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Design and modeling of a novel soft parallel robot driven by endoskeleton pneumatic artificial muscles

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0678-2

摘要: Owing to their inherent great flexibility, good compliance, excellent adaptability, and safe interactivity, soft robots have shown great application potential. The advantages of light weight, high efficiency, non-polluting characteristic, and environmental adaptability provide pneumatic soft robots an important position in the field of soft robots. In this paper, a soft robot with 10 soft modules, comprising three uniformly distributed endoskeleton pneumatic artificial muscles, was developed. The robot can achieve flexible motion in 3D space. A novel kinematic modeling method for variable-curvature soft robots based on the minimum energy method was investigated, which can accurately and efficiently analyze forward and inverse kinematics. Experiments show that the robot can be controlled to move to the desired position based on the proposed model. The prototype and modeling method can provide a new perspective for soft robot design, modeling, and control.

关键词: pneumatic artificial muscles     soft robot     modeling approach     principle of virtual work     external load    

Modular crawling robots using soft pneumatic actuators

Nianfeng WANG, Bicheng CHEN, Xiandong GE, Xianmin ZHANG, Wenbin WANG

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第16卷 第1期   页码 163-175 doi: 10.1007/s11465-020-0605-3

摘要: Crawling robots have elicited much attention in recent years due to their stable and efficient locomotion. In this work, several crawling robots are developed using two types of soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs), namely, an axial elongation SPA and a dual bending SPA. By constraining the deformation of the elastomeric chamber, the SPAs realize their prescribed motions, and the deformations subjected to pressures are characterized with numerical models. Experiments are performed for verification, and the results show good agreement. The SPAs are fabricated by casting and developed into crawling robots with 3D-printing connectors. Control schemes are presented, and crawling tests are performed. The speeds predicted by the numerical models agree well with the speeds in the experiments.

关键词: soft robot     soft pneumatic actuator     kinematic model     crawling robot     modular design    

Development of soft kernel durum wheat

Craig F. MORRIS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 273-278 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019259

摘要:

Kernel texture (grain hardness) is a fundamental and determining factor related to wheat ( spp.) milling, baking and flour utilization. There are three kernel texture classes in wheat: soft and hard hexaploid ( ), and very hard durum ( subsp. ). The genetic basis for these three classes lies with the Puroindoline genes. Phenotypically, the easiest means of quantifying kernel texture is with the Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS), although other means are valid and can provide fundamental material properties. Typical SKCS values for soft wheat would be around 25 and for durum wheat≥80. Soft kernel durum wheat was created via homeologous recombination using the mutation, which facilitated the transfer of ca. 28 Mbp of 5DS that replaced ca. 21 Mbp of 5BS. The 5DS translocation contained a complete and intact locus and both puroindoline genes. Expression of the puroindoline genes in durum grain resulted in kernel texture and flour milling characteristics nearly identical to that of soft wheat, with high yields of break and straight-grade flours, which had small particle size and low starch damage. Dough water absorption was markedly reduced compared to durum flour and semolina. Dough was essentially unchanged and reflected the inherent gluten properties of the durum background. Pasta quality was essentially equal-to-or-better than pasta made from semolina. Agronomically, soft durum germplasm showed good potential with moderate grain yield and resistance to a number of fungal pathogens and insects. Future breeding efforts will no doubt further improve the quality and competitiveness of soft durum cultivars.

关键词: soft durum wheat     grain hardness     puroindolines     milling     baking     pasta     noodles    

Performance of soft-hard-soft (SHS) cement based composite subjected to blast loading with consideration

Jun WU,Xuemei LIU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第3期   页码 323-340 doi: 10.1007/s11709-015-0301-2

摘要: This paper presents a combined experimental and numerical study on the damage and performance of a soft-hard-soft (SHS) multi-layer cement based composite subjected to blast loading which can be used for protective structures and infrastructures to resist extreme loadings, and the composite consists of three layers of construction materials including asphalt concrete (AC) on the top, high strength concrete (HSC) in the middle, and engineered cementitious composites (ECC) at the bottom. To better characterize the material properties under dynamic loading, interface properties of the composite were investigated through direct shear test and also used to validate the interface model. Strain rate effects of the asphalt concrete were also studied and both compressive and tensile dynamic increase factor (DIF) curves were improved based on split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. A full-scale field blast test investigated the blast behavior of the composite materials. The numerical model was established by taking into account the strain rate effect of all concrete materials. Furthermore, the interface properties were also considered into the model. The numerical simulation using nonlinear finite element software LS-DYNA agrees closely with the experimental data. Both the numerical and field blast test indicated that the SHS composite exhibited high resistance against blast loading.

关键词: high strength concrete (SHS)     engineered cementitious composite     interface     blast test     strain rate effect    

液态金属科技与工业的崛起:进展与机遇

刘静

《中国工程科学》 2020年 第22卷 第5期   页码 93-103 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2020.05.016

摘要:

常温液态金属及其衍生材料是近年来异军突起的新兴功能物质,该领域取得了一系列突破性发现,催生出诸多全新的材料创制与应用,被视为人类利用金属的第二次革命。本文扼要介绍了液态金属物质科学领域涌现出的若干典型进展、基础问题与工业应用范例,剖析现象背后的科学规律,具体包括:芯片冷却与能源利用、印刷电子学与增材制造(3D打印)、生物材料学、柔性智能机器学。在此基础上,论述了提出“液态金属谷”的时代背景、发展液态金属新工业体系的基本途径,阐述了推进液态金属材料基因工程研究并构建相应数据库的重要意义。液态金属作为兼具基础探索与实际应用价值的重大科学、技术与工业前沿,发展前景广阔;相应研究有望促进人类物质文明进步、优化社会生产和生活方式,也将深刻影响中国乃至世界寻求新一代变革性科技与工业的进程。

关键词: 液态金属     新材料     颠覆性技术     新工业     先进冷却     印刷电子     生物医学材料     柔性机器人    

Online soft measurement for wastewater treatment system based on hybrid deep learning

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-024-1780-y

摘要:

● A hybrid model is proposed to overcome limitations of single model with time series.

关键词: Prediction model     Soft measurement     CNN-BNLSTM-AM model     TPE optimization algorithm    

Development of a masticatory robot using a novel cable-driven linear actuator with bidirectional motion

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0687-1

摘要: Masticatory robots are an effective in vitro performance testing device for dental material and mandibular prostheses. A cable-driven linear actuator (CDLA) capable of bidirectional motion is proposed in this study to design a masticatory robot that can achieve increasingly human-like chewing motion. The CDLA presents remarkable advantages, such as lightweight and high stiffness structure, in using cable amplification and pulley systems. This work also exploits the proposed CDLA and designs a masticatory robot called Southeast University masticatory robot (SMAR) to solve existing problems, such as bulky driving linkage and position change of the muscle’s origin. Stiffness analysis and performance experiment validate the CDLA’s efficiency, with its stiffness reaching 1379.6 N/mm (number of cable parts n = 4), which is 21.4 times the input wire stiffness. Accordingly, the CDLA’s force transmission efficiencies in two directions are 84.5% and 85.9%. Chewing experiments are carried out on the developed masticatory robot to verify whether the CDLA can help SMAR achieve a natural human-like chewing motion and sufficient chewing forces for potential applications in performance tests of dental materials or prostheses.

关键词: masticatory robot     cable-driven     linear actuator     parallel robot     stiffness analysis    

Risk stratification system for skin and soft tissue infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 957-968 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0910-1

摘要: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) refer to infections involving the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and muscle. In transplant populations with hematological malignancies, an immunocompromised status and the routine use of immunosuppressants increase the risk of SSTIs greatly. However, to date, the profiles and clinical outcomes of SSTIs in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients remain unclear. This study included 228 patients (3.67%) who developed SSTIs within 180 days after allogeneic HSCT from January 2004 to December 2019 in Peking University People’s Hospital. The overall annual survival rate was 71.5%. We compared the differences between survivors and non-survivors a year after transplant and found that primary platelet graft failure (PPGF), comorbidities of acute kidney injury (AKI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) were independent risk factors for death in the study population. A PPGF–AKI–HAP risk stratification system was established with a mortality risk score of 1×PPGF+1×AKI+1×HAP. The areas under the curves of internal and external validation were 0.833 (95% CI 0.760–0.906) and 0.826 (95% CI 0.715–0.937), respectively. The calibration plot revealed the high consistency of the estimated risks, and decision curve analysis showed considerable net benefits for patients.

关键词: skin and soft tissue infections     hematopoietic stem cell transplantation     risk stratification system     mortality    

Review of human–robot coordination control for rehabilitation based on motor function evaluation

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0684-4

摘要: As a wearable and intelligent system, a lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robot can provide auxiliary rehabilitation training for patients with lower limb walking impairment/loss and address the existing problem of insufficient medical resources. One of the main elements of such a human–robot coupling system is a control system to ensure human–robot coordination. This review aims to summarise the development of human–robot coordination control and the associated research achievements and provide insight into the research challenges in promoting innovative design in such control systems. The patients’ functional disorders and clinical rehabilitation needs regarding lower limbs are analysed in detail, forming the basis for the human–robot coordination of lower limb rehabilitation robots. Then, human–robot coordination is discussed in terms of three aspects: modelling, perception and control. Based on the reviewed research, the demand for robotic rehabilitation, modelling for human–robot coupling systems with new structures and assessment methods with different etiologies based on multi-mode sensors are discussed in detail, suggesting development directions of human–robot coordination and providing a reference for relevant research.

关键词: human–robot coupling     lower limb rehabilitation     exoskeleton robot     motor assessment     dynamical model     perception    

Crack evolution of soft–hard composite layered rock-like specimens with two fissures under uniaxial compression

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期   页码 1372-1389 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0772-2

摘要: Acoustic emission and digital image correlation were used to study the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of crack extension of soft and hard composite laminated rock masses (SHCLRM) containing double fissures under uniaxial compression. The effects of different rock combination methods and prefabricated fissures with different orientations on mechanical properties and crack coalescence patterns were analyzed. The characteristics of the acoustic emission source location distribution, and frequency changes of the crack evolution process were also investigated. The test results show that the damage mode of SHCLRM is related to the combination mode of rock layers and the orientation of fractures. Hard layers predominantly produce tensile cracks; soft layers produce shear cracks. The first crack always sprouts at the tip or middle of prefabricated fractures in hard layers. The acoustic emission signal of SHCLRM with double fractures has clear stage characteristics, and the state of crack development can be inferred from this signal to provide early warning for rock fracture instability. This study can provide a reference for the assessment of the fracture development status between adjacent roadways in SHCLRM in underground mines, as well as in roadway layout and support.

关键词: soft−hard composite layered rock mass     double cracks     crack evolution     acoustic emission     digital image correlation    

Design and experiment of a novel pneumatic soft arm based on a deployable origami exoskeleton

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第18卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-023-0770-2

摘要: Soft arms have shown great application potential because of their flexibility and compliance in unstructured environments. However, soft arms made from soft materials exhibit limited cargo-loading capacity, which restricts their ability to manipulate objects. In this research, a novel soft arm was developed by coupling a rigid origami exoskeleton with soft airbags. The joint module of the soft arm was composed of a deployable origami exoskeleton and three soft airbags. The motion and load performance of the soft arm of the eight-joint module was tested. The developed soft arm withstood at least 5 kg of load during extension, contraction, and bending motions; exhibited bistable characteristics in both fully contracted and fully extended states; and achieved a bending angle of more than 240° and a contraction ratio of more than 300%. In addition, the high extension, contraction, bending, and torsional stiffnesses of the soft arm were experimentally demonstrated. A kinematic-based trajectory planning of the soft arm was performed to evaluate its error in repetitive motion. This work will provide new design ideas and methods for flexible manipulation applications of soft arms.

关键词: pneumatic soft arm     soft airbag     deployable origami exoskeleton     bistable characteristics     cargo-loading capacity    

Analysis of load and adaptability of disc cutters during shield tunneling in soft–hard varied strata

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期   页码 533-545 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0946-1

摘要: The disc cutters of shield machines exhibit unsatisfactory adaptability and performance during the soft–hard varied strata tunneling process. To analyze the rotation state, cutting performance, and adaptability of disc cutters during shield tunneling in soft–hard varied strata, the Holmquist Johnson Cook and Federal Highway Administration constitutive models are introduced to numerically simulate the failure process of materials on the excavation face and to calculate the load of disc cutters. Additionally, the parameters of the models are modified based on laboratory disc cutter excavation test results. The results of numerical calculation can reflect the load level and the behavior of the disc cutters during operation. The tangential loads of the disc cutters during the cutting of four typical soft-strata excavation face models are numerically calculated, thus providing reference values for the starting torque of the disc cutters. A greater penetration is suggested for soft-strata tunneling to allow the disc cutters to rotate smoothly and continuously as well as to guarantee a better cutting effect. The disc cutters in the center of the cutterhead should be specified with a lower starting torque to prevent uneven wear, rotation stagnation, cutterhead clogging, and other adverse phenomena.

关键词: shield tunneling     disc cutter load     laboratory excavation test     numerical calculation     soft–hard varied strata    

Terrain classification and adaptive locomotion for a hexapod robot Qingzhui

Yue ZHAO, Feng GAO, Qiao SUN, Yunpeng YIN

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第16卷 第2期   页码 271-284 doi: 10.1007/s11465-020-0623-1

摘要: Legged robots have potential advantages in mobility compared with wheeled robots in outdoor environments. The knowledge of various ground properties and adaptive locomotion based on different surface materials plays an important role in improving the stability of legged robots. A terrain classification and adaptive locomotion method for a hexapod robot named Qingzhui is proposed in this paper. First, a force-based terrain classification method is suggested. Ground contact force is calculated by collecting joint torques and inertial measurement unit information. Ground substrates are classified with the feature vector extracted from the collected data using the support vector machine algorithm. Then, an adaptive locomotion on different ground properties is proposed. The dynamic alternating tripod trotting gait is developed to control the robot, and the parameters of active compliance control change with the terrain. Finally, the method is integrated on a hexapod robot and tested by real experiments. Our method is shown effective for the hexapod robot to walk on concrete, wood, grass, and foam. The strategies and experimental results can be a valuable reference for other legged robots applied in outdoor environments.

关键词: terrain classification     hexapod robot     legged robot     adaptive locomotion     gait control    

Seismic responses of subway station with different distributions of soft soil in Tianjin

Dejian YANG,Meiling DUAN

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第2期   页码 187-193 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0252-z

摘要: In connection with the practical project of Kunming Road station of Tianjin subway Line 3, the paper established a two-dimensional finite element model with visco-elastic boundary by using ANSYS and analyzed seismic responses of subway station with different distribution of soft soil. The nonlinear dynamic properties of soft soils are modeled by the KINH. And obtain the response rules about displacement and internal force on subway station in the general field soil and five different distributions of soft soil. Provide reference for improving the seismic performance of subway stations in Tianjin soft soil.

关键词: distribution of soft soil     soft soil in Tianjin     seismic response     ANSYS    

Bionic soft robotic gripper with feedback control for adaptive grasping and capturing applications

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第19卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-023-0779-6

摘要: Robots are playing an increasingly important role in engineering applications. Soft robots have promising applications in several fields due to their inherent advantages of compliance, low density, and soft interactions. A soft gripper based on bio-inspiration is proposed in this study. We analyze the cushioning and energy absorption mechanism of human fingertips in detail and provide insights for designing a soft gripper with a variable stiffness structure. We investigate the grasping modes through a large deformation modeling approach, which is verified through experiments. The characteristics of the three grasping modes are quantified through testing and can provide guidance for robotics manipulation. First, the adaptability of the soft gripper is verified by grasping multi-scale and extremely soft objects. Second, a cushioning model of the soft gripper is proposed, and the effectiveness of cushioning is verified by grasping extremely sharp objects and living organisms. Notably, we validate the advantages of the variable stiffness of the soft gripper, and the results show that the soft robot can robustly complete assemblies with a gap of only 0.1 mm. Owing to the unstructured nature of the engineering environment, the soft gripper can be applied in complex environments based on the abovementioned experimental analysis. Finally, we design the soft robotics system with feedback capture based on the inspiration of human catching behavior. The feasibility of engineering applications is initially verified through fast capture experiments on moving objects. The design concept of this robot can provide new insights for bionic machinery.

关键词: soft bionic gripper     variable stiffness structure     large deformation modeling     feedback control     soft robotic system    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Design and modeling of a novel soft parallel robot driven by endoskeleton pneumatic artificial muscles

期刊论文

Modular crawling robots using soft pneumatic actuators

Nianfeng WANG, Bicheng CHEN, Xiandong GE, Xianmin ZHANG, Wenbin WANG

期刊论文

Development of soft kernel durum wheat

Craig F. MORRIS

期刊论文

Performance of soft-hard-soft (SHS) cement based composite subjected to blast loading with consideration

Jun WU,Xuemei LIU

期刊论文

液态金属科技与工业的崛起:进展与机遇

刘静

期刊论文

Online soft measurement for wastewater treatment system based on hybrid deep learning

期刊论文

Development of a masticatory robot using a novel cable-driven linear actuator with bidirectional motion

期刊论文

Risk stratification system for skin and soft tissue infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell

期刊论文

Review of human–robot coordination control for rehabilitation based on motor function evaluation

期刊论文

Crack evolution of soft–hard composite layered rock-like specimens with two fissures under uniaxial compression

期刊论文

Design and experiment of a novel pneumatic soft arm based on a deployable origami exoskeleton

期刊论文

Analysis of load and adaptability of disc cutters during shield tunneling in soft–hard varied strata

期刊论文

Terrain classification and adaptive locomotion for a hexapod robot Qingzhui

Yue ZHAO, Feng GAO, Qiao SUN, Yunpeng YIN

期刊论文

Seismic responses of subway station with different distributions of soft soil in Tianjin

Dejian YANG,Meiling DUAN

期刊论文

Bionic soft robotic gripper with feedback control for adaptive grasping and capturing applications

期刊论文