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LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-558 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE -2020349

摘要:

Agriculture uses a large proportion of global and regional water resources. Due to the rapid increase of population in the world, the increasing competition for water resources has led to an urgent need in increasing crop water productivity for agricultural sustainability. As the medium for crop growth, soils and their properties are important in affecting crop water productivity. This review examines the effects of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties on crop water productivity and the quantitative relationships between them. A comprehensive view of these relationships may provide important insights for soil and water management in arable land for agriculture in the future.

 

关键词: crop water productivity     crop yield     soil chemical properties     soil microbial properties     soil physical properties     water consumption    

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

Di WU, Allan A. ANDALES, Hui YANG, Qing SUN, Shichao CHEN, Xiuwei GUO, Donghao LI, Taisheng DU

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第4期   页码 545-558 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020349

摘要: Agriculture uses a large proportion of global and regional water resources. Due to the rapid increase of population in the world, the increasing competition for water resources has led to an urgent need in increasing crop water productivity for agricultural sustainability. As the medium for crop growth, soils and their properties are important in affecting crop water productivity. This review examines the effects of soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties on crop water productivity and the quantitative relationships between them. A comprehensive view of these relationships may provide important insights for soil and water management in arable land for agriculture in the future.

关键词: crop water productivity     crop yield     soil chemical properties     soil microbial properties     soil physical properties     water consumption    

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第2期   页码 185-194 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017149

摘要: This paper explores the effect of varying agricultural management practices on different water efficiency indicators: irrigation efficiency (IE), crop water use efficiency (WUE), and green and blue water footprint (WF). We take winter wheat in an experimental field in Northern China as a case study and consider a dry, average and wet year. We conducted 24 modeling experiments with the AquaCrop model, for all possible combinations of four irrigation techniques, two irrigation strategies and three mulching methods. Results show that deficit irrigation most effectively improved blue water use, by increasing IE (by 5%) and reducing blue WF (by 38%), however with an average 9% yield reduction. Organic or synthetic mulching practices improved WUE (by 4% and 10%, respectively) and reduced blue WF (by 8% and 17%, respectively), with the same yield level. Drip and subsurface drip irrigation improved IE and WUE, but drip irrigation had a relatively large blue WF. Improvements in one water efficiency indicator may cause a decline in another. In particular, WUE can be improved by more irrigation at the cost of the blue WF. Furthermore, increasing IE, for instance by installing drip irrigation, does not necessarily reduce the blue WF.

关键词: field management     irrigation efficiency     water footprint     water productivity     water use efficiency    

Modelling and analysis of FMS productivity variables by ISM, SEM and GTMA approach

null

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第9卷 第3期   页码 218-232 doi: 10.1007/s11465-014-0309-7

摘要:

Productivity has often been cited as a key factor in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) performance, and actions to increase it are said to improve profitability and the wage earning capacity of employees. Improving productivity is seen as a key issue for survival and success in the long term of a manufacturing system. The purpose of this paper is to make a model and analysis of the productivity variables of FMS. This study was performed by different approaches viz. interpretive structural modelling (ISM), structural equation modelling (SEM), graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA) and a cross-sectional survey within manufacturing firms in India. ISM has been used to develop a model of productivity variables, and then it has been analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are powerful statistical techniques. CFA is carried by SEM. EFA is applied to extract the factors in FMS by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) software and confirming these factors by CFA through analysis of moment structures (AMOS 20) software. The twenty productivity variables are identified through literature and four factors extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. The four factors are people, quality, machine and flexibility. SEM using AMOS 20 was used to perform the first order four-factor structures. GTMA is a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) methodology used to find intensity/quantification of productivity variables in an organization. The FMS productivity index has purposed to intensify the factors which affect FMS.

关键词: FMS     ISM     EFA     SEM     GTMA    

Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China

Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第2卷 第4期   页码 295-310 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2015074

摘要: The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production area in China, but the current winter wheat-summer maize system has resulted in a large water deficit. This water-shortage necessitates the improvement of crop water productivity in the NCP. A crop water model, AquaCrop, was adopted to investigate yield and water productivity (WP) for rain-fed summer maize on the piedmont of the NCP. The data sets to calibrate and validate the model were obtained from a 3-year (2011–2013) field experiment conducted on the Yanshan piedmont of the NCP. The range of root mean square error (RMSE) between the simulated and measured biomass was 0.67–1.25 t·hm , and that of relative error (RE) was 9.4%–15.4%, the coefficient of determination ( ) ranged from 0.992 to 0.994. The RMSE between the simulated and measured soil water storage at depth of 0–100 cm ranged from 4.09 to 4.39 mm; and RE and in the range of 1.07%–1.20% and 0.880–0.997, respectively. The WP as measured by crop yield per unit evapotranspiration was 2.50–2.66 kg·m . The simulated impact of long-term climate (i.e., 1980–2010) and groundwater depth on crop yield and WP revealed that the higher yield and WP could be obtained in dry years in areas with capillary recharge from groundwater, and much lower values elsewhere. The simulation also suggested that supplementary irrigation in areas without capillary groundwater would not result in groundwater over-tapping since the precipitation can meet the water required by both maize and ecosystem, thus a beneficial outcome for both food and ecosystem security can be assured.

关键词: AquaCrop     summer maize     soil water balance     water productivity    

华北地区农业水资源现状和未来保障研究

黄峰,杜太生,王素芬,梅旭荣,龚道枝,陈源泉,康绍忠

《中国工程科学》 2019年 第21卷 第5期   页码 28-37 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2019.05.024

摘要:

华北地区是我国重要的粮食和农产品生产基地,对保障国家的粮食和食物安全至关重要。华北用仅占全国6% 的水资源支撑了占全国18% 的耕地并生产出占全国23% 的粮食。但这个巨大成就是以极大的资源环境和生态成本为代价的。本文回顾华北粮食生产和用水的历史性成就,总结现在面临的主要问题和挑战,然后应用国际水资源研究界广泛应用的农业用水管理的综合分析框架,系统分析1998—2015 年华北地区水资源、农业用水以及用水效率和水分生产力,在此基础上尝试提出了未来保障华北地区食物安全的战略和政策途径。

关键词: 食物安全     农业用水     水分利用效率     作物水分生产力    

Grassland management practices in Chinese steppes impact productivity, diversity and the relationship

Yingjun ZHANG, Wenjie LU, Hao ZHANG, Jiqiong ZHOU, Yue SHEN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第1期   页码 57-63 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017192

摘要: Grasslands are crucial parts of the terrestrial ecosystem, with an extremely high differentiation of productivity and diversity across spatial scales and land use patterns. The practices employed to manage grassland, such as grazing, haymaking, fertilization or reseeding, can improve the grassland condition. This study focuses on the changes in productivity and diversity and the relationship between them as affected by management practices. Productivity and diversity have unequivocally been altered in response to different management practices. When grazing intensity of a typical steppe increased from 1.5 to 9 sheep per hectare, both productivity and diversity declined. Higher grazing intensity (6 to 9 sheep per hectare) accelerated loss of diversity because of lower productivity. Productivity was significantly improved but diversity was lost by fertilizing. N fertilization also reduced the sensitivity of diversity to productivity. A similar response was found in mown grassland with increased productivity and diversity but their relationship was negatively affected. Mowing also slowed down the decline in diversity as productivity increased. Reseeding purple-flowered alfalfa led to an increased diversity, while yellow-flowered alfalfa increased productivity significantly. The negative productivity-diversity relationship was transformed to a positive one by reseeding alfalfa. These results enhance understanding of how productivity, diversity and their relationships change in response to altered grassland management practices, and support an integrated approach for improving both productivity and diversity.

关键词: diversity     fertilizing     grassland management practice     grazing     mowing     productivity     reseeding    

THE 4C APPROACH AS A WAY TO UNDERSTAND SPECIES INTERACTIONS DETERMINING INTERCROPPING PRODUCTIVITY

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第3期   页码 387-399 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021414

摘要:

Modern agriculture needs to develop transition pathways toward agroecological, resilient and sustainable farming systems. One key pathway for such agroecological intensification is the diversification of cropping systems using intercropping and notably cereal-grain legume mixtures. Such mixtures or intercrops have the potential to increase and stabilize yields and improve cereal grain protein concentration in comparison to sole crops. Species mixtures are complex and the 4C approach is both a pedagogical and scientific way to represent the combination of four joint effects of Competition, Complementarity, Cooperation, and Compensation as processes or effects occurring simultaneously and dynamically between species over the whole cropping cycle. Competition is when plants have fairly similar requirements for abiotic resources in space and time, the result of all processes that occur when one species has a greater ability to use limiting resources (e.g., nutrients, water, space, light) than others. Complementarity is when plants grown together have different requirements for abiotic resources in space, time or form. Cooperation is when the modification of the environment by one species is beneficial to the other(s). Compensation is when the failure of one species is compensated by the other(s) because they differ in their sensitivity to abiotic stress. The 4C approach allows to assess the performance of arable intercropping versus classical sole cropping through understanding the use of abiotic resources.

 

关键词: compensation     competition     complementarity     cooperation     interspecific interactions     land equivalent ratio     light     nutrients     species mixtures     water    

Strain and process engineering toward continuous industrial fermentation

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第10期   页码 1336-1353 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2284-6

摘要: Most current biotechnology industries are based on batch or fed-batch fermentation processes, which often show low productivity and high production costs compared to chemical processes. To increase the economic competitiveness of biological processes, continuous fermentation technologies are being developed that offer significant advantages in comparison with batch/fed-batch fermentation processes, including: (1) removal of potential substrates and product inhibition, (2) prolonging the microbial exponential growth phase and enhancing productivity, and (3) avoiding repeated fermentation preparation and lowering operation and installation costs. However, several key challenges should be addressed for the industrial application of continuous fermentation processes, including (1) contamination of the fermentation system, (2) degeneration of strains, and (3) relatively low product titer. In this study, we reviewed and discussed metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies to address these issues.

关键词: continuous fermentation     productivity     contamination     strain degeneration     metabolic engineering    

Systems thinking in construction: Improving the productivity and performance of infrastructure projects

Peter E.D. LOVE, Hanbin LUO

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2018年 第5卷 第3期   页码 285-288 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2018205

摘要:

关键词: valign=     top     class=     J_zhaiyao    

华北地区生态保护与恢复的水资源效应研究

孙思琦,陈永喆,王聪,胡庆芳,吕一河

《中国工程科学》 2022年 第24卷 第5期   页码 97-106 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2022.05.012

摘要:

近年来,华北地区实施了一系列生态保护与恢复工程,植被生态状况发生了显著变化;探究区域植被恢复对水循环过程及水资源供需平衡的影响,对于完善生态恢复策略、实现区域水资源可持续利用十分重要。本文采用皮尔逊相关系数和莫兰指数,结合多源水参量数据进行综合性分析,阐释了植被和不同水参量的时空变化情况,甄别了植被保育与恢复下的水资源变化响应,进而探讨了华北地区水资源与植被恢复的权衡关系。研究结果表明,华北地区的生态保护与恢复工程成效显著,植被净初级生产力的增速约为恢复工程区外的2.3 倍;植被的扩张与蒸散量表现出空间与时间上的强相关性;植被恢复引起的蒸散量提高是引起水储量赤字或显著降低的主要原因。为此建议,华北地区可完善生态恢复策略,在植被保育与恢复过程中考虑水资源的限制作用;以自然恢复方式为主,促进生态恢复的可持续性、水资源的可利用性。

关键词: 华北地区;生态恢复工程;蒸散发;水储量;植被净初级生产力;自然恢复    

我国草原生产力

侯扶江,王春梅,娄珊宁,侯向阳,呼天明

《中国工程科学》 2016年 第18卷 第1期   页码 80-93 doi: 10.15302/J-SSCAE-2016.01.011

摘要:

分析我国草原植物生产和动物生产,比较国内外草原生产力。结果表明,在过去的30余年中,我国一部分草原产草量下降,局部变化不显著。世界草原对畜产品生产的贡献率为40.08 %,中等收入国家为67.35 %。全球24.1 %的牛肉和31.9 %的羊肉来自草原,低收入国家草原载畜量分别高出高收入国家和中等收入国家87.4 %和66.4 %,畜产品生产分别只有两者的37.3 %和71.9 %。适宜的放牧利用,可使我国的草原生产能力达到6.35×109畜产品单位(APU);全国草原单纯依靠放牧每年可产肉2.959×106 t,占全国肉类总产量的3.5 %,占全国牛羊肉总产量的27.4 %。通过草原畜牧业的现代化转型可接近高收入国家水平,增产潜力约为50 %~200 %。

关键词: 草原生产力     产草量     放牧     载畜量     畜产品单位(APU)    

Engineering and Philosophy of Engineering

Rui-yu Yin,Bo-cong Li

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第2期   页码 140-146 doi: 10.15302/J-FEM-2014021

摘要: Philosophy of engineering lays the philosophical foundation of recognition, understanding and management of engineering. Being the kernel of philosophy of engineering, engineering ontology becomes the master key to understanding of engineering. The paper proposes and interprets the principal theses of engineering ontology, which differs from understanding of engineering in separate elements. Engineering ontology believes that engineering is the direct, realistic productivity that runs dynamically and feasibly and creates values. Engineering involves the relationship between human beings and the nature as well as the relationship between human beings and the society, and it has been a basic motive force and a basic way of promoting the social development, so that engineering gains the ontological status and fundamental value in social existence and social development. From the historical point of view, the engineering appears before the emergence of technology and science. Engineering has its own basis for existence, its own structure and its own laws for movement and evolution. Engineering should not be simply regarded as the ramification and derivative from science or technology. Engineering ontology is the theoretical basis of the triism of “science, technology, and engineering”. To understand and handle the mutual relationship among engineering, technology and science, by the evaluation criteria of engineering as the direct productivity, the process and effect of engineering-centered selection, integration and construction must be emphasized and the characteristic and mechanism of selection, integration and construction must be paid high attention. Under no circumstance may the engineering be deemed as an unchanged matter, which is constantly evolving and developing, so the studies on engineering ontology are closely and internally related with the theory of engineering evolution.

关键词: engineering philosophy of engineering     engineering ontology     productivity     engineering value    

Proposing a “lean and green” framework for equipment cost analysis in construction

Ming LU, Nicolas DIAZ, Monjurul HASAN

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第3期   页码 384-394 doi: 10.1007/s42524-019-0033-4

摘要: One limitation of previous productivity-driven research on equipment selection and operation simulation lies in the fact that the green aspects of construction activities have been largely neglected in analysis of costefficiency of construction operations. On the other hand, studies attempting to measure greenhouse gas emission due to construction activities have yet to develop a methodology that correlates their findings and implications with construction productivity. In order to address the immediate need for improving the sustainability performance of construction projects, it is imperative for the construction industry to evaluate greenhouse gas emission as a cost factor in construction planning, equipment selection, and cost estimating. In this context, this paper formalizes an integrative framework for equipment cost analysis based on the concepts of lean construction and green construction, aimed to guide the selection of appropriate construction equipment considering exhaust emission and productivity performance at the same time. The framework is elaborated in earthwork construction in order to evaluate the impact of greenhouse gas emission in estimating equipment hourly rates and assessing greenness and sustainability for alternative equipment options.

关键词: green construction     lean construction     equipment     simulation     earthwork construction     sustainability     productivity    

PUBLIC INVESTMENT IN AGRI-FOOD SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第10卷 第1期   页码 124-134 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2023484

摘要:

● Global public and private agricultural R&D spending has increased since 2000.

关键词: agri-food system     innovation     R&D investment     productivity     climate change    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

期刊论文

LINKING CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY TO SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

Di WU, Allan A. ANDALES, Hui YANG, Qing SUN, Shichao CHEN, Xiuwei GUO, Donghao LI, Taisheng DU

期刊论文

The effect of different agricultural management practices on irrigation efficiency, water use efficiencyand green and blue water footprint

La ZHUO, Arjen Y. HOEKSTRA

期刊论文

Modelling and analysis of FMS productivity variables by ISM, SEM and GTMA approach

null

期刊论文

Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China

Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

期刊论文

华北地区农业水资源现状和未来保障研究

黄峰,杜太生,王素芬,梅旭荣,龚道枝,陈源泉,康绍忠

期刊论文

Grassland management practices in Chinese steppes impact productivity, diversity and the relationship

Yingjun ZHANG, Wenjie LU, Hao ZHANG, Jiqiong ZHOU, Yue SHEN

期刊论文

THE 4C APPROACH AS A WAY TO UNDERSTAND SPECIES INTERACTIONS DETERMINING INTERCROPPING PRODUCTIVITY

期刊论文

Strain and process engineering toward continuous industrial fermentation

期刊论文

Systems thinking in construction: Improving the productivity and performance of infrastructure projects

Peter E.D. LOVE, Hanbin LUO

期刊论文

华北地区生态保护与恢复的水资源效应研究

孙思琦,陈永喆,王聪,胡庆芳,吕一河

期刊论文

我国草原生产力

侯扶江,王春梅,娄珊宁,侯向阳,呼天明

期刊论文

Engineering and Philosophy of Engineering

Rui-yu Yin,Bo-cong Li

期刊论文

Proposing a “lean and green” framework for equipment cost analysis in construction

Ming LU, Nicolas DIAZ, Monjurul HASAN

期刊论文

PUBLIC INVESTMENT IN AGRI-FOOD SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

期刊论文