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Floating production storage and offloading systems’ cost and motion performance: A systems thinking application

Rini NISHANTH, Andrew WHYTE, V. John KURIAN

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第3期   页码 357-368 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018022

摘要:

Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) units increasingly represent a practical and economic means for deep-water oil extraction and production. Systems thinking gives a unique opportunity to seek a balance between FPSO technical performance(s), with whole-cost; stakeholder decision-making is charged to align different fit-for-use design specification options’ that address technical-motion(s), with respective life-cycle cost analyses (LCCA). Soft system methodology allows situation based analyses over set periods-of-time by diagnosing the problem-at-hand; namely, assessing the antecedents of life-cycle cost relative to FPSO sub-component design alternatives. Alternative mooring- component comparisons for either new-build hulls or refurbished hulls represent an initial necessary consideration to facilitate extraction, production and storage of deep-water oil reserves. Coupled dynamic analysis has been performed to generate FPSO motion in six degrees of freedom using SESAM DeepC, while life-cycle cost analysis (LCAA) studies give net-present-value comparisons reflective of market conditions. A parametric study has been conducted by varying wave heights from 4 – 8 m to understand FPSO motion behavior in the presence of wind and current, as well as comparing the motions of turreted versus spread mooring design alternatives. LCCA data has been generated to compare the cost of such different mooring options/hull conditions over 10 and 25-year periods. Systems thinking has been used to explain the interaction of problem variables; resultantly this paper is able to identify explicit factors affecting the choice of FPSO configurations in terms of motion and whole-cost, toward assisting significantly with the front-end engineering design (FEED) phase of fit-for-purpose configured FPSOs, in waters off Malaysia and Australia.

关键词: FPSO     LCCA     spread/turret-mooring     DeepC     cost     motion     soft-systems    

Rethinking the tendering frameworks of construction contractors in the context of a soft systems methodology

Stephen URQUHART, Andrew WHYTE

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第3期   页码 369-380 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018019

摘要:

Limited research has been conducted on the internal tendering procedures (ITP) of construction contractors because of the commercially sensitive and confidential nature of the subject matter. This limitation explains the reluctance of contractors to undergo interviews. Existing research (outside bid/no-bid and margin decision factor identification and subsequent decision modeling development) only begins to provide insights into key tendering stages, particularly around risk assessments and corporate review processes. Early research suggested one to three review stages. However, when considering the whole work procurement process from prospect identification to contract execution, five to seven series of reviews can be arguably applied by some contractors, wherein some reviews stepped through several layers of internal senior management. Tendering processes were presented as flowchart models that traditionally follow “hard” system (rectangular shapes and straight line arrows) steps, which suggest that a precise process also leads to precise results. However, given that contractors do not win every tender they submit, the process is less precise than that suggested in rigidly structured flowcharts. Twenty-five detailed semi-structured interviews were held with purposely selected high-profile publicly and privately owned construction companies in Australia with significantly varied turnovers. Analyses show that contractors are concerned about the negative effects of increasing corporate governance demands, with many stating that people involved are the most critical element to tendering success. A new way of presenting the ITP of contractors is assessed using a soft systems methodology (SSM) approach. SSM offers an alternative way of considering human interaction challenges within the ITP of contractors, which needs to be tested with the industry. The format graphics of SSM guidelines are presented as a way of offering contractors a different approach, which may assist individuals who are looking to re-structure their tendering activities in a more humanistic and less rigid procedural approach.

关键词: contractor     corporate governance     humanistic     risk     soft systems methodology     tendering procedures    

Development of soft kernel durum wheat

Craig F. MORRIS

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 273-278 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019259

摘要:

Kernel texture (grain hardness) is a fundamental and determining factor related to wheat ( spp.) milling, baking and flour utilization. There are three kernel texture classes in wheat: soft and hard hexaploid ( ), and very hard durum ( subsp. ). The genetic basis for these three classes lies with the Puroindoline genes. Phenotypically, the easiest means of quantifying kernel texture is with the Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS), although other means are valid and can provide fundamental material properties. Typical SKCS values for soft wheat would be around 25 and for durum wheat≥80. Soft kernel durum wheat was created via homeologous recombination using the mutation, which facilitated the transfer of ca. 28 Mbp of 5DS that replaced ca. 21 Mbp of 5BS. The 5DS translocation contained a complete and intact locus and both puroindoline genes. Expression of the puroindoline genes in durum grain resulted in kernel texture and flour milling characteristics nearly identical to that of soft wheat, with high yields of break and straight-grade flours, which had small particle size and low starch damage. Dough water absorption was markedly reduced compared to durum flour and semolina. Dough was essentially unchanged and reflected the inherent gluten properties of the durum background. Pasta quality was essentially equal-to-or-better than pasta made from semolina. Agronomically, soft durum germplasm showed good potential with moderate grain yield and resistance to a number of fungal pathogens and insects. Future breeding efforts will no doubt further improve the quality and competitiveness of soft durum cultivars.

关键词: soft durum wheat     grain hardness     puroindolines     milling     baking     pasta     noodles    

Predication of discharge coefficient of cylindrical weir-gate using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems

Abbas PARSAIE,Amir Hamzeh HAGHIABI,Mojtaba SANEIE,Hasan TORABI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第1期   页码 111-122 doi: 10.1007/s11709-016-0354-x

摘要: Settlement of sediments behind weirs and accumulation of materials floating on water behind gates decreases the performance of these structures. Weir-gate is a combination of weir and gate structures which solves them Infirmities. Proposing a circular shape for crest of weirs to improve their performance, investigators have proposed cylindrical shape to improve the performance of weir-gate structure and call it cylindrical weir-gate. In this research, discharge coefficient of weir-gate was predicated using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). To compare the performance of ANFIS with other types of soft computing techniques, multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) was prepared as well. Results of MLP and ANFIS showed that both models have high ability for modeling and predicting discharge coefficient; however, ANFIS is a bit more accurate. The sensitivity analysis of MLP and ANFIS showed that Froude number of flow at upstream of weir and ratio of gate opening height to the diameter of weir are the most effective parameters on discharge coefficient.

关键词: weir-gate     soft computing     crest geometry     circular crest weir     cylindrical shape    

Performance of soft-hard-soft (SHS) cement based composite subjected to blast loading with consideration

Jun WU,Xuemei LIU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第3期   页码 323-340 doi: 10.1007/s11709-015-0301-2

摘要: This paper presents a combined experimental and numerical study on the damage and performance of a soft-hard-soft (SHS) multi-layer cement based composite subjected to blast loading which can be used for protective structures and infrastructures to resist extreme loadings, and the composite consists of three layers of construction materials including asphalt concrete (AC) on the top, high strength concrete (HSC) in the middle, and engineered cementitious composites (ECC) at the bottom. To better characterize the material properties under dynamic loading, interface properties of the composite were investigated through direct shear test and also used to validate the interface model. Strain rate effects of the asphalt concrete were also studied and both compressive and tensile dynamic increase factor (DIF) curves were improved based on split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. A full-scale field blast test investigated the blast behavior of the composite materials. The numerical model was established by taking into account the strain rate effect of all concrete materials. Furthermore, the interface properties were also considered into the model. The numerical simulation using nonlinear finite element software LS-DYNA agrees closely with the experimental data. Both the numerical and field blast test indicated that the SHS composite exhibited high resistance against blast loading.

关键词: high strength concrete (SHS)     engineered cementitious composite     interface     blast test     strain rate effect    

Design and modeling of a novel soft parallel robot driven by endoskeleton pneumatic artificial muscles

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第17卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-022-0678-2

摘要: Owing to their inherent great flexibility, good compliance, excellent adaptability, and safe interactivity, soft robots have shown great application potential. The advantages of light weight, high efficiency, non-polluting characteristic, and environmental adaptability provide pneumatic soft robots an important position in the field of soft robots. In this paper, a soft robot with 10 soft modules, comprising three uniformly distributed endoskeleton pneumatic artificial muscles, was developed. The robot can achieve flexible motion in 3D space. A novel kinematic modeling method for variable-curvature soft robots based on the minimum energy method was investigated, which can accurately and efficiently analyze forward and inverse kinematics. Experiments show that the robot can be controlled to move to the desired position based on the proposed model. The prototype and modeling method can provide a new perspective for soft robot design, modeling, and control.

关键词: pneumatic artificial muscles     soft robot     modeling approach     principle of virtual work     external load    

Online soft measurement for wastewater treatment system based on hybrid deep learning

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-024-1780-y

摘要:

● A hybrid model is proposed to overcome limitations of single model with time series.

关键词: Prediction model     Soft measurement     CNN-BNLSTM-AM model     TPE optimization algorithm    

Risk stratification system for skin and soft tissue infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第6期   页码 957-968 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0910-1

摘要: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) refer to infections involving the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and muscle. In transplant populations with hematological malignancies, an immunocompromised status and the routine use of immunosuppressants increase the risk of SSTIs greatly. However, to date, the profiles and clinical outcomes of SSTIs in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients remain unclear. This study included 228 patients (3.67%) who developed SSTIs within 180 days after allogeneic HSCT from January 2004 to December 2019 in Peking University People’s Hospital. The overall annual survival rate was 71.5%. We compared the differences between survivors and non-survivors a year after transplant and found that primary platelet graft failure (PPGF), comorbidities of acute kidney injury (AKI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) were independent risk factors for death in the study population. A PPGF–AKI–HAP risk stratification system was established with a mortality risk score of 1×PPGF+1×AKI+1×HAP. The areas under the curves of internal and external validation were 0.833 (95% CI 0.760–0.906) and 0.826 (95% CI 0.715–0.937), respectively. The calibration plot revealed the high consistency of the estimated risks, and decision curve analysis showed considerable net benefits for patients.

关键词: skin and soft tissue infections     hematopoietic stem cell transplantation     risk stratification system     mortality    

Crack evolution of soft–hard composite layered rock-like specimens with two fissures under uniaxial compression

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期   页码 1372-1389 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0772-2

摘要: Acoustic emission and digital image correlation were used to study the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of crack extension of soft and hard composite laminated rock masses (SHCLRM) containing double fissures under uniaxial compression. The effects of different rock combination methods and prefabricated fissures with different orientations on mechanical properties and crack coalescence patterns were analyzed. The characteristics of the acoustic emission source location distribution, and frequency changes of the crack evolution process were also investigated. The test results show that the damage mode of SHCLRM is related to the combination mode of rock layers and the orientation of fractures. Hard layers predominantly produce tensile cracks; soft layers produce shear cracks. The first crack always sprouts at the tip or middle of prefabricated fractures in hard layers. The acoustic emission signal of SHCLRM with double fractures has clear stage characteristics, and the state of crack development can be inferred from this signal to provide early warning for rock fracture instability. This study can provide a reference for the assessment of the fracture development status between adjacent roadways in SHCLRM in underground mines, as well as in roadway layout and support.

关键词: soft−hard composite layered rock mass     double cracks     crack evolution     acoustic emission     digital image correlation    

Design and experiment of a novel pneumatic soft arm based on a deployable origami exoskeleton

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第18卷 第4期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-023-0770-2

摘要: Soft arms have shown great application potential because of their flexibility and compliance in unstructured environments. However, soft arms made from soft materials exhibit limited cargo-loading capacity, which restricts their ability to manipulate objects. In this research, a novel soft arm was developed by coupling a rigid origami exoskeleton with soft airbags. The joint module of the soft arm was composed of a deployable origami exoskeleton and three soft airbags. The motion and load performance of the soft arm of the eight-joint module was tested. The developed soft arm withstood at least 5 kg of load during extension, contraction, and bending motions; exhibited bistable characteristics in both fully contracted and fully extended states; and achieved a bending angle of more than 240° and a contraction ratio of more than 300%. In addition, the high extension, contraction, bending, and torsional stiffnesses of the soft arm were experimentally demonstrated. A kinematic-based trajectory planning of the soft arm was performed to evaluate its error in repetitive motion. This work will provide new design ideas and methods for flexible manipulation applications of soft arms.

关键词: pneumatic soft arm     soft airbag     deployable origami exoskeleton     bistable characteristics     cargo-loading capacity    

Analysis of load and adaptability of disc cutters during shield tunneling in soft–hard varied strata

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期   页码 533-545 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0946-1

摘要: The disc cutters of shield machines exhibit unsatisfactory adaptability and performance during the soft–hard varied strata tunneling process. To analyze the rotation state, cutting performance, and adaptability of disc cutters during shield tunneling in soft–hard varied strata, the Holmquist Johnson Cook and Federal Highway Administration constitutive models are introduced to numerically simulate the failure process of materials on the excavation face and to calculate the load of disc cutters. Additionally, the parameters of the models are modified based on laboratory disc cutter excavation test results. The results of numerical calculation can reflect the load level and the behavior of the disc cutters during operation. The tangential loads of the disc cutters during the cutting of four typical soft-strata excavation face models are numerically calculated, thus providing reference values for the starting torque of the disc cutters. A greater penetration is suggested for soft-strata tunneling to allow the disc cutters to rotate smoothly and continuously as well as to guarantee a better cutting effect. The disc cutters in the center of the cutterhead should be specified with a lower starting torque to prevent uneven wear, rotation stagnation, cutterhead clogging, and other adverse phenomena.

关键词: shield tunneling     disc cutter load     laboratory excavation test     numerical calculation     soft–hard varied strata    

Seismic responses of subway station with different distributions of soft soil in Tianjin

Dejian YANG,Meiling DUAN

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第2期   页码 187-193 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0252-z

摘要: In connection with the practical project of Kunming Road station of Tianjin subway Line 3, the paper established a two-dimensional finite element model with visco-elastic boundary by using ANSYS and analyzed seismic responses of subway station with different distribution of soft soil. The nonlinear dynamic properties of soft soils are modeled by the KINH. And obtain the response rules about displacement and internal force on subway station in the general field soil and five different distributions of soft soil. Provide reference for improving the seismic performance of subway stations in Tianjin soft soil.

关键词: distribution of soft soil     soft soil in Tianjin     seismic response     ANSYS    

Bionic soft robotic gripper with feedback control for adaptive grasping and capturing applications

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2024年 第19卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11465-023-0779-6

摘要: Robots are playing an increasingly important role in engineering applications. Soft robots have promising applications in several fields due to their inherent advantages of compliance, low density, and soft interactions. A soft gripper based on bio-inspiration is proposed in this study. We analyze the cushioning and energy absorption mechanism of human fingertips in detail and provide insights for designing a soft gripper with a variable stiffness structure. We investigate the grasping modes through a large deformation modeling approach, which is verified through experiments. The characteristics of the three grasping modes are quantified through testing and can provide guidance for robotics manipulation. First, the adaptability of the soft gripper is verified by grasping multi-scale and extremely soft objects. Second, a cushioning model of the soft gripper is proposed, and the effectiveness of cushioning is verified by grasping extremely sharp objects and living organisms. Notably, we validate the advantages of the variable stiffness of the soft gripper, and the results show that the soft robot can robustly complete assemblies with a gap of only 0.1 mm. Owing to the unstructured nature of the engineering environment, the soft gripper can be applied in complex environments based on the abovementioned experimental analysis. Finally, we design the soft robotics system with feedback capture based on the inspiration of human catching behavior. The feasibility of engineering applications is initially verified through fast capture experiments on moving objects. The design concept of this robot can provide new insights for bionic machinery.

关键词: soft bionic gripper     variable stiffness structure     large deformation modeling     feedback control     soft robotic system    

A simplified method for investigating the bending behavior of piles supporting embankments on soft ground

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第7期   页码 1021-1032 doi: 10.1007/s11709-023-0952-3

摘要: In recent years, concrete and reinforced concrete piles have been widely used to stabilize soft ground under embankments. Previous research has shown that bending failure, particularly during rapid filling on soft ground, is the critical failure mode for pile-supported embankments. Here, we propose an efficient two-stage method that combines a test-verified soil deformation mechanism and Poulos’ solution for pile–soil interaction to investigate the bending behavior of piles supporting embankments on soft ground. The results reveal that there are three possible bending failure scenarios for such piles: at the interface between the soft and firm ground layers, at mid-depths of the fan zone, and at the boundary of the soil deformation mechanism. The location of the bending failure depends on the position and relative stiffness of the given pile. Furthermore, the effect of embedding a pile into a firm ground layer on the bending behavior was investigated. When the embedded length of a pile exceeded a critical value, the bending moment at the interface between the soft and firm ground layers reached a limiting value. In addition, floating piles that are not embedded exhibit an overturning pattern of movement in the soft ground layer, and a potential failure is located in the upper part of these piles.

关键词: bending behavior     pile     embankment     soil−structure interaction     failure mode    

Numerical investigation of the ultimate lateral resistance of piles in soft clay

Konstantinos P. TZIVAKOS,Michael J. KAVVADAS

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第8卷 第2期   页码 194-200 doi: 10.1007/s11709-014-0251-0

摘要: The paper presents a numerical study on the undrained lateral response of a single, free-head, reinforced concrete pile in soft clays. Soil conditions simulating normally consolidated clays are examined—undrained shear strength increasing with depth—and the pile-soil interaction under static lateral loading is analyzed. The nonlinear ? curves proposed in literature for soft clays are imported into a beam-on-nonlinear-Winkler-foundation simulation in order to predict the pile head lateral load—displacement curve and the distribution of the horizontal displacement and bending moment along the pile. The striking differences among these methods require further investigation via 3D finite element analyses. The determination of the ultimate soil resistance from the results of the finite element analyses aims at providing the estimation of a range of values for the ultimate soil resistance coefficient with depth and the comparison of the derived values to the corresponding ones proposed by existing methodologies.

关键词: laterally loaded     pile     soft clay     p?y curves     finite element method (FEM)    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Floating production storage and offloading systems’ cost and motion performance: A systems thinking application

Rini NISHANTH, Andrew WHYTE, V. John KURIAN

期刊论文

Rethinking the tendering frameworks of construction contractors in the context of a soft systems methodology

Stephen URQUHART, Andrew WHYTE

期刊论文

Development of soft kernel durum wheat

Craig F. MORRIS

期刊论文

Predication of discharge coefficient of cylindrical weir-gate using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems

Abbas PARSAIE,Amir Hamzeh HAGHIABI,Mojtaba SANEIE,Hasan TORABI

期刊论文

Performance of soft-hard-soft (SHS) cement based composite subjected to blast loading with consideration

Jun WU,Xuemei LIU

期刊论文

Design and modeling of a novel soft parallel robot driven by endoskeleton pneumatic artificial muscles

期刊论文

Online soft measurement for wastewater treatment system based on hybrid deep learning

期刊论文

Risk stratification system for skin and soft tissue infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell

期刊论文

Crack evolution of soft–hard composite layered rock-like specimens with two fissures under uniaxial compression

期刊论文

Design and experiment of a novel pneumatic soft arm based on a deployable origami exoskeleton

期刊论文

Analysis of load and adaptability of disc cutters during shield tunneling in soft–hard varied strata

期刊论文

Seismic responses of subway station with different distributions of soft soil in Tianjin

Dejian YANG,Meiling DUAN

期刊论文

Bionic soft robotic gripper with feedback control for adaptive grasping and capturing applications

期刊论文

A simplified method for investigating the bending behavior of piles supporting embankments on soft ground

期刊论文

Numerical investigation of the ultimate lateral resistance of piles in soft clay

Konstantinos P. TZIVAKOS,Michael J. KAVVADAS

期刊论文