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Latest research progress for LBE coolant reactor of China initiative accelerator driven system project

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 810-831 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0760-1

摘要: China’s accelerator driven subcritical system (ADS) development has made significant progress during the past decade. With the successful construction and operation of the international prototype of ADS superconducting proton linac, the lead-based critical/subcritical zero-power facility VENUS-II and the comprehensive thermal-hydraulic and material test facilities for LBE (lead bismuth eutectic) coolant, China is playing a pivotal role in advanced steady-state operations toward the next step, the ADS project. The China initiative Accelerator Driven System (CiADS) is the next facility for China’s ADS program, aimed to bridge the gaps between the ADS experiment and the LBE cooled subcritical reactor. The total power of the CiADS will reach 10 MW. The CiADS engineering design was approved by Chinese government in 2018. Since then, the CiADS project has been fully transferred to the construction application stage. The subcritical reactor is an important part of the whole CiADS project. Currently, a pool-type LBE cooled fast reactor is chosen as the subcritical reactor of the CiADS. Physical and thermal experiments and software development for LBE coolant were conducted simultaneously to support the design and construction of the CiADS LBE-cooled subcritical reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the efforts made in China in the LBE-cooled fast reactor to provide certain supporting data and reference solutions for further design and development for ADS. Thus, the roadmap of China’s ADS, the development process of the CiADS, the important design of the current CiADS subcritical reactor, and the efforts to build the LBE-cooled fast reactor are presented.

关键词: LBE (lead bismuth eutectic) coolant reactor     China initiative Accelerator Driven System (CiADS) project     research progress    

An old issue and a new challenge for nuclear reactor safety

F. D’AURIA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 854-859 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0729-0

摘要: Nuclear reactor safety (NRS) and the branch accident analysis (AA) constitute proven technologies: these are based on, among the other things, long lasting research and operational experience in the area of water cooled nuclear reactors (WCNR). Large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) has been, so far, the orienting scenario within AA and a basis for the design of reactors. An incomplete vision for those technologies during the last few years is as follows: Progress in fundamentals was stagnant, namely in those countries where the WCNR were designed. Weaknesses became evident, noticeably in relation to nuclear fuel under high burn-up. Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) techniques were perfected and available for application. Electronic and informatics systems were in extensive use and their impact in case of accident becomes more and more un-checked (however, quite irrelevant in case of LBLOCA). The time delay between technological discoveries and applications was becoming longer. The present paper deals with the LBLOCA that is inserted into the above context. Key conclusion is that regulations need suitable modification, rather than lowering the importance and the role of LBLOCA. Moreover, strengths of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and containment need a tight link.

关键词: large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA)     nuclear reactor safety (NRS)     licensing perspectives     basis for design of water cooled nuclear reactors (WCNR)    

Impact of roxarsone on the UASB reactor performance and its degradation

Mengchuan Shui, Feng Ji, Rui Tang, Shoujun Yuan, Xinmin Zhan, Wei Wang, Zhenhu Hu

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-016-0871-9

摘要: Impact of continuous ROX addition on performance of UASB reactor was investigated With continuous ROX addition, severe inhibition to methanogenic activity occurred ROX addition caused the changes in the morphology and bacterial diversity of AGS A possible biotransformation pathway of ROX in the UASB reactor was proposed 60%–70% of the arsenic was discharged to the effluent, and 30%–40% was precipitated Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, ROX) has been widely used for decades as an organoarsenic feed additive to control intestinal parasites and improve feed efficiency in animal production. However, most of the ROX is excreted into the manure, causing arsenic contamination in wastewater. The arsenic compounds are toxic to microorganisms, but the influence of continuous ROX loading on upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is still unknown. In this study, the impact of ROX and its degradation products on the performance of the UASB reactor and the degradation and speciation of ROX in the reactor were investigated. The UASB reactor (hydraulic retention time: 1.75 d) was operated using synthetic wastewater supplemented with ROX for a period of 260 days. With continuous ROX addition at 25.0 mg?L , severe inhibition to methanogenic activity occurred after 87 days operation accompanied with an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and a decline in pH. The decrease of added ROX concentration to 13.2 mg?L did not mediate the inhibition. As(III), As(V), MMA(V), DMA(V), HAPA and an unknown arsenic compound were detected in the reactor, and a possible biotransformation pathway of ROX was proposed. Mass balance analysis of arsenic indicated that 60%–70% of the arsenic was discharged into the effluent, and 30%–40% was precipitated in the reactor. The results from this study suggest that we need to pay attention to the stability in the UASB reactors treating organoarsenic-contaminated manure and wastewater, and the effluent and sludge from the reactor to avoid diffusion of arsenic contamination.

关键词: Anaerobic digestion     Anaerobic granular sludge (AGS)     Arsenic species     Impact     Roxarsone (ROX)     UASB reactor    

Advances in the slurry reactor technology of the anthraquinone process for H

Hongbo Li, Bo Zheng, Zhiyong Pan, Baoning Zong, Minghua Qiao

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第1期   页码 124-131 doi: 10.1007/s11705-017-1676-5

摘要: This paper overviews the development of the anthraquinone auto-oxidation (AO) process for the production of hydrogen peroxide in China and abroad. The characteristics and differences between the fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors for the AO process are presented. The detailed comparison indicates that the production of hydrogen peroxide with the fluidized-bed reactor has many advantages, such as lower operation cost and catalyst consumption, less anthraquinone degradation, higher catalyst utilization efficiency, and higher hydrogenation efficiency. The key characters of the production technology of hydrogen peroxide based on the fluidized-bed reactor developed by the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Sinopec are also disclosed. It is apparent that substituting the fluidized-bed reactor for the fixed-bed reactor is a major direction of breakthrough for the production technology of hydrogen peroxide in China.

关键词: anthraquinone process     fixed-bed reactor     slurry-bed reactor     hydrogen peroxide    

Nitrogen-retaining property of compost in an aerobic thermophilic composting reactor for the sanitary

Fan BAI, Xiaochang WANG,

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第2期   页码 228-234 doi: 10.1007/s11783-010-0022-7

摘要: Aerobic composting is a method for the sanitary disposal of human feces as is used in bio-toilet systems. As the products of composting can be utilized as a fertilizer, it would be beneficial if the composting conditions could be more precisely controlled for the retention of fecal nitrogen as long as possible in the compost. In this study, batch experiments were conducted using a closed aerobic thermophilic composting reactor with sawdust as the bulk matrix to simulate the condition of a bio-toilet for the sanitary disposal of human feces. Attention was paid to the characteristics of nitrogen transformation. Under the controlled conditions of temperature at 60°C, moisture content at 60%, and a continuous air supply, more than 70% fecal organic removal was obtained, while merely 17% fecal nitrogen loss was observed over a two-week composting period. The nitrogen loss was found to occur mainly in the first 24 h with the rapid depletion of inorganic nitrogen but with an almost unchanged organic nitrogen content. The fecal NH–N which was the main component of the inorganic nitrogen (>90%) decreased rapidly in the first day, decreased at a slower rate over the following days, and finally disappeared entirely. The depletion of NH–N was accompanied by the accumulation of NH gas in the ammonia absorber connected to the reactor. A mass balance between the exhausted NH gas and the fecal NH–N content in the first 24 hours indicated that the conversion of ammonium into gaseous ammonia was the main reason for nitrogen loss. Thermophilic composting could be considered as a way to keep a high organic nitrogen content in the compost for better utilization as a fertilizer.

关键词: nitrogen retention     composting reactor     human feces     aerobic     thermophilic     fertilizer    

A new approach for fuel injection into a solar receiver/reactor: Numerical and experimental investigation

M Helal Uddin, Nesrin Ozalp, Jens Heylen, Cedric Ophoff

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第4期   页码 683-696 doi: 10.1007/s11705-018-1782-z

摘要:

An innovative and efficient design of solar receivers/reactors can enhance the production of clean fuels via concentrated solar energy. This study presents a new jet-type burner nozzle for gaseous feedstock injection into a cavity solar receiver inspired from the combustion technology. The nozzle design was adapted from a combustion burner and successfully implemented into a solar receiver and studied the influence of the nozzle design on the fluid mixing and temperature distribution inside the solar receiver using a 7 kW solar simulator and nitrogen as working fluid. Finally, a thorough computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed and validated against the experimental results. The CFD results showed a variation of the gas flow pattern and gas mixing after the burner nozzle adaptation, which resulted an intense effect on the heat transfer inside the solar receiver.

关键词: solar reactor     nozzle     CFD     heat transfer     mixing and recirculation    

我国快堆技术发展的现状和前景

徐銤

《中国工程科学》 2008年 第10卷 第1期   页码 70-76

摘要:

考虑到人口众多,经济快速发展,人民生活水平不断提高,人均能源相对贫乏和环境保护,国家已决策加快核能应用的发展。采用压水堆-快堆匹配闭式燃料循环达到核能供应的快速增长和可持续性的基本战略已经决定,也决定了分离和用快堆和ADS对高放废物(MA)的嬗变战略。笔者建议快堆工程发展将分三步进行,中国实验快堆(CEFR,65 MWt/20 MWe),中国原型/示范快堆(CEFR/CDFR,大于等于1 500 MWt/600 MWe)和中国经济验证性快增殖堆(CDFBR,1 000 MWt/1 500 MWe)。CPFR的设计研究已于2006年开始目前正处于安装、调试阶段,计划2009年首次临界。近期讨论建造比600 MWeCPFR更大功率的堆作为CDFR,以加速快堆商用的步伐。

关键词: 快堆发展战略     增殖堆     燃烧堆     中国实验快堆    

Dynamic simulation of a space gas-cooled reactor power system with a closed Brayton cycle

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 916-929 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0757-9

摘要: Space nuclear reactor power (SNRP) using a gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) is the ideal choice for future high-power space missions. To investigate the safety characteristics and develop the control strategies for gas-cooled SNRP, transient models for GCR, energy conversion unit, pipes, heat exchangers, pump and heat pipe radiator are established and a system analysis code is developed in this paper. Then, analyses of several operation conditions are performed using this code. In full-power steady-state operation, the core hot spot of 1293 K occurs near the upper part of the core. If 0.4 $ reactivity is introduced into the core, the maximum temperature that the fuel can reach is 2059 K, which is 914 K lower than the fuel melting point. The system finally has the ability to achieve a new steady-state with a higher reactor power. When the GCR is shut down in an emergency, the residual heat of the reactor can be removed through the conduction of the core and radiation heat transfer. The results indicate that the designed GCR is inherently safe owing to its negative reactivity feedback and passive decay heat removal. This paper may provide valuable references for safety design and analysis of the gas-cooled SNRP coupled with CBC.

关键词: gas-cooled space nuclear reactor power     closed Brayton cycle     system startup and shutdown     positive reactivity insertion accident    

Sludge reduction during brewery wastewater treatment by hydrolyzation-food chain reactor system

LI Lijie, YANG Shuo, WANG Qunhui, LI Xuesong

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第1期   页码 32-35 doi: 10.1007/s11783-008-0025-9

摘要: During brewery wastewater treatment by a hydrolyzation-food chain reactor (FCR) system, sludge was recycled to the anaerobic segment. With the function of hydrolyzation acidification in the anaerobic segment and the processes of aerobic oxidation and antagonism, predation, interaction and symbiosis among microbes in multilevel oxidation segment, residual sludge could be reduced effectively. The 6-month dynamic experiments show that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal ratio was 92.6% and average sludge production of the aerobic segment was 8.14%, with the COD of the influent at 960–1720 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h. Since the produced sludge could be recycled and hydrolyzed in the anaerobic segment, no excess sludge was produced during the steady running for this system.

关键词: FCR     interaction     antagonism     oxidation     brewery wastewater    

中国新一代核能核燃料总体发展战略研究

李冠兴,周邦新,肖岷,焦拥军,任忠鸣

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第1期   页码 6-11 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.01.002

摘要:

本文深入分析和研究了国内外压水堆燃料和材料技术,快堆及其他先进堆燃料技术以及核燃料循环相关材料技术发展的现状和趋势,提出了我国压水堆、快堆及其他先进堆核燃料与材料,以及核燃料循环材料发展的目标、发展路线图和重点任务。压水堆是我国21世纪相当长时间内核能发电及能源结构转型的主力堆型。作为压水堆发展重要支撑的核燃料及材料基本实现了国产化,但还没有实现品牌自主化。我国的快堆及快堆核燃料发展面临机遇和挑战,核燃料循环产业面临重大历史性发展机遇和巨大挑战。最后对我国的压水堆、快堆、其他先进堆型核燃料及材料,以及我国核燃料循环材料的发展提出了建议。

关键词: 核燃料     核材料     轻水堆     压水堆     快堆     燃料循环    

行波堆:设计与开发 Review

John Gilleland, Robert Petroski, Kevan Weaver

《工程(英文)》 2016年 第2卷 第1期   页码 88-96 doi: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.01.024

摘要:

行波堆为一次通过式燃料循环反应堆,其利用堆芯自增殖大大降低了对浓缩和后处理的需求。自增殖将次临界换料燃料转化为新的临界燃料,从而使增殖燃烧波得以扩散。该理念建立在增殖燃烧波和燃料的相对移动的基础上。因此,燃料或增殖燃烧波相对于固定的观察器而言是移动的。行波堆最实用的体现就是能够在将核反应保持在同一位置的同时移动燃料——有时行波堆也被称为“驻波堆”。行波堆能够使用换料铀燃料运行,换料铀燃料包括完全贫化铀、天然铀和低浓缩铀燃料( 即235U含量为5.5 %或更低的燃料),这些燃料通常在快谱中达不到临界状态。轻水反应堆卸出的乏燃料也可以作为行波堆的换料燃料。上述情况均无需后处理即可实现极高的燃料利用率和燃料废物量的显著降低。当换料燃料为贫化铀时,行波堆的最大优势得以实现,即在启动后,无需浓缩设施,就可维持最先启动的反应堆和一连串后续的反应堆的运行。自2006年起,泰拉能源公司(TerraPower) 与50 多个机构高度协作,开展了概念设计、工程设计和相关技术开发活动,力争到2026年实现将第一个机组投入使用。本文总结了行波堆技术,包括它的发展计划及其进展,分析了行波堆的社会和经济效益。

关键词: 核能     发电     先进反应堆     行波堆     可持续性    

Performance of a hybrid anaerobic-contact oxidation biofilm baffled reactor for the treatment of decentralized

Minmin LIU,Ying ZHAO,Beidou XI,Li’an HOU,Xunfeng XIA

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第4期   页码 598-606 doi: 10.1007/s11783-013-0576-2

摘要: A novel hybrid anaerobic-contact oxidation biofilm baffled reactor (HAOBR) was developed to simultaneously remove nitrogenous and carbonaceous organic pollutants from decentralized molasses wastewater in the study. The study was based on the inoculation of anaerobic granule sludge in anaerobic compartments and the installation of combination filler in aerobic compartments. The performance of reactor system was studied regarding the hydraulic retention time (HRT), microbial characteristics and the gas water ratio (GWR). When the HRT was 24h and the GWR was 20:1, total ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent were reduced by 99% and 91.8%, respectively. The reactor performed stably for treating decentralized molasses wastewater. The good performance of the reactor can be attributed to the high resistance of COD and hydraulic shock loads. In addition, the high solid retention time of contact oxidation biofilm contributed to stable performance of the reactor.

关键词: combination filler     contact oxidation biofilm     food wastewater     anaerobic baffled reactor    

Nitrifying population dynamics in a redox stratified membrane biofilm reactor (RSMBR) for treating ammonium-rich

Rongchang WANG, Xinmin ZHAN, Yalei ZHANG, Jianfu ZHAO

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 48-56 doi: 10.1007/s11783-011-0305-7

摘要: Nitrogen removal performance and nitrifying population dynamics were investigated in a redox stratified membrane biofilm reactor (RSMBR) under oxygen limited condition to treat ammonium-rich wastewater. When the loading rate increased from 11.1±1.0 to , the nitrogen removal in the RSMBR system increased from 18.0±9.6 mgN·d to 128.9±61.7 mgN·d . Shortcut nitrogen removal was achieved with nitrite accumulation of about . Confocal micrographs showed the stratified distributions of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the membrane aerated biofilms (MABs) at day 120, i.e., ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (AOB and NOB) were dominant in the region adjacent to the membrane, while heterotrophic bacteria propagated at the top of the biofilm. Real-time qPCR results showed that the abundance of gene was two orders of magnitude higher than the abundance of gene in the MABs. However, the gene was always detected during the operation time, which indicates the difficulty of complete washout of NOB in MABs. The growth of heterotrophic bacteria compromised the dominance of nitrifiers in biofilm communities, but it enhanced the denitrification performance of the RSMBR system. Applying a high ammonia loading together with oxygen limitation was found to be an effective way to start nitrite accumulation in MABs, but other approaches were needed to sustain or improve the extent of nitritation in nitrogen conversion in MABs.

关键词: ammonium-rich wastewater     membrane biofilm reactor     nitrification     redox stratification     shortcut nitrogen removal    

Electrocatalytic biofilm reactor for effective and energy-efficient azo dye degradation: the synergistic

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1649-5

摘要:

● MnO x /Ti flow-through anode was coupled with the biofilm-attached cathode in ECBR.

关键词: Azo dye removal     Electrocatalytic biofilm reactor     Anodic oxidation     Electricity-stimulated biodegradation     Energy consumption    

CFD simulation of the hydrodynamics in an internal air-lift reactor with two different configurations

Mona EBRAHIMIFAKHAR, Elmira MOHSENZADEH, Sadegh MORADI, Mostafa MORAVEJI, Mahmoud SALIMI

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第4期   页码 455-462 doi: 10.1007/s11705-011-1116-x

摘要: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic parameters of two internal airlift bioreactors with different configurations. Both had a riser diameter of 0.1 m. The model was used to predict the effect of the reactor geometry on the reactor hydrodynamics. Water was utilized as the continuous phase and air in the form of bubbles was applied as the dispersed phase. A two-phase flow model provided by the bubbly flow application mode was employed in this project. In the liquid phase, the turbulence can be described using the - model. Simulated gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity results were compared with experimental data. The predictions of the simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data.

关键词: airlift reactor     gas holdup     liquid circulation velocity     bubbly flow     computational fluid dynamics (CFD)    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Latest research progress for LBE coolant reactor of China initiative accelerator driven system project

期刊论文

An old issue and a new challenge for nuclear reactor safety

F. D’AURIA

期刊论文

Impact of roxarsone on the UASB reactor performance and its degradation

Mengchuan Shui, Feng Ji, Rui Tang, Shoujun Yuan, Xinmin Zhan, Wei Wang, Zhenhu Hu

期刊论文

Advances in the slurry reactor technology of the anthraquinone process for H

Hongbo Li, Bo Zheng, Zhiyong Pan, Baoning Zong, Minghua Qiao

期刊论文

Nitrogen-retaining property of compost in an aerobic thermophilic composting reactor for the sanitary

Fan BAI, Xiaochang WANG,

期刊论文

A new approach for fuel injection into a solar receiver/reactor: Numerical and experimental investigation

M Helal Uddin, Nesrin Ozalp, Jens Heylen, Cedric Ophoff

期刊论文

我国快堆技术发展的现状和前景

徐銤

期刊论文

Dynamic simulation of a space gas-cooled reactor power system with a closed Brayton cycle

期刊论文

Sludge reduction during brewery wastewater treatment by hydrolyzation-food chain reactor system

LI Lijie, YANG Shuo, WANG Qunhui, LI Xuesong

期刊论文

中国新一代核能核燃料总体发展战略研究

李冠兴,周邦新,肖岷,焦拥军,任忠鸣

期刊论文

行波堆:设计与开发

John Gilleland, Robert Petroski, Kevan Weaver

期刊论文

Performance of a hybrid anaerobic-contact oxidation biofilm baffled reactor for the treatment of decentralized

Minmin LIU,Ying ZHAO,Beidou XI,Li’an HOU,Xunfeng XIA

期刊论文

Nitrifying population dynamics in a redox stratified membrane biofilm reactor (RSMBR) for treating ammonium-rich

Rongchang WANG, Xinmin ZHAN, Yalei ZHANG, Jianfu ZHAO

期刊论文

Electrocatalytic biofilm reactor for effective and energy-efficient azo dye degradation: the synergistic

期刊论文

CFD simulation of the hydrodynamics in an internal air-lift reactor with two different configurations

Mona EBRAHIMIFAKHAR, Elmira MOHSENZADEH, Sadegh MORADI, Mostafa MORAVEJI, Mahmoud SALIMI

期刊论文