 2013 and 2019. For daily stock returns, both stock increases and decreases were associated with increased mortality risks of all MACEs and suicide. There were consistent and positive associations between intra-daily stock oscillations and mortality due to MACEs and suicide. The excess mortality risks occurred at the current day (lag 0 d), persisted for two days, and were greatest for suicide and hemorrhagic stroke. Taking the present-day Shanghai and Shenzhen 300 Index as an example, a 1% decrease in daily returns was associated with 0.74%–1.04% and 1.77% increases in mortality risks of MACEs and suicide, respectively; the corresponding risk increments were 0.57%–0.85% and 0.92% for a 1% increase in daily returns and 0.67%–0.77% and 1.09% for a 1% increase in intra-daily stock oscillations. The excess risks were more pronounced among individuals aged 65–74 years, males, and those with lower education levels. Our findings revealed considerable health risks linked to sociopsychological stressors, which are helpful for the government and general public to mitigate the immediate cardiovascular and mental health risks associated with stock market volatility.

关键词: Stock volatility     Major adverse cardiovascular events     Suicide     Case-crossover study    

Life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges in China

FAN Lichu

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 261-266 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0033-z

摘要: The idea of life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges is introduced. Based on the key components and non-key components of a bridge and the consideration of the inspectability, replaceability, reparability, controllability and retrofitability of the bridge components, different seismic design levels and expected performance objectives are suggested for the major bridges in China. The vulnerability analysis and progressive collapse analysis, as well as risk assessment, are also proposed to be the important issues to study in order to guide the seismic design of major bridges in the future.

关键词: controllability     progressive     reparability     different     important    

人类遗传病的家系收集疾病基因定位克隆与疾病基因功能的研究

夏家辉

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第11期   页码 1-11

摘要:

介绍了中国医学遗传学国家重点实验室在遗传病家系收集、疾病基因定位、疾病基因克隆和疾病基因功能研究方面的研究工作。用细胞遗传学G显带技术于1975年发现了一条与鼻咽癌相关的标记染色体t(1;3)(q44;p11);1981年将睾丸决定基因(TDF)定位于Yp11.32带;1991年以来收集遗传病家系345种共590个;1996年用显微切割、PCR、微克隆技术克隆了EXT2基因;1998年用基因家族-候选疾病基因克隆方法克隆了遗传性神经性耳聋基因GJB3;1999年用连锁分析和全基因组扫描将一种遗传性弥漫性浅表性光敏性汗孔角化症定位于12q23.2带,并在基因功能研究中发现了一个新的细胞内转运蛋白。

关键词: 遗传病家系     基因定位和克隆     基因家族-候选疾病基因克隆     基因组扫描     基因功能研究    

Temporal trend of mortality from major cancers in Xuanwei, China

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第4期   页码 487-495 doi: 10.1007/s11684-015-0413-z

摘要:

Although a number of studies have examined the etiology of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, China, other types of cancer in this county have not been reported systematically. This study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of eight major cancers in Xuanwei County using data from three mortality surveys (1973–1975, 1990–1992, and 2004–2005). The Chinese population in 1990 was used as a standard population to calculate age-standardized mortality rates. Cancers of lung, liver, breast, brain, esophagus, leukemia, rectum, and stomach were identified as the leading cancers in this county in terms of mortality rate. During the three time periods, lung cancer remained as the most common type of cancer. The mortality rates for all other types of cancer were lower than those of the national average, but an increasing trend was observed for all the cancers, particularly from 1990–1992 to 2004–2005. The temporal trend could be partly explained by changes in risk factors, but it also may be due to the improvement in cancer diagnosis and screening. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to systematically examine the underlying reasons for the temporal trend of the major cancers in Xuanwei County.

关键词: cancer     mortality     Xuanwei     temporal trend    

Value Management Practices on Major Construction Projects and Green Building

Ru-jiang Zhao,Wung Hee Moh

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2016年 第3卷 第2期   页码 147-157 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2016018

摘要: The paper starts with background information on value management (VM) in the construction industry and current development situation of the green building industry, and costs and profitability of green buildings. The paper continues with detailed analyses of the findings, covering new developments and perceptions of VM, and applications of VM in the industry. The paper also reports case studies on the practices adopted in the planning and design management phase of SIPO Guangdong Patent Examination Cooperation Center and in the construction management phase of Guangzhou International Bio-Island Standard Property Unit II project. As revealed by the practices, the value-adds and savings in construction costs through the application of VM are important for the developers, and the contributions of VM application in green building projects are significant to achieving the expected targets and to resolving the design and construction challenges encountered in the development of green building industry. And the paper presents, findings on how VM can improve construction management and coordination of several ongoing construction projects and on how VM can be systematically implemented by phases, and discussions on other potential benefits of using VM systems.

关键词: value management (VM)     VM theory and practices     Chinese construction industry     green buildings    

Molecular engineering of dendrimer nanovectors for siRNA delivery and gene silencing

Yu Cao, Xiaoxuan Liu, Ling Peng

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第4期   页码 663-675 doi: 10.1007/s11705-017-1623-5

摘要: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics hold great promise to treat a variety of diseases, as long as they can be delivered safely and effectively into cells. Dendrimers are appealing vectors for siRNA delivery by virtue of their well-defined molecular architecture and multivalent cooperativity. However, the clinical translation of RNA therapeutics mediated by dendrimer delivery is hampered by the lack of dendrimers that are of high quality to meet good manufacturing practice standard. In this context, we have developed small amphiphilic dendrimers that self-assemble into supramolecular structures, which mimic high-generation dendrimers synthesized with covalent construction, yet are easy to produce in large amount and superior quality. Indeed, the concept of supramolecular dendrimers has proved to be very promising, and has opened up a new avenue for dendrimer-mediated siRNA delivery. A series of self-assembling supramolecular dendrimers have consequently been established, some of them out-performing the currently available nonviral vectors in delivering siRNA to various cell types and , including human primary cells and stem cells. This short review presents a brief introduction to RNAi therapeutics, the obstacles to their delivery and the advantages of dendrimer delivery vectors as well as our bio-inspired structurally flexible dendrimers for siRNA delivery. We then highlight our efforts in creating self-assembling amphiphilic dendrimers to construct supramolecular dendrimer nanosystems for effective siRNA delivery as well as the related structural alterations to enhance delivery efficiency. The advent of self-assembling supramolecular dendrimer nanovectors holds great promise and heralds a new era of dendrimer-mediated delivery of RNA therapeutics in biomedical applications.

关键词: gene therapy     RNAi therapeutics     dendrimer     nanovectors     gene silencing    

The antibiotic resistome: gene flow in environments, animals and human beings

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第2期   页码 161-168 doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0531-x

摘要:

The antibiotic resistance is natural in bacteria and predates the human use of antibiotics. Numerous antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been discovered to confer resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The ARGs in natural environments are highly integrated and tightly regulated in specific bacterial metabolic networks. However, the antibiotic selection pressure conferred by the use of antibiotics in both human medicine and agriculture practice leads to a significant increase of antibiotic resistance and a steady accumulation of ARGs in bacteria. In this review, we summarized, with an emphasis on an ecological point of view, the important research progress regarding the collective ARGs (antibiotic resistome) in bacterial communities of natural environments, human and animals, i.e., in the one health settings. We propose that the resistance gene flow in nature is “from the natural environments” and “to the natural environments”; human and animals, as intermediate recipients and disseminators, contribute greatly to such a resistance gene “circulation.”

关键词: antibiotic resistance     resistome     microbiome     gene flow    

世界主要国家工程科技重大计划与前沿问题综述

宋超,孙胜凯,陈进东,王亚琼,阚晓伟,魏畅,崔剑

《中国工程科学》 2017年 第19卷 第1期   页码 4-12 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2017.01.002

摘要:

本文梳理了近年来世界各主要国家工程科技领域的重大战略计划和措施,简要分析了当前工程科技主要领域发展状况、水平,对主要国家工程科技领域计划的目标、路径与内容进行了比较分析,描绘了工程科技计划关系图、聚焦点和前沿问题。

关键词: 工程科技     主要国家     重大计划     前沿问题     聚焦点    

Implementation of a flexible Major Vacation Toll-free Program for small passenger vehicles in China

Meng XU, Ziyou GAO

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第4期   页码 498-499 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2017111

Environmental and human health impact assessment of major interior wall decorative materials

Bingqing ZHANG, Ruochen ZENG, Xiaodong LI

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 406-415 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0025-4

摘要: Despite the growing interest in green products in the interior wall decorative material market, knowledge gaps exist because determining which product is more environmental and user friendly than the others is difficult. This work assesses the environmental and human health profiles of interior latex and wallpaper. Two interior latex products of different raw material ratios and one non-woven wallpaper product are considered. The environmental impact assessment follows life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and applies Building Environmental Performance Analysis System (BEPAS). The human health impact is based on impact-pathway chain and is performed using Building Health Impact Analysis System (BHIAS). The assessment scope, associated emissions, and territorial scope of various emissions are defined to facilitate comparison study of interior wall decorative products. The impacts are classified into 15 categories belonging to three safeguard areas: ecological environment, natural resources, and human health. The impacts of categories are calculated and monetized using willingness to pay (WTP) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and summarized as an integrated external cost of environmental and human health impacts. Assessment results reveal that the integrated impact of interior latex is lower than that of non-woven wallpaper, and the interior latex of low quality causes low life cycle integrated impact. The most impacted categories are global warming, respiratory effects, and water consumption. Hotspots of product manufacturing are recognized to promote green product design.

关键词: life cycle assessment     human health impact     integrated assessment     interior wall decorative material     green product    

Construction of lentiviral vector carrying Rab9 gene and its expression in mouse brain

Youguo HAO, Min ZHANG, Jinzhi XU, Bitao BU, Jiajun WEI

《医学前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第2期   页码 141-147 doi: 10.1007/s11684-009-0041-6

摘要: Rab proteins and their effectors facilitate vesicular transport by tethering donor vesicles to their respective target membranes. Rab9 mediates late endosome-to- -Golgi-network trafficking. To explore the possibility of Rab9-related gene therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, we packed Lentivirus encoding Rab9. The expressing plasmid pCDH1-MCF1-Rab9-EF1-copGFP was constructed by using molecular biological techniques. The Lentivirus encoding Rab9 cDNA was packed by Lifectamine-2000 mediated co-transfection of the plasmid pPACKH1- , pPACKH1- and pVSV- into 293T cells. DNA sequencing proved the successful construction of pCDH1-MCF1-Rab9-EF1-copGFP. After 72 hours, the expression of GFP could be detected in BV-2 cells. Western blotting revealed that the Rab9 gene expression in BALB/c mice brain was up-regulated significantly 4 weeks after injection with Lentivirus encoding Rab9, which evidenced a satisfactory increasing effect of this virus. Administration of Lenti-Rab9 to postnatal day 3 Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) mice reduced motor defects and prevented the weight loss associated with female NPC mice, as well as modulating the death rate of Purkinje neurons. It is concluded that the packaging of Lentivirus encoding Rab9 was successful. Lentivirus encoding Rab9 can increase the expression of Rab9 gene effectively, which might offer a novel means for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

关键词: Rab9     lentivirus     gene therapy     gene transfer    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Progress on major genes for high fecundity in ewes

Qiuyue LIU,Zhangyuan PAN,Xiangyu WANG,Wenping HU,Ran DI,Yaxing YAO,Mingxing CHU

期刊论文

The Major Root Causes of Smog in China and Technologies and Solutions to Reduce It

Ke Liu

期刊论文

Translational application of neuroimaging in major depressive disorder: a review of psychoradiological

Ziqi Chen, Xiaoqi Huang, Qiyong Gong, Bharat B. Biswal

期刊论文

Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and the major regulators

Li XUE, Ertao WANG

期刊论文

Stock Volatility Increases the Mortality Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Suicide: A Case-Crossover

Ya Gao,Peng Yin,Haidong Kan,Renjie Chen,Maigeng Zhou,

期刊论文

Life cycle and performance based seismic design of major bridges in China

FAN Lichu

期刊论文

人类遗传病的家系收集疾病基因定位克隆与疾病基因功能的研究

夏家辉

期刊论文

Temporal trend of mortality from major cancers in Xuanwei, China

null

期刊论文

Value Management Practices on Major Construction Projects and Green Building

Ru-jiang Zhao,Wung Hee Moh

期刊论文

Molecular engineering of dendrimer nanovectors for siRNA delivery and gene silencing

Yu Cao, Xiaoxuan Liu, Ling Peng

期刊论文

The antibiotic resistome: gene flow in environments, animals and human beings

null

期刊论文

世界主要国家工程科技重大计划与前沿问题综述

宋超,孙胜凯,陈进东,王亚琼,阚晓伟,魏畅,崔剑

期刊论文

Implementation of a flexible Major Vacation Toll-free Program for small passenger vehicles in China

Meng XU, Ziyou GAO

期刊论文

Environmental and human health impact assessment of major interior wall decorative materials

Bingqing ZHANG, Ruochen ZENG, Xiaodong LI

期刊论文

Construction of lentiviral vector carrying Rab9 gene and its expression in mouse brain

Youguo HAO, Min ZHANG, Jinzhi XU, Bitao BU, Jiajun WEI

期刊论文