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A giant step forward: chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for lymphoma

Houli Zhao, Yiyun Wang, Elaine Tan Su Yin, Kui Zhao, Yongxian Hu, He Huang

《医学前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第6期   页码 711-725 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0808-3

摘要: The combination of the immunotherapy (i.e., the use of monoclonal antibodies) and the conventional chemotherapy increases the long-term survival of patients with lymphoma. However, for patients with relapsed or treatment-resistant lymphoma, a novel treatment approach is urgently needed. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells were introduced as a treatment for these patients. Based on recent clinical data, approximately 50% of patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma achieved complete remission after receiving the CD19 CAR-T cell therapy. Moreover, clinical data revealed that some patients remained in remission for more than two years after the CAR-T cell therapy. Other than the CD19-targeted CAR-T, the novel target antigens, such as CD20, CD22, CD30, and CD37, which were greatly expressed on lymphoma cells, were studied under preclinical and clinical evaluations for use in the treatment of lymphoma. Nonetheless, the CAR-T therapy was usually associated with potentially lethal adverse effects, such as the cytokine release syndrome and the neurotoxicity. Therefore, optimizing the structure of CAR, creating new drugs, and combining CAR-T cell therapy with stem cell transplantation are potential solutions to increase the effectiveness of treatment and reduce the toxicity in patients with lymphoma after the CAR-T cell therapy.

关键词: chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell     lymphoma     cytokine release syndrome (CRS)     immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS)    

tumor microenvironment contributes to tumor progression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma upon anti-CD19 chimericantigen receptor T therapy

《医学前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第4期   页码 699-713 doi: 10.1007/s11684-022-0972-8

摘要: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has achieved 40%–50% long-term complete response in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of alterations in the tumor microenvironments resulting in CAR-T cell therapy failure needs further investigation. A multi-center phase I/II trial of anti-CD19 CD28z CAR-T (FKC876, ChiCTR1800019661) was conducted. Among 22 evaluable DLBCL patients, seven achieved complete remission, 10 experienced partial remissions, while four had stable disease by day 29. Single-cell RNA sequencing results were obtained from core needle biopsy tumor samples collected from long-term complete remission and early-progressed patients, and compared at different stages of treatment. M2-subtype macrophages were significantly involved in both in vivo and in vitro anti-tumor functions of CAR-T cells, leading to CAR-T cell therapy failure and disease progression in DLBCL. Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments persisted before CAR-T cell therapy, during both cell expansion and disease progression, which could not be altered by infiltrating CAR-T cells. Aberrant metabolism profile of M2-subtype macrophages and those of dysfunctional T cells also contributed to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. Thus, our findings provided a clinical rationale for targeting tumor microenvironments and reprogramming immune cell metabolism as effective therapeutic strategies to prevent lymphoma relapse in future designs of CAR-T cell therapy.

关键词: anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T     immunotherapy     diffuse large B cell lymphoma     tumor microenvironment     tumor-associated macrophage     metabolism    

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy: a promising treatment modality for relapsed/refractory mantle

Ping Li, Ningxin Dong, Yu Zeng, Jie Liu, Xiaochen Tang, Junbang Wang, Wenjun Zhang, Shiguang Ye, Lili Zhou, Alex Hongsheng Chang, Aibin Liang

《医学前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第6期   页码 811-815 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0740-6

摘要: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct histological type of B-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis. Several agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and inhibitors of B cell lymphoma-2 and Bruton’s tyrosine kinase have shown efficacy for relapsed or refractory (r/r) MCL but often have short-term responses. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has emerged as a novel treatment modality for r/r non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, long-term safety and tolerability associated with CAR T-cell therapy are not defined well, especially in MCL. In this report, we described a 70-year-old patient with r/r MCL with 48-month duration of follow-up who achieved long-term remission after CAR T-cell therapy. CAR T-cell-related toxicities were also mild and tolerated well even in this elderly patient. This report suggested that CAR T-cell therapy is a promising treatment modality for patients with MCL, who are generally elderly and have comorbid conditions.

关键词: anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells     mantle cell lymphoma     relapsed or refractory     long-term follow-up    

Phase I study of CBM.CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell in the treatment of refractory diffuse large

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期   页码 285-294 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0843-8

摘要: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown impressive efficacy in treating B-cell malignancies. A single-center phase I dose-escalation study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of T cells transduced with CBM.CD19 CAR, a second-generation anti-CD19 CAR bearing 4-1BB costimulatory molecule, for the treatment of patients with refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Ten heavily treated patients with refractory DLBCL were given CBM.CD19 CAR-T cell (C-CAR011) treatment. The overall response rate was 20% and 50% at 4 and 12 weeks after the infusion of C-CAR011, respectively, and the disease control rate was 60% at 12 weeks after infusion. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in all patients. The incidence of cytokine release syndrome in all grades and grade≥3 was 90% and 0, respectively, which is consistent with the safety profile of axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel. Neurotoxicity or other dose-limiting toxicities was not observed in any dose cohort of C-CAR011 therapy. Antitumor efficacy was apparent across dose cohorts. Therefore, C-CAR011 is a safe and effective therapeutic option for Chinese patients with refractory DLBCL, and further large-scale clinical trials are warranted.

关键词: CAR-T cell therapy     refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma     cytokine release syndrome     dose-limiting toxicity    

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies for acute myeloid leukemia

Bin Gu, Jianhong Chu, Depei Wu

《医学前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第6期   页码 701-710 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0763-z

摘要: Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapies have achieved unprecedented efficacy in B-cell tumors, prompting scientists and doctors to exploit this strategy to treat other tumor types. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of heterogeneous myeloid malignancies. Relapse remains the main cause of treatment failure, especially for patients with intermediate or high risk stratification. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation could be an effective therapy because of the graft-versus-leukemia effect, which unfortunately puts the patient at risk of serious complications, such as graft-versus-host disease. Although the identification of an ideal target antigen for AML is challenging, CAR T therapy remains a highly promising strategy for AML patients, particularly for those who are ineligible to receive a transplantation or have positive minimal residual disease. In this review, we focus on the most recent and promising advances in CAR T therapies for AML.

关键词: acute myeloid leukemia     CAR T     immunotherapy    

Emerging immunological strategies: recent advances and future directions

《医学前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期   页码 805-828 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0886-x

摘要: Immunotherapy plays a compelling role in cancer treatment and has already made remarkable progress. However, many patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors fail to achieve clinical benefits, and the response rates vary among tumor types. New approaches that promote anti-tumor immunity have recently been developed, such as small molecules, bispecific antibodies, chimeric antigen receptor T cell products, and cancer vaccines. Small molecule drugs include agonists and inhibitors that can reach the intracellular or extracellular targets of immune cells participating in innate or adaptive immune pathways. Bispecific antibodies, which bind two different antigens or one antigen with two different epitopes, are of great interest. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell products and cancer vaccines have also been investigated. This review explores the recent progress and challenges of different forms of immunotherapy agents and provides an insight into future immunotherapeutic strategies.

关键词: cancer immunotherapy     bispecific antibodies     small molecules     chimeric antigen receptor T therapy     cancer vaccines    

involvement may affect the survival of patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma after chimericantigen receptor T cell therapy

Lili Zhou, Ping Li, Shiguang Ye, Xiaochen Tang, Junbang Wang, Jie Liu, Aibin Liang

《医学前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第6期   页码 786-791 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0751-3

摘要: Factors associated with complete and durable remissions after anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell immunotherapy for relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (r/r NHL) have not been well characterized. In this study, we found that the different sites of extranodal involvement may affect response, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with r/r NHL treated with anti-CD19 CAR-T cells. In a cohort of 32 treated patients, 12 (37.5%) and 8 (25%) patients exhibited soft tissue lymphoma and bone marrow (BM) infiltrations, respectively, and 13 (41%) patients exhibited infiltration at other sites. The factors that may affect prognosis were identified through multivariable analysis. As an independent risk factor, soft tissue infiltration was the only factor significantly correlated with adverse prognosis ( <0.05), whereas other factors did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, the site of extranodal tumor infiltration significantly and negatively affected OS and PFS in patients with r/r NHL treated with anti-CD19 CAR-T cell therapy. PFS and OS in patients with BM involvement were not significantly different from those of patients with lymph node involvement alone. Thus, anti-CD19 CAR-T cell therapy may improve the prognosis of patients with BM infiltration.

关键词: anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell     soft tissue     bone marrow     relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma    

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell targeting EGFRvIII for metastatic lung cancer therapy

Zhao Zhang, Jun Jiang, Xiaodong Wu, Mengyao Zhang, Dan Luo, Renyu Zhang, Shiyou Li, Youwen He, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第1期   页码 57-68 doi: 10.1007/s11684-019-0683-y

摘要:

Lung cancer is the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. In recent years, the development of tumor immunotherapy especially chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell has shown a promising future. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a tumor-specific mutation expressed in various types of tumors and has been detected in non-small cell lung cancer with a mutation rate of 10%. Thus, EGFRvIII is a potential antigen for targeted lung cancer therapy. In this study, CAR vectors were constructed and transfected into virus-packaging cells. Then, activated T cells were infected with retrovirus harvested from stable virus-producing single clone cell lines. CAR expression on the surfaces of the T cells was detected by flow cytometry and Western blot. The function of CAR-T targeting EGFRvIII was then evaluated. The EGFRvIII-CAR vector was successfully constructed and confirmed by DNA sequencing. A stable virus-producing cell line was produced from a single clone by limited dilution. The culture conditions for the cell line, including cell density, temperature, and culture medium were optimized. After infection with retrovirus, CAR was expressed on more than 90% of the T cells. The proliferation of CAR-T cells were induced by cytokine and specific antigen in vitro. More importantly, EGFRvIII-CART specifically and efficiently recognized and killed A549-EGFRvIII cells with an effector/target ratio of 10:1 by expressing and releasing cytokines, including perforin, granzyme B, IFN-g, and TNF-α. The in vivo study indicated that the metastasis of A549-EGFRvIII cells in mice were inhibited by EGFRvIII-CART cells, and the survival of the mice was significantly prolonged with no serious side effects. EGFRvIII-CART showed significantly efficient antitumor activity against lung cancer cells expressing EGFRvIII in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, CAR-T targeting EGFRvIII is a potential therapeutic strategy in preventing recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer after surgery.

关键词: chimeric antigen receptor T cells     epidermal growth factor receptor     lung cancer     immunotherapy     tumor immunology    

EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease post-CAR-T cell therapy

《医学前沿(英文)》 2024年 第18卷 第2期   页码 394-398 doi: 10.1007/s11684-023-1032-8

摘要: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-LPDs) are common complications that occur after solid organ transplantation or allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). However, their occurrence and treatment post-chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapy has not been reported. Two patients had been diagnosed with EBV-positive aggressive B-cell lymphoma and experienced relapses after multiple lines of treatment. After receiving CAR-T cell therapy in tandem with autologous HSCT, the patients achieved complete remission. However, with a median time of 38.5 months after CAR-T cell therapy, B-cell-derived EBV-LPDs were diagnosed, and they were relieved through the administration of immune checkpoint inhibitor or B-cell-depleting agents. Collectively, our report suggests that EBV-LPDs may represent a long-term adverse event after CAR-T cell therapy, especially in patients who previously had EBV-positive disorders, and they can be resolved by immune normalization strategy or B-cell depleting therapy.

关键词: EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease     chimeric antigen receptor T-cell     autologous stem cell transplantation     immune checkpoint inhibitor    

CAR T cells redirected against tumor-specific antigen glycoforms: can low-sugar antigens guarantee a

《医学前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第3期   页码 322-338 doi: 10.1007/s11684-021-0901-2

摘要: Immune-based therapies have experienced a pronounced breakthrough in the past decades as they acquired multiple US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for various indications. To date, six chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapies have been permitted for the treatment of certain patients with relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies. However, several clinical trials of solid tumor CAR-T therapies were prematurely terminated, or they reported life-threatening treatment-related damages to healthy tissues. The simultaneous expression of target antigens by healthy organs and tumor cells is partly responsible for such toxicities. Alongside targeting tumor-specific antigens, targeting the aberrantly glycosylated glycoforms of tumor-associated antigens can also minimize the off-tumor effects of CAR-T therapies. Tn, T, and sialyl-Tn antigens have been reported to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis, and their expression results from the dysregulation of a series of glycosyltransferases and the endoplasmic reticulum protein chaperone, Cosmc. Moreover, these glycoforms have been associated with various types of cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, gastric, and lung cancers. Here, we discuss how underglycosylated antigens emerge and then detail the latest advances in the development of CAR-T-based immunotherapies that target some of such antigens.

关键词: cancer immunotherapy     chimeric antigen receptor     solid tumors     tumor-associated antigen     glycosylation     O-glycans     adoptive cell therapy    

Adoptive cell transfer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

Renyu Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Zekun Liu, Ding Wei, Xiaodong Wu, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2019年 第13卷 第1期   页码 3-11 doi: 10.1007/s11684-019-0684-x

摘要: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. This malignancy is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Novel approaches for prolonging the overall survival of patients with advanced HCC are urgently needed. The antitumor activities of adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT), such as strategies based on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cytokine-induced killer cells, are more effective than those of traditional strategies. Currently, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy has achieved numerous breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies, including relapsed or refractory lymphoblastic leukemia and refractory large B-cell lymphoma. Nevertheless, this approach only provides a modest benefit in the treatment of solid tumors. The clinical results of CAR-T immunotherapy for HCC that could be obtained at present are limited. Some published studies have demonstrated that CAR-T could inhibit tumor growth and cause severe side effects. In this review, we summarized the current application of ACT, the challenges encountered by CAR-T technology in HCC treatment, and some possible strategies for the future direction of immunotherapeutic research.

关键词: adoptive cell transfer therapy     hepatocellular carcinoma     T cell     chimeric antigen receptor     immunotherapy    

Exploring Shaking for Cancer Treatment

Hiroki Yokota,Bai-yan Li,

《工程(英文)》 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2024.04.001

摘要: Presently, cancer treatment encompasses diverse approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and adjunctive methods such as massage and physical exercises targeting specific tissues or the whole body. A key inquiry emerges: could introducing vibration and shaking of patientderived cells introduce a novel dimension to conventional cancer treatments? To delve into this prospect, conducting thorough vibration and molecular signaling analyses becomes imperative. Understanding whether vibration is optimally effective at resonance frequencies and assessing how the viscous cell culture medium enhances responses in these cells are crucial inquiries. Addressing these queries holds promise in advancing vibration-driven iTS cell-mediated cancer treatments.

关键词: Cell engineering     Vibration & Shaking     Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells     Induced tumor-suppressing (iTS) cells     Cancer treatment     Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell immunotherapy    

Development of oncolytic virotherapy: from genetic modification to combination therapy

Qiaoshuai Lan, Shuai Xia, Qian Wang, Wei Xu, Haiyan Huang, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu

《医学前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第2期   页码 160-184 doi: 10.1007/s11684-020-0750-4

摘要: Oncolytic virotherapy (OVT) is a novel form of immunotherapy using natural or genetically modified viruses to selectively replicate in and kill malignant cells. Many genetically modified oncolytic viruses (OVs) with enhanced tumor targeting, antitumor efficacy, and safety have been generated, and safety have been genetically modified, and some of which have been assessed in clinical trials. Combining OVT with other immunotherapies can remarkably enhance the antitumor efficacy. In this work, we review the use of wild-type viruses in OVT and the strategies for OV genetic modification. We also review and discuss the combinations of OVT with other immunotherapies.

关键词: immunotherapy     oncolytic virus     genetic modification     immune checkpoint blockade     chimeric antigen receptor T cell    

CAR-T细胞产品的质量控制和非临床研究——一般原则和关键问题 Review

李永红, 霍艳, 于雷, 王军志

《工程(英文)》 2019年 第5卷 第1期   页码 122-131 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2018.12.003

摘要:

采用嵌合抗原受体T 细胞(chimeric antigen receptor T cells, CAR-T cells)的过继性细胞治疗是一种很有前途的肿瘤免疫治疗策略,近年来发展迅速。CAR-T 细胞是通过基因修饰能够特异性识别肿瘤细胞表面特定抗原的T 细胞,对肿瘤细胞具有强大的杀灭作用。目前CAR-T 细胞在恶性血液病患者中的临床应用已经取得振奋人心的结果,国内外对于CAR-T 细胞针对多种靶点以及用于治疗实体瘤的研究开发形成了很大的热点,越来越多的产品将会进入临床试验和上市使用。本文在相关细胞治疗和基因治疗产品指导原则的基础上,结合CAR-T 细胞产品的具体特点,探讨其质量控制和非临床前研究的一般原则,以及其中的一些关键问题。

关键词: 嵌合抗原受体T细胞     质量控制     非临床研究     安全性     有效性     临床试验     癌症免疫治疗    

嵌合抗原受体和调节性T细胞——移植中人类白细胞抗原特异性免疫抑制的潜力 Review

Sabrina Wright, Conor Hennessy, Joanna Hester, Fadi Issa

《工程(英文)》 2022年 第10卷 第3期   页码 30-43 doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2021.10.018

摘要: 与常规T细胞(Tconvs)不同,调节性T细胞(Treg)在抑制免疫激活和调节宿主免疫反应方面发挥着重要作用。

关键词: 嵌合抗原受体(CAR)     调节性T细胞     异性免疫     CAR设计     基因编辑    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

A giant step forward: chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for lymphoma

Houli Zhao, Yiyun Wang, Elaine Tan Su Yin, Kui Zhao, Yongxian Hu, He Huang

期刊论文

tumor microenvironment contributes to tumor progression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma upon anti-CD19 chimericantigen receptor T therapy

期刊论文

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy: a promising treatment modality for relapsed/refractory mantle

Ping Li, Ningxin Dong, Yu Zeng, Jie Liu, Xiaochen Tang, Junbang Wang, Wenjun Zhang, Shiguang Ye, Lili Zhou, Alex Hongsheng Chang, Aibin Liang

期刊论文

Phase I study of CBM.CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell in the treatment of refractory diffuse large

期刊论文

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies for acute myeloid leukemia

Bin Gu, Jianhong Chu, Depei Wu

期刊论文

Emerging immunological strategies: recent advances and future directions

期刊论文

involvement may affect the survival of patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma after chimericantigen receptor T cell therapy

Lili Zhou, Ping Li, Shiguang Ye, Xiaochen Tang, Junbang Wang, Jie Liu, Aibin Liang

期刊论文

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell targeting EGFRvIII for metastatic lung cancer therapy

Zhao Zhang, Jun Jiang, Xiaodong Wu, Mengyao Zhang, Dan Luo, Renyu Zhang, Shiyou Li, Youwen He, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen

期刊论文

EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease post-CAR-T cell therapy

期刊论文

CAR T cells redirected against tumor-specific antigen glycoforms: can low-sugar antigens guarantee a

期刊论文

Adoptive cell transfer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

Renyu Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Zekun Liu, Ding Wei, Xiaodong Wu, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen

期刊论文

Exploring Shaking for Cancer Treatment

Hiroki Yokota,Bai-yan Li,

期刊论文

Development of oncolytic virotherapy: from genetic modification to combination therapy

Qiaoshuai Lan, Shuai Xia, Qian Wang, Wei Xu, Haiyan Huang, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu

期刊论文

CAR-T细胞产品的质量控制和非临床研究——一般原则和关键问题

李永红, 霍艳, 于雷, 王军志

期刊论文

嵌合抗原受体和调节性T细胞——移植中人类白细胞抗原特异性免疫抑制的潜力

Sabrina Wright, Conor Hennessy, Joanna Hester, Fadi Issa

期刊论文