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Oocyte-associated transcription factors in reprogramming after somatic cell nuclear transfer: a review

Fengxia YIN,Hui LIU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第2期   页码 104-113 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014003

摘要: Oocytes are unique cells with the inherent capability to reprogram nuclei. The reprogramming of the somatic nucleus from its original cellular state to a totipotent state is essential for term development after somatic cell nuclear transfer. The nuclear-associated factors contained within oocytes are critical for normal fertilization by sperm or for somatic cell nuclear reprogramming. The chromatin of somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed by factors in the egg cytoplasm whose natural function is to reprogram sperm chromatin. The oocyte first obtains its reprogramming capability in the early fetal follicle, and then its capacity is enriched in the late growth phase and reaches its highest capability for reprogramming as fully-grown germinal vesicle oocytes. The cytoplasmic milieu most likely contains all of the specific transcription and/or reprogramming factors necessary for cellular reprogramming. Certain transcription factors in the cytoplast may be critical as has been demonstrated for induced pluripotent stem cells. The maternal pronucleus exerts a predominant, transcription-dependent effect on embryo cytofragmentation, with a lesser effect imposed by the ooplasm and the paternal pronucleus. With deep analysis of transcriptomics in oocytes and early developmental stage embryos more maternal transcription factors inducing cellular reprogramming will be identified.

关键词: nuclear reprogramming     somatic cell     transcription factors     transcriptomics    

Factors influencing the somatic cell nuclear transfer efficiency in pigs

Yong JIN, Manling ZHANG, Xinrong JU, Shuang LIANG, Qiang XIONG, Lihua ZHAO, Xiaowei NIE, Daorong HOU, Qiang LIU, Junzheng WANG, Chenyu WANG, Xiaokang LI, Lining ZHANG, Xiaorui LIU, Ying WANG, Haiyuan YANG, Yifan DAI, Rongfeng LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第1期   页码 73-80 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018220

摘要:

Using a data set from our laboratory, we assessed the effects of several factors on pig cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that cells at high confluence (>90%) used as donor cell resulted in higher pregnancy rate, delivery rate and overall cloning efficiency (number of live offspring born per reconstructed embryo transferred to recipients) compared with the cells at 60% to 79% confluence and 80% to 89% confluence. Cells with four, five and six passages compromised the pregnancy and delivery rates compared with first passage cells. The number of blastocysts transferred by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) did not significantly affect the cloning efficiency, but transfer of blastocyst derived from culture 5 d after SCNT achieved a significantly higher pregnancy rate compared with one to two cell SCNT embryos from overnight culture. The highest pregnancy rate, delivery rate and the largest litter size were obtained when Bama Miniature pig fibroblasts were used as donor cells and Landrace/Yorkshire hybrid gilts were used as recipients. Recipients treated with chemicals for estrus synchronization had higher pregnancy rates compared with untreated recipients. Our data might be helpful for improving SCNT efficiency in pigs.

关键词: blastocyst     donor cell     estrus synchronization     pregnancy rate     pig cloning     somatic cell nuclear transfer    

Factors affecting early embryonic development in cattle: relevance for bovine cloning

Yanna DANG, Kun ZHANG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第1期   页码 33-41 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2018228

摘要:

Female infertility represents a major challenge for improving the production efficiency in the dairy industry. Historically, fertility has declined whereas milk yield has increased tremendously due to intensive genetic selection. evidence reveals about 60% pregnancy loss takes place during the first month following fertilization. Meanwhile, early embryo development is significant for somatic cell nuclear transfer in cattle as a large proportion of cloned embryos fail to develop beyond peri-implantation stage. Oocyte quality is of utmost importance for the early embryo to develop to term for both fertilized and cloned embryos. Epigenetic reprogramming is a key process occurring after fertilization and critical roles of epigenetic modifiers during preimplantation development are now clear. Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is believed to be a major limitation to cloning efficiency. Treatment of cloned embryos with epigenetic modifying drugs (e.g., Trichostatin A) could greatly improve cloning efficiency in both mice and cattle. Recently, the rapid progress in high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled detailed deciphering of the molecular mechanisms underlying these events. The robust efficiency of genomic editing tools also presents an alternative approach to the functional annotation of genes critical to early development.

关键词: bovine cloning     embryo development     somatic cell nuclear transfer     X-inactive specific transcript    

The ecological adaptability of cloned sheep to free-grazing in the Tengger Desert of Inner Mongolia, China

Xinxin LI,Huijuan WANG,Guanghua SU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Wuni-MENGHE,Yanhui HOU,Changqing YU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第3期   页码 191-200 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014029

摘要: Since the birth of the first cloned sheep, somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been successfully used to clone a variety of mammals. Cloned livestock have no apparent health risks, and the quality and safety of the cloned animal products are similar to non-cloned animals. The social behavior and environmental adaptability of postnatal cloned animals, especially when used for grassland farm production purposes, is unknown. In the present study, the cloned Dorper sheep equipped with GPS location devices were free-grazed in a harsh natural environment similar to conditions commonly experienced by Mongolian sheep. The main findings of this research were as follows. (1) Under free-grazing conditions, the cloned sheep showed excellent climatic and ecological adaptability. In extreme temperature conditions ranging from -30 to 40°C, the cloned sheep maintained acceptable body condition and behaved as other sheep. (2) The cloned sheep quickly adapted from a herd feeding strategy to the harsh environment and quickly exhibited a grazing regimen as other free-grazing sheep. (3) The cloned sheep exhibited free-grazing patterns and social behavior as other sheep. (4) The cloned sheep in the harsh environment thrived and produced healthy lambs. Overall, the cloned Dorper sheep exhibited excellent ecological adaptation, which is an important consideration for breeding meat sheep by cloning. The Dorper sheep readily adapted to the free-grazing conditions on the Mongolian plateau grassland, which attests to their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.

关键词: somatic cell nuclear transfer     free-grazing synchronization     Dorper sheep     cloned animal ecology    

Adoptive cell transfer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

Renyu Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Zekun Liu, Ding Wei, Xiaodong Wu, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第1期   页码 3-11 doi: 10.1007/s11684-019-0684-x

摘要: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. This malignancy is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Novel approaches for prolonging the overall survival of patients with advanced HCC are urgently needed. The antitumor activities of adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT), such as strategies based on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cytokine-induced killer cells, are more effective than those of traditional strategies. Currently, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy has achieved numerous breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies, including relapsed or refractory lymphoblastic leukemia and refractory large B-cell lymphoma. Nevertheless, this approach only provides a modest benefit in the treatment of solid tumors. The clinical results of CAR-T immunotherapy for HCC that could be obtained at present are limited. Some published studies have demonstrated that CAR-T could inhibit tumor growth and cause severe side effects. In this review, we summarized the current application of ACT, the challenges encountered by CAR-T technology in HCC treatment, and some possible strategies for the future direction of immunotherapeutic research.

关键词: adoptive cell transfer therapy     hepatocellular carcinoma     T cell     chimeric antigen receptor     immunotherapy    

Potential of electron transfer and its application in dictating routes of biochemical processes associated

《医学前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第5期   页码 679-692 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0866-1

摘要: Metabolic reprogramming, such as abnormal utilization of glucose, addiction to glutamine, and increased de-novo lipid synthesis, extensively occurs in proliferating cancer cells, but the underneath rationale has remained to be elucidated. Based on the concept of the degree of reduction of a compound, we have recently proposed a calculation termed as potential of electron transfer (PET), which is used to characterize the degree of electron redistribution coupled with metabolic transformations. When this calculation is combined with the assumed model of electron balance in a cellular context, the enforced selective reprogramming could be predicted by examining the net changes of the PET values associated with the biochemical pathways in anaerobic metabolism. Some interesting properties of PET in cancer cells were also discussed, and the model was extended to uncover the chemical nature underlying aerobic glycolysis that essentially results from energy requirement and electron balance. Enabling electron transfer could drive metabolic reprogramming in cancer metabolism. Therefore, the concept and model established on electron transfer could guide the treatment strategies of tumors and future studies on cellular metabolism.

关键词: metabolic reprogramming     potential of electron transfer     cell proliferation     aerobic glycolysis     cancer metabolism    

Challenges of NK cell-based immunotherapy in the new era

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第4期   页码 440-450 doi: tzg@ustc.edu.cn

摘要:

Natural killer cells (NKs) have a great potential for cancer immunotherapy because they can rapidly and directly kill transformed cells in the absence of antigen presensitization. Various cellular sources, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), stem cells, and NK cell lines, have been used for producing NK cells. In particular, NK cells that expanded from allogeneic PBMCs exhibit better efficacy than those that did not. However, considering the safety, activities, and reliability of the cell products, researchers must develop an optimal protocol for producing NK cells from PBMCs in the manufacture setting and clinical therapeutic regimen. In this review, the challenges on NK cell-based therapeutic approaches and clinical outcomes are discussed.

关键词: natural killer cells     immunotherapy     adoptive transfer     genetic modification     immune checkpoint inhibitor    

Inhibition of NF-kappa B can enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis in leukemia cell line HL-60

Li WANG, Shi ZHAO, Hong-Xiang WANG, Ping ZOU

《医学前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第3期   页码 323-328 doi: 10.1007/s11684-010-0026-5

摘要: This study explored the effects of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor Bay 11-7082 on Fas/FasL system and Fas-mediated apoptosis in cell line HL-60 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of Fas, FasL, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM); the level of sFasL was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and apoptosis was determined by FCM. After treatment with Bay 11-7082, the mRNA and protein levels of FasL and XIAP in HL-60 cells were significantly lower than in the controls ( <0.05), but the mRNA and protein levels of Fas and sFasL did not change significantly ( >0.05). Apoptotic rate of HL-60 cells treated with Bay 11-7082 was significantly higher than in the controls ( <0.05). Therefore, we conclude that Bay 11-7082 can enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 cells by downregulating FasL and XIAP levels.

关键词: nuclear factor-kappa B     Fas/FasL system     HL-60     Bay 11-7082    

Special issue: innovative nuclear energy technology

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 791-792 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0794-4

An old issue and a new challenge for nuclear reactor safety

F. D’AURIA

《能源前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第4期   页码 854-859 doi: 10.1007/s11708-021-0729-0

摘要: Nuclear reactor safety (NRS) and the branch accident analysis (AA) constitute proven technologies: these are based on, among the other things, long lasting research and operational experience in the area of water cooled nuclear reactors (WCNR). Large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) has been, so far, the orienting scenario within AA and a basis for the design of reactors. An incomplete vision for those technologies during the last few years is as follows: Progress in fundamentals was stagnant, namely in those countries where the WCNR were designed. Weaknesses became evident, noticeably in relation to nuclear fuel under high burn-up. Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) techniques were perfected and available for application. Electronic and informatics systems were in extensive use and their impact in case of accident becomes more and more un-checked (however, quite irrelevant in case of LBLOCA). The time delay between technological discoveries and applications was becoming longer. The present paper deals with the LBLOCA that is inserted into the above context. Key conclusion is that regulations need suitable modification, rather than lowering the importance and the role of LBLOCA. Moreover, strengths of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and containment need a tight link.

关键词: large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA)     nuclear reactor safety (NRS)     licensing perspectives     basis for design of water cooled nuclear reactors (WCNR)    

让核技术为国家可持续发展再创辉煌

杜祥琬

《中国工程科学》 2008年 第10卷 第1期   页码 9-11

摘要:

概述了对核科学技术发展及应用方向的认识,包括核技术与能源、核技术与医疗卫生、核分析技术、核辐射技术、宇航与航海核动力等5个方面,讨论了它们对国家可持续发展的意义。概括了核科学技术发展的三部曲及发展前景。

关键词: 核科学     核技术     核工程     可持续发展    

Astragaloside IV suppresses post-ischemic natural killer cell infiltration and activation in the brain

Baokai Dou, Shichun Li, Luyao Wei, Lixin Wang, Shiguo Zhu, Zhengtao Wang, Zunji Ke, Kaixian Chen, Zhifei Wang

《医学前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第1期   页码 79-90 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0783-8

摘要: Natural killer (NK) cells, a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes, can infiltrate into ischemic brain and exacerbate neuronal cell death. Astragaloside IV (ASIV) is the major bioactive ingredient of , a Chinese herbal medicine, and possesses potent immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of ASIV on post-ischemic brain infiltration and activation of NK cells. ASIV reduced brain infarction and alleviated functional deficits in MCAO rats, and these beneficial effects persisted for at least 7 days. Abundant NK cells infiltrated into the ischemic hemisphere on day 1 after brain ischemia, and this infiltration was suppressed by ASIV. Strikingly, ASIV reversed NK cell deficiency in the spleen and blood after brain ischemia. ASIV inhibited astrocyte-derived CCL2 upregulation and reduced CCR2 NK cell levels in the ischemic brain. Meanwhile, ASIV attenuated NK cell activating receptor NKG2D levels and reduced interferon-γ production. ASIV restored acetylation of histone H3 and the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB in the ischemic brain, suggesting inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Simultaneously, ASIV prevented p65 nuclear translocation. The effects of ASIV on reducing CCL2 production, restoring acetylated p65 levels and preventing p65 nuclear translocation were mimicked by valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, in astrocytes subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Our findings suggest that ASIV inhibits post-ischemic NK cell brain infiltration and activation and reverses NK cell deficiency in the periphery, which together contribute to the beneficial effects of ASIV against brain ischemia. Furthermore, ASIV’s effects on suppressing NK cell brain infiltration and activation may involve HDAC inhibition.

关键词: astragaloside IV     brain ischemia     natural killer cells     histone deacetylase     nuclear factor-κB    

Reliability prediction and its validation for nuclear power units in service

Jinyuan SHI,Yong WANG

《能源前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第4期   页码 479-488 doi: 10.1007/s11708-016-0425-7

摘要: In this paper a novel method for reliability prediction and validation of nuclear power units in service is proposed. The equivalent availability factor is used to measure the reliability, and the equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours and maintenance factor are used for the measurement of inherent reliability. By statistical analysis of historical reliability data, the statistical maintenance factor and the undetermined parameter in its numerical model can be determined. The numerical model based on the maintenance factor predicts the equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours, and the planed outage factor can be obtained by using the planned maintenance days. Using these factors, the equivalent availability factor of nuclear power units in the following 3 years can be obtained. Besides, the equivalent availability factor can be predicted by using the historical statistics of planed outage factor and the predicted equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours. The accuracy of the reliability prediction can be evaluated according to the comparison between the predicted and statistical equivalent availability factors. Furthermore, the reliability prediction method is validated using the nuclear power units in North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and China. It is found that the relative errors of the predicted equivalent availability factors for nuclear power units of NERC and China are in the range of –2.16% to 5.23% and –2.15% to 3.71%, respectively. The method proposed can effectively predict the reliability index in the following 3 years, thus providing effective reliability management and maintenance optimization methods for nuclear power units.

关键词: nuclear power units in service     reliability     reliability prediction     equivalent availability factors    

中法关于核能与环境的联合研究 Feature Article

赵宪庚, 叶其蓁, Sébastien Candel, Dominique Vignon, Robert Guillaumont

《工程(英文)》 2023年 第26卷 第7期   页码 159-172 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2023.04.011

摘要:

本文聚焦核能的环境影响,将阐述与核能发电相关的四个主要环境问题:①控制正常运行条件下核设施的放射性释放,评估其非放射性环境影响(取水与非放射性水的排放等);②乏燃料与放射性废物的长期管理,特别是将在地质处置库处理的乏燃料与放射性废物;③防止和缓解严重核事故及其放射性释放;④改善核安全水平,以限制核能的环境影响,提升公众对核能的接受度。核能的温室气体排放水平非常低,可以提供大规模、随需应变的可调度电力,在气候变化的背景下,核能在此方面具有独特的优势。在正常运行工况下,核电站对周围公众的年有效剂量影响可以忽略不计。人们已经做出了相当大的努力,以确保可持续地管理高放射性长寿命废物,并使其在地质结构中得到最终处置。从严重核事故中获得的经验促成了许多方面的重要的安全改进,其中包括反应堆的设计、运行管理方面的改善,以及事故管理指南的制定等。事实证明,这些是相当有价值的。严重事故的环境风险已经被大幅降低,确保即使发生事故,也可以最大程度地减少放射性物质的释放,并避免大规模的人员疏散。还需要继续采取措施,改善反应堆的安全性,提升核工业与核监管机构的透明度,以进一步降低核能的环境影响。

关键词: 核能     环境影响     放射性废物管理     严重核事故     核安全    

中国核电的可持续发展

赵仁恺

《中国工程科学》 2000年 第2卷 第10期   页码 33-41

摘要:

文章阐述了核能是可持续发展的能源,是我国未来国民经济发展的重要支柱的论点,分析了国际核电发展现状,我国核电发展的方针政策、技术路线、现状以及共同关心的几个问题:铀资源问题、核安全问题、核废料问题和核电国产化问题,展望了我国核电发展的前景,并提出了建议:我国核电站应以现有压水堆核电站为基础,实现国产化、标准化、系列化;快中子增殖堆在我国核电建设中占有十分重要的地位,应大力支持、促进;尽快开始乏燃料后处理厂及其配套设施的建设。

关键词: 核能     铀资源     核安全     核废料     国产化    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Oocyte-associated transcription factors in reprogramming after somatic cell nuclear transfer: a review

Fengxia YIN,Hui LIU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

期刊论文

Factors influencing the somatic cell nuclear transfer efficiency in pigs

Yong JIN, Manling ZHANG, Xinrong JU, Shuang LIANG, Qiang XIONG, Lihua ZHAO, Xiaowei NIE, Daorong HOU, Qiang LIU, Junzheng WANG, Chenyu WANG, Xiaokang LI, Lining ZHANG, Xiaorui LIU, Ying WANG, Haiyuan YANG, Yifan DAI, Rongfeng LI

期刊论文

Factors affecting early embryonic development in cattle: relevance for bovine cloning

Yanna DANG, Kun ZHANG

期刊论文

The ecological adaptability of cloned sheep to free-grazing in the Tengger Desert of Inner Mongolia, China

Xinxin LI,Huijuan WANG,Guanghua SU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Wuni-MENGHE,Yanhui HOU,Changqing YU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

期刊论文

Adoptive cell transfer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

Renyu Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Zekun Liu, Ding Wei, Xiaodong Wu, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen

期刊论文

Potential of electron transfer and its application in dictating routes of biochemical processes associated

期刊论文

Challenges of NK cell-based immunotherapy in the new era

null

期刊论文

Inhibition of NF-kappa B can enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis in leukemia cell line HL-60

Li WANG, Shi ZHAO, Hong-Xiang WANG, Ping ZOU

期刊论文

Special issue: innovative nuclear energy technology

期刊论文

An old issue and a new challenge for nuclear reactor safety

F. D’AURIA

期刊论文

让核技术为国家可持续发展再创辉煌

杜祥琬

期刊论文

Astragaloside IV suppresses post-ischemic natural killer cell infiltration and activation in the brain

Baokai Dou, Shichun Li, Luyao Wei, Lixin Wang, Shiguo Zhu, Zhengtao Wang, Zunji Ke, Kaixian Chen, Zhifei Wang

期刊论文

Reliability prediction and its validation for nuclear power units in service

Jinyuan SHI,Yong WANG

期刊论文

中法关于核能与环境的联合研究

赵宪庚, 叶其蓁, Sébastien Candel, Dominique Vignon, Robert Guillaumont

期刊论文

中国核电的可持续发展

赵仁恺

期刊论文