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碳中和 4

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Pt–Ba–Ce/γ-Al2O3 催化剂,物理化学性质,NOx存储和还原,NOx 排放,H2 还原剂 1

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Electrocatalytic reduction of NO to NH in ionic liquids by P-doped TiO nanotubes

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第6期   页码 726-734 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2274-8

摘要: Designing advanced and cost-effective electrocatalytic system for nitric oxide (NO) reduction reaction (NORR) is vital for sustainable NH3 production and NO removal, yet it is a challenging task. Herein, it is shown that phosphorus (P)-doped titania (TiO2) nanotubes can be adopted as highly efficient catalyst for NORR. The catalyst demonstrates impressive performance in ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte with a remarkable high Faradaic efficiency of 89% and NH3 yield rate of 425 μg·h−1·mgcat.−1, being close to the best-reported results. Noteworthy, the obtained performance metrics are significantly larger than those for N2 reduction reaction. It also shows good durability with negligible activity decay even after 10 cycles. Theoretical simulations reveal that the introduction of P dopants tunes the electronic structure of Ti active sites, thereby enhancing the NO adsorption and facilitating the desorption of *NH3. Moreover, the utilization of IL further suppresses the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction. This study highlights the advantage of the catalyst−electrolyte engineering strategy for producing NH3 at a high efficiency and rate.

关键词: nitric oxide reduction reaction     electrcatalysis     ammonia production     phosphorus-doped titania    

Achieving air pollutant emission reduction targets with minimum abatement costs: An enterprise-level

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-021-1459-6

摘要:

• Quantification of efficiency and fairness of abatement allocation are optimized.

关键词: Pollutant emission reduction allocation     Emission reduction measures     Total abatement cost     Economic efficiency     Abatement space    

Enhancement of extracellular Cr(VI) reduction for anammox recovery using hydrazine: performance, pathways

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第9期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1715-z

摘要:

● N2H4 addition enhanced and recovered anammox performance under Cr(VI) stress.

关键词: Extracellular Cr(VI) reduction     Electron transfer     Anammox     Hydrazine     Cr(VI) inhibition    

Strength reduction factors for structural rubbercrete

Bashar S. MOHAMMED,N. J. AZMI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第3期   页码 270-281 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0265-7

摘要: Many researches have been carried out to study the fresh and hardened properties of concrete containing crumb rubber as replacement to fine aggregate by volume, yet there is no specific guideline has been developed on the mix design of the rubbercrete. The experimental program, which has been developed and reported in this paper, is designed and executed to provide such mix design guidelines. A total of 45 concrete mixes with three different water to cement ratio (0.41, 0.57 and 0.68) were cast and tested for fresh and mechanical properties of rubbercrete such as slump, air content, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. Influence of mix design parameters such as percentage of crumb rubber replacement, cement content, water content, fine aggregate content, and coarse aggregate content were investigated. Three levels of slump value (for conventional concrete mixes) has been selected; low, medium and high slump. In each slump level, water content was kept constant. Equations for the reduction factors (RFs) for compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity have been developed. These RFs can be used to design rubbercrete mixes based on the conventional mix (0% crumb rubber content)

关键词: crumb rubber     recycled tire     mix design     reduction factor     strength     modulus elasticity    

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate using Pd-Cu modified carbon nanotube membranes

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-023-1640-1

摘要:

● Pd-Cu modified CNT membranes were prepared successfully by electrodeposition method.

关键词: Pd-Cu modified CNT membrane     Nitrate reduction     Flow-through     Electrodeposition     Electrocatalytic reduction    

Recent advances and challenges of nitrogen/nitrate electro catalytic reduction to ammonia synthesis

《能源前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期   页码 128-140 doi: 10.1007/s11708-023-0908-2

摘要: The Haber-Bosch process is the most widely used synthetic ammonia technology at present. Since its invention, it has provided an important guarantee for global food security. However, the traditional Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis process consumes a lot of energy and causes serious environmental pollution. Under the serious pressure of energy and environment, a green, clean, and sustainable ammonia synthesis route is urgently needed. Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia is a green and mild new method for preparing ammonia, which can directly convert nitrogen or nitrate into ammonia using electricity driven by solar, wind, or water energy, without greenhouse gas and toxic gas emissions. Herein, the basic mechanism of the nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) to ammonia and nitrate reduction reaction (NO3 RR) to ammonia were discussed. The representative approaches and major technologies, such as lithium mediated electrolysis and solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) electrolysis for NRR, high activity catalyst and advanced electrochemical device fabrication for NO3 RR and electrochemical ammonia synthesis were summarized. Based on the above discussion and analysis, the main challenges and development directions for electrochemical ammonia synthesis were further proposed.

关键词: electrochemical ammonia synthesis     nitrogen     nitrate     nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) to ammonia     nitrate reduction reaction (NO–3 RR)    

A review of Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

Changlin ZHANG, Xiaochen SHEN, Yanbo PAN, Zhenmeng PENG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期   页码 268-285 doi: 10.1007/s11708-017-0466-6

摘要: Development of active and durable electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains one challenge for the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Pt-based nanomaterials show the greatest promise as electrocatalyst for this reaction among all current catalytic structures. This review focuses on Pt-based ORR catalyst material development and covers the past achievements, current research status and perspectives in this research field. In particular, several important categories of Pt-based catalytic structures and the research advances are summarized. Key factors affecting the catalyst activity and durability are discussed. An outlook of future research direction of ORR catalyst research is provided.

关键词: oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)     electrocatalysis     platinum catalyst     activity     durability    

Reduction of CeO

Elena Yu. KONYSHEVA

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第3期   页码 249-261 doi: 10.1007/s11705-013-1333-6

摘要: Reduction behavior of pure and doped CeO , the multi-phase La Sr CoO ? CeO , La Sr MnO ? CeO , and La Ni Fe O ? CeO composites, was studied under hydrogen containing atmosphere to address issues related to the improvement of electrochemical and catalytic performance of electrodes in fuel cells. The enhanced reduction of cerium oxide was observed initially at 800°C in all composites in spite of the presence of highly reducible transition metal cations that could lead to the increase in surface concentration of oxygen vacancies and generation of the electron enriched surface. Due to continuous reduction of cerium oxide in La Sr CoO ? CeO and La Sr MnO ? CeO (up to 10 h) composites the redox activity of the Ce /Ce pair could be suppressed and additional measures are required for reversible spontaneous regeneration of Ce . After 3 h exposure to H -Ar at 800°C the reduction of cerium oxides and perovskite phases in La Ni Fe O ? CeO composites was diminished. The extent of cerium oxide involvement in the reduction process varies with time, and depends on its initial deviation from oxygen stoichiometry (that results in the larger lattice parameter and the longer pathway for O transport through the fluorite lattice), chemical origin of transition metal cations in the perovskite, and phase diversity in multi-phase composites.

关键词: reduction of cerium oxide     composites     perovskites     catalyst under hydrogen containing atmosphere    

Scale up of reactors for carbon dioxide reduction

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 116-122 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2178-7

摘要: In recent times there has been a great deal of interest in the conversion of carbon dioxide into more useful chemical compounds. On the other hand, the translation of these developments in electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide from the laboratory bench to practical scale remains an underexplored topic. Here we examine some of the major challenges, demonstrating some promising strategies towards such scale-up, including increased electrode area and stacking of electrode pairs in different configurations. We observed that increasing the electrode area from 1 to 10 cm2 led to only a 4% drop in current density, with similarly small penalties realised when stacking sub-cells together.

关键词: CO2 reduction     electrochemical cell     electrosynthesis     upscaling    

Model reduction of contact dynamics simulation using a modified Lyapunov balancing method

Jianxun LIANG, Ou MA, Caishan LIU

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第6卷 第4期   页码 383-391 doi: 10.1007/s11465-011-0244-9

摘要:

Finite element models are often used to simulate impact and contact dynamics responses of multibody dynamical systems. However, such a simulation remains very inefficient because very small integration time step must be used when solving the involved differential equations, especially when the involved contact stiffness is high. Although many model reduction techniques have been available to improve the efficiency of finite element based simulations, these techniques cannot be readily applied to contact dynamics simulations due to the high nonlinearity of the contact dynamics models. This paper presents a model reduction approach for finite-element based multibody contact dynamics simulation, based on a modified Lyapunov balanced truncation method. An example is presented to demonstrate that, by applying the model reduction the simulation process is significantly speeded up and the resulting error is bounded within an acceptable level. The performance of the method with respect to some influential factors such as element size, shape and contact stiffness is also investigated.

关键词: contact dynamics     dynamic simulation     model reduction     finite element method    

Studies on catalytic reduction of nitrate in groundwater

GENG Bing, ZHU Yanfang, JIN Zhaohui, LI Tielong, KANG Haiyan, WANG Shuaima

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 357-361 doi: 10.1007/s11783-007-0061-x

摘要: Catalytic reduction of nitrate in groundwater by sodium formate over the catalyst was investigated. Pd-Cu/-AlO catalyst was prepared by impregnation and characterized by brunauer-emmett-teller (BET), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). It was found that total nitrogen was effectively removed from the nitrate solution (100 mg/L) and the removal efficiency was 87%. The catalytic activity was affected by pH, catalyst amount used, concentration of sodium formate, and initial concentration of nitrate. As sodium formate was used as reductant, precise control in the initial pH was needed. Excessively high or low initial pH (7.0 or 3.0) reduced catalytic activity. At initial pH of 4.5, catalytic activity was enhanced by reducing the amount of catalyst, while concentrations of sodium formate increased with a considerable decrease in N selectivity. In which case, catalytic reduction followed the first order kinetics.

关键词: dispersive     electron microscopy     considerable decrease     Catalytic reduction     brunauer-emmett-teller    

Development of an H reduction and moderate oxidation method for 3,5-dimethylpyridine hydrogenation in

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第12期   页码 1807-1817 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2243-2

摘要: The Ru/C catalyst prepared by impregnation method was used for hydrogenation of 3,5-dimethylpyridine in a trickle bed reactor. Under the same reduction conditions (300 °C in H2), the catalytic activity of the non-in-situ reduced Ru/C-n catalyst was higher than that of the in-situ reduced Ru/C-y catalyst. Therefore, an in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation method was developed to increase the catalyst activity. Moreover, the influence of oxidation temperature on the developed method was investigated. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction H2-TPR, hydrogen temperature-programmed dispersion (H2-TPD), X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, O2 chemisorption and oxygen temperature-programmed dispersion (O2-TPD) analyses. The results showed that there existed an optimal Ru/RuOx ratio for the catalyst, and the highest 3,5-dimethylpyridine conversion was obtained for the Ru/C-i1 catalyst prepared by in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation (oxidized at 100 °C). Excessive oxidation (200 °C) resulted in a significant decrease in the Ru/RuOx ratio of the in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidized Ru/C-i2 catalyst, the interaction between RuOx species and the support changed, and the hard-to-reduce RuOx species was formed, leading to a significant decrease in catalyst activity. The developed in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation method eliminated the step of the non-in-situ reduction of catalyst outside the trickle bed reactor.

关键词: Ru/C catalyst     in-situ H2 reduction and moderate oxidation     in-situ reduction     non-in-situ reduction     hydrogenation of 3     5-dimethylpyridine    

NOx removal by non-thermal plasma reduction: experimental and theoretical investigations

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第10期   页码 1476-1484 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2165-z

摘要: Green and efficient NOx removal at low temperature is still desired. NOx removal via non-thermal plasma (NTP) reduction is one of such technique. This work presents the experimental and theoretical study on the NOx removal via NTP reduction (NTPRD) in dielectric barrier discharge reactor (DBD). The effect of O2 molar fraction on NOx species in the outlet of DBD, and effects of NH3/NO molar ratio and discharge power of DBD on NOx removal efficiency are investigated. Results indicate that anaerobic condition and higher discharge power is beneficial to direct removal of NOx, and the NOx removal efficiency can be up to 98.5% under the optimal operating conditions. It is also found that adding NH3 is favorable for the reduction of NOx to N2 at lower discharge power. In addition, the NOx removal mechanism and energy consumption analysis for the NTPRD process are also studied. It is found that the reduced active species ( N, N, N+, N2, NH2+, etc.) generated in the NTPRD process play important roles for the reduction of NOx to N2. Our work paves a novel pathway for NOx removal from anaerobic gas in industrial application.

关键词: ${\rm{NO}}_x $ removal     NTP reduction     mechanism     energy consumption    

Pollutant reduction effectiveness of low-impact development drainage system in a campus

Shuhan Zhang, Yingying Meng, Jiao Pan, Jiangang Chen

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0969-8

摘要: Building a rainwater system based on the idea of low-impact development (LID) is an important aspect of the current “sponge city” construction in China. The “sponge city” concept emphasizes that the runoff can permeate the soil or be stored temporarily, and rainwater could be used again when it is needed. Beijing is one of the earliest cities to study rainwater harvesting and LID techniques in China. Through long-term monitoring of rainfall, runoff flow, and water quality of a campus demonstration project in Beijing, the runoff quantity and pollutant concentration variations have been analyzed. Furthermore, the runoff reduction effects of single LID measure, such as green roof, filtration chamber, and permeable pavement, have been investigated. Additionally, the overall reduction effectiveness of the LID system on the average annual rainfall runoff and pollution load has been discussed. Preliminary studies suggest that runoff pollutant concentration is positively correlated with the rainfall interval time, and the longer rainfall interval time leads to higher runoff pollutant concentrations. The very good outflow quality of the rainwater harvesting system could satisfy the reclaimed water quality standard for scenic entertainment use. The non-point-source pollution reduction effects of the LID system are obvious because the pollutants could be removed by filtration on the one hand and the pollution load could be reduced because of the significantly reduced outflow on the other hand.

关键词: Low-impact development     Rainwater harvesting     Non-point-source pollution reduction     Campus    

Disaster prevention and reduction in Anthropocene

Sha Chen,Bo Tao,Wei Ren

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第5期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-016-0882-6

摘要: Natural disasters cause considerable property damage and loss of life as well as destruction of ecosystem and natural resources. In the context of global change, extreme events are expected to increase in both frequency and intensity. To prevent natural disasters and mitigate the loss, we need to act quickly and effectively. It would be conducive to achieve sustainable economic development, reduce disaster vulnerabilities and risks, and build resilience through implementing effective measures of disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery.

关键词: natural disasters     global change     Sendai Framework    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Electrocatalytic reduction of NO to NH in ionic liquids by P-doped TiO nanotubes

期刊论文

Achieving air pollutant emission reduction targets with minimum abatement costs: An enterprise-level

期刊论文

Enhancement of extracellular Cr(VI) reduction for anammox recovery using hydrazine: performance, pathways

期刊论文

Strength reduction factors for structural rubbercrete

Bashar S. MOHAMMED,N. J. AZMI

期刊论文

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate using Pd-Cu modified carbon nanotube membranes

期刊论文

Recent advances and challenges of nitrogen/nitrate electro catalytic reduction to ammonia synthesis

期刊论文

A review of Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

Changlin ZHANG, Xiaochen SHEN, Yanbo PAN, Zhenmeng PENG

期刊论文

Reduction of CeO

Elena Yu. KONYSHEVA

期刊论文

Scale up of reactors for carbon dioxide reduction

期刊论文

Model reduction of contact dynamics simulation using a modified Lyapunov balancing method

Jianxun LIANG, Ou MA, Caishan LIU

期刊论文

Studies on catalytic reduction of nitrate in groundwater

GENG Bing, ZHU Yanfang, JIN Zhaohui, LI Tielong, KANG Haiyan, WANG Shuaima

期刊论文

Development of an H reduction and moderate oxidation method for 3,5-dimethylpyridine hydrogenation in

期刊论文

NOx removal by non-thermal plasma reduction: experimental and theoretical investigations

期刊论文

Pollutant reduction effectiveness of low-impact development drainage system in a campus

Shuhan Zhang, Yingying Meng, Jiao Pan, Jiangang Chen

期刊论文

Disaster prevention and reduction in Anthropocene

Sha Chen,Bo Tao,Wei Ren

期刊论文