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Lithium-based draw solute for forward osmosis to treat wastewater discharged from lithium-ion battery

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第5期   页码 755-763 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2137-3

摘要: As draw solute is the core element of forward osmosis (FO) technology, here Li-Bet-Tf2N synthesized from a customized ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Hbet][Tf2N]) and Li2CO3 recovered from lithium-ion battery (LIB) wastes is proposed as a novel draw solute to treat Li+-containing wastewater from LIB manufacturing through FO filtration. Having high dissociation ability and an extended structure, Li-Bet-Tf2N generates a sufficiently high osmotic pressure to drive the FO filtration efficiently along with insignificant reverse solute diffusion. Li-Bet-Tf2N produces a water flux of 21.3 L·(m2·h)−1 at 1.0 mol∙L–1 against deionized water, surpassing conventional NaCl and MgCl2 draw solutes with a higher water recovery efficiency and a smaller solute loss. Li-Bet-Tf2N induces a more stable and higher water permeation flux with a 10.0% water flux decline than NaCl and MgCl2 for which the water fluxes decline 16.7% and 16.4%, respectively, during the treatment of 2000 mg∙L–1 Li+-containing wastewater for 12 h. More remarkably, unlike other draw solutes which require intensive energy input and complicated processes in recycling, Li-Bet-Tf2N is easily separated from water via solvent extraction. Reproducible results are achieved with the recycled Li-Bet-Tf2N. Li-Bet-Tf2N thus demonstrates a novel class of draw solute with great potentials to treat wastewater economically.

关键词: forward osmosis     lithium-ion battery     draw solution     lithium-containing wastewater     water treatment    

A review of optimization modeling and solution methods in renewable energy systems

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s42524-023-0271-3

摘要: The advancement of renewable energy (RE) represents a pivotal strategy in mitigating climate change and advancing energy transition efforts. A current of research pertains to strategies for fostering RE growth. Among the frequently proposed approaches, employing optimization models to facilitate decision-making stands out prominently. Drawing from an extensive dataset comprising 32806 literature entries encompassing the optimization of renewable energy systems (RES) from 1990 to 2023 within the Web of Science database, this study reviews the decision-making optimization problems, models, and solution methods thereof throughout the renewable energy development and utilization chain (REDUC) process. This review also endeavors to structure and assess the contextual landscape of RES optimization modeling research. As evidenced by the literature review, optimization modeling effectively resolves decision-making predicaments spanning RE investment, construction, operation and maintenance, and scheduling. Predominantly, a hybrid model that combines prediction, optimization, simulation, and assessment methodologies emerges as the favored approach for optimizing RES-related decisions. The primary framework prevalent in extant research solutions entails the dissection and linearization of established models, in combination with hybrid analytical strategies and artificial intelligence algorithms. Noteworthy advancements within modeling encompass domains such as uncertainty, multienergy carrier considerations, and the refinement of spatiotemporal resolution. In the realm of algorithmic solutions for RES optimization models, a pronounced focus is anticipated on the convergence of analytical techniques with artificial intelligence-driven optimization. Furthermore, this study serves to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of research trajectories and existing gaps, expediting the identification of pertinent optimization models conducive to enhancing the efficiency of REDUC development endeavors.

关键词: renewable energy system     bibliometrics     mathematical programming     optimization models     solution methods    

Numerical solution, simulation and testing of the thermal dynamic characteristics of ball-screws

XIA Junyong, HU Youmin, WU Bo, SHI Tielin

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第3卷 第1期   页码 28-36 doi: 10.1007/s11465-008-0007-4

摘要: This research focuses on the characteristics of how a ball-screw changes its temperature corresponding to the periodic change of the end-most heat source. Based on the theory of heat transfer, this paper supplies a numerical solution to the non-homogeneous equation of heat transfer through the group explicit (GE) finite difference approach. The temperature distribution for the ball-screw at different times and directions is shown. By simulating and modeling the temperature field and thermal deformation of the ball-screw under periodically varying heat sources, this paper describes the thermal dynamic characteristics of the ball-screw under such conditions. By testing the thermal dynamic characteristics of the ball-screw, the numerical solution is validated.

关键词: numerical solution     temperature corresponding     temperature distribution     end-most     ball-screw    

Analytical dynamic solution of a flexible cable-suspended manipulator

Mahdi BAMDAD

《机械工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第8卷 第4期   页码 350-359 doi: 10.1007/s11465-013-0271-9

摘要:

Cable-suspended manipulators are used in large scale applications with, heavy in weight and long in span cables. It seems impractical to maintain cable assumptions of smaller robots for large scale manipulators. The interactions among the cables, platforms and actuators can fully evaluate the coupled dynamic analysis. The structural flexibility of the cables becomes more pronounced in large manipulators. In this paper, an analytic solution is provided to solve cable vibration. Also, a closed form solution can be adopted to improve the dynamic response to flexibility. The output is provided by the optimal torque generation subject to the actuator limitations in a mechatronic sense. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through simulations.

关键词: parallel robot     flexible cable     suspended robot     dynamic    

Solution properties and self-association of multi-blocks like copolymer P(AM/AA) prepared by template

ZHANG Yuxi, WU Feipeng, LI Miaozhen, WANG Erjian

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第1期   页码 68-71 doi: 10.1007/s11705-007-0014-8

摘要: The association and properties of multi-block like copolymers (TP) of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA) prepared by template copolymerization in aqueous solution were studied. The results showed that the copolymers of this type exhibited a significant structure effect compared with that of similar random copolymers (CP) obtained by copolymerization in the absence of template. Decreasing the value of pH or adding Ca ion to the copolymer solution will make phase separation occur. The TEM images demonstrated that the phase separation caused by Ca ion was due to the formation of extensively intermolecular cross-linking. With the increase of the pH value of copolymer solution, the changes of the solution viscosity was similar with that of homopolyacrylic acid, which originally increased and then decreased. But the increase range of template copolymer was higher than that of homopolyacrylic acid. TEM images indicated that at the maximal viscosity the copolymer obtained in the presence of template formed coiled aggregates.

关键词: aqueous solution     homopolyacrylic     copolymer solution     significant structure     presence    

Yue’s solution of classical elasticity in

Zhong-qi Quentin YUE

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第3期   页码 215-249 doi: 10.1007/s11709-015-0298-6

摘要: This paper presents the exact and complete fundamental singular solutions for the boundary value problem of a -layered elastic solid of either transverse isotropy or isotropy subject to body force vector at the interior of the solid. The layer number is an arbitrary nonnegative integer. The mathematical theory of linear elasticity is one of the most classical field theories in mechanics and physics. It was developed and established by many well-known scientists and mathematicians over 200 years from 1638 to 1838. For more than 150 years from 1838 to present, one of the remaining key tasks in classical elasticity has been the mathematical derivation and formulation of exact solutions for various boundary value problems of interesting in science and engineering. However, exact solutions and/or fundamental singular solutions in closed form are still very limited in literature. The boundary-value problems of classical elasticity in -layered and graded solids are also one of the classical problems challenging many researchers. Since 1984, the author has analytically and rigorously examined the solutions of such classical problems using the classical mathematical tools such as Fourier integral transforms. In particular, he has derived the exact and complete fundamental singular solutions for elasticity of either isotropic or transversely isotropic layered solids subject to concentrated loadings. The solutions in -layered or graded solids can be calculated with any controlled accuracy in association with classical numerical integration techniques. Findings of this solution formulation are further used in the companion paper for mathematical verification of the solutions and further applications for exact and complete solutions of other problems in elasticity, elastodynamics, poroelasticty and thermoelasticity. The mathematical formulations and solutions have been named by other researchers as Yue’s approach, Yue’s treatment, Yue’s method and Yue’s solution.

关键词: elasticity     solution     layered solid     graded material    

Simplified analytical solution for free vibration characteristics of Hardfill dam

XIAO Wei, HE Yunlong, ZHANG Yanfeng

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2008年 第2卷 第3期   页码 219-225 doi: 10.1007/s11709-008-0037-3

摘要: Formulas for computing natural frequencies and modes of Hardfill dams are derived based on one-dimensional shear wedge theory, in which the influences of the upstream concrete face and hydrodynamic pressure of water on the dams’ natural frequencies and modes are discussed. Furthermore, the seismic responses of Hardfill dams are calculated using response spectrum method. An example is analyzed to compare the differences of natural frequencies and modes between shear wedge method and FEM. Then the applicability and accuracy of shear wedge method to analyze free vibration characteristics of Hardfill dams are proven.

关键词: upstream concrete     hydrodynamic pressure     vibration     one-dimensional     applicability    

Unified solution of limit loads of thick wall cylinder subject to external pressure considering strain

CHEN Changfu, XIAO Shujun, YANG Yu

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第3期   页码 329-333 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0043-x

摘要: Based on the unified strength theory [1], a unified strength criterion for strain softening materials, such as concrete or rock, was derived, and the elastic and plastic limit loads of a thick-walled cylinder made of these materials subject to external pressure were also given. In addition, the influence of some factors on the limit loads of such cylinders as the ratio of the external radius to internal radius,/, the coefficient , which reflects the effect of medium principal stress and the normal stress of the relevant surface on the material destroy degree, the ratio of tensile strength to compressed strength of the material, , and the damage variable

Upper bound solution to seismic active earth pressure of submerged backfill subjected to partial drainage

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期   页码 1480-1493 doi: 10.1007/s11709-021-0776-y

摘要: In waterfront geotechnical engineering, seismic and drainage conditions must be considered in the design of retaining structures. This paper proposes a general analytical method to evaluate the seismic active earth pressure on a retaining wall with backfill subjected to partial steady seepage flow under seismic conditions. The method comprises the following steps: i) determination of the total head, ii) upper bound solution of seismic active earth thrust, and iii) deduction for the earth pressure distribution. The determination of total head h(x,z) relies on the Fourier series expansions, and the expressions of the seismic active earth thrust and pressure are derived by using the upper bound theorem. Parametric studies reveal that insufficient drainage and earthquakes are crucial factors that cause unfavorable earth pressure. The numerical results confirm the validity of the total head distribution. Comparisons indicate that the proposed method is consistent with other relevant existing methods in terms of predicting seismic active earth pressure. The method can be applied to the seismic design of waterfront retaining walls.

关键词: seismic active earth pressure     partial seepage flow     pore pressure     anisotropy     upper bound theorem    

Enhanced solution representations for vehicle routing problems with split deliveries

《工程管理前沿(英文)》   页码 483-498 doi: 10.1007/s42524-023-0259-z

摘要: In this study, we investigate a forest-based solution representation for split delivery vehicle routing problems (SDVRPs), which have several practical applications and are among the most difficult vehicle routing problems. The new solution representation fully reflects the nature of split delivery, and can help reduce the search space when used in heuristic algorithms. Based on the forest structure, we devise three neighborhood search operators. To highlight the effectiveness of this solution representation, we integrate these operators into a standard tabu search framework. We conduct extensive experiments on three main SDVRPs addressed in the literature: The basic SDVRP, the multidepot SDVRP, and the SDVRP with time windows. The experimental results show that the new forest-based solution representation is particularly effective in designing and implementing neighborhood operators, and that our new approach outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms on standard datasets.

关键词: vehicle routing     multidepot     time windows     tabu search     split delivery    

Additives effects on crystallization and morphology in a novel caustic aluminate solution decomposition

Ying ZHANG, Shili ZHENG, Yifei ZHANG, Hongbin XU, Yi ZHANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第1期   页码 88-92 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0133-5

摘要: A novel process of caustic aluminate solution decomposition by alcohol medium was developed by the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences in order to solve the problem of low decomposition ratio in the traditional Bayer seeded hydrolysis process. In this research, effects of additives on the crystallization ratio, secondary particle size and morphology of aluminum hydroxide in the new process were studied to obtain high-quality products. On the basis of primary selection of additives, an orthogonal design L9(3 ) was used as a chemometric method to investigate the effects of additives. The studied parameters include the reaction style, quantity of additives, caustic soda concentration, as well as the combination manner. The crystallization ratios of sodium aluminate solution and crystal size of aluminum hydroxide, determined by ICP-OES, SEM and MLPSA (Malvern Laser Particle Size Analyzer), were used to evaluate the effects of the additives. The results showed that different combination manners could promote agglomeration or dispersion. An additive composed by Tween 80 and PEG 200 could promote agglomeration, while a spot of PEG species had a relatively strong dispersion effect. However, the additives had little effects on the crystallization ratios. According to the Raman spectra result, the added alcohol medium might serve as a kind of solvent.

关键词: additive     crystallization     morphology     caustic aluminate solution     aluminium hydroxide    

Uncoupled state space solution to layered poroelastic medium with anisotropic permeability and compressible

Zhiyong AI, Wenze ZENG, Yichong CHENG, Chao WU

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第2期   页码 171-179 doi: 10.1007/s11709-011-0103-0

摘要: This paper presents an uncoupled state space solution to three-dimensional consolidation of layered poroelastic medium with anisotropic permeability and compressible pore fluid. Starting from the basic equations of poroelastic medium, and introducing intermediate variables, the state space equation usually comprising eight coupled state vectors is uncoupled into two sets of equations of six and two state vectors in the Laplace-Fourier transform domain. Combined with the continuity conditions between adjacent layers and boundary conditions, the uncoupled state space solution of a layered poroelastic medium is obtained by using the transfer matrix method. Numerical results show that the anisotropy of permeability and the compressibility of pore fluid have remarkable influence on the consolidation behavior of poroelastic medium.

关键词: uncoupled state space solution     layered poroelastic medium     three-dimensional consolidation     anisotropic permeability     compressible pore fluid    

Using machine learning models to explore the solution space of large nonlinear systems underlying flowsheet

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第2期   页码 183-197 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2073-7

摘要: Flowsheet simulations of chemical processes on an industrial scale require the solution of large systems of nonlinear equations, so that solvability becomes a practical issue. Additional constraints from technical, economic, environmental, and safety considerations may further limit the feasible solution space beyond the convergence requirement. A priori, the design variable domains for which a simulation converges and fulfills the imposed constraints are usually unknown and it can become very time-consuming to distinguish feasible from infeasible design variable choices by simply running the simulation for each choice. To support the exploration of the design variable space for such scenarios, an adaptive sampling technique based on machine learning models has recently been proposed. However, that approach only considers the exploration of the convergent domain and ignores additional constraints. In this paper, we present an improvement which particularly takes the fulfillment of constraints into account. We successfully apply the proposed algorithm to a toy example in up to 20 dimensions and to an industrially relevant flowsheet simulation.

关键词: machine learning     flowsheet simulations     constraints     exploration    

HPLC determination of glyoxal in aldehyde solution with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone

Yamei ZHU, Xiaoli YAO, Shaohui CHEN, Qun CUI, Haiyan WANG

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第1期   页码 117-121 doi: 10.1007/s11705-010-0535-4

摘要: Based on the absorption property of a diazine that can be formed by reaction of glyoxal and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) in the Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectral region, a HPLC method was developed for the determination of glyoxal in acetaldehyde solution. Glyoxal was derivatised from MBTH and the derivatives (diazine) were analyzed by HPLC for identification and quantification. The determination was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 mm) at 35°C with an injection volume of 10 mL, using a mixture of acetonitrile-water solvent (99∶5, v∶v) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min . The proper derivative reaction conditions were the temperature of 70°C, MBTH to carbonyl molar ratio of 12, and reaction time of 110 min. The glyoxal diazine was a yellow dye with a maximum molar absorptivity at 401 nm and its retention time was 5.2 min under optimal HPLC conditions. The standard curve for glyoxal had a strong linear relationship with a regression coefficient ( = 0.999) in the range of 0.002–0.020 g·L . The analysis of glyoxal in an oxidising solution gave accurate results with a relative standard deviation (RSD) value of 0.55%. The average relative recovery was 102%. This efficient HPLC technique is also proposed for detecting other dicarbonyl compounds besides glyoxal.

关键词: HPLC     glyoxal     3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone     diazine     dicarbonyl compounds    

Investigation of phosphate adsorption from an aqueous solution using spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst

Zhen Li, Zhaofu Qiu, Ji Yang, Benteng Ma, Shuguang Lu, Chuanhui Qin

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第6期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-018-1082-3

摘要:

Spent FCC catalyst with lanthanum is proposed as a novel P-removal adsorbent.

The spent FCC catalyst exhibits 99% adsorption efficiency for low P-concentration wastewater (C0 <5.0 mg/L).

High affinity, endothermic reaction and fast sorption kinetics are achieved.

The phosphate is adsorbed in the form of LaPO4 and KH2PO4.

关键词: Spent FCC catalyst     Phosphate removal     Adsorption     Lanthanum    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Lithium-based draw solute for forward osmosis to treat wastewater discharged from lithium-ion battery

期刊论文

A review of optimization modeling and solution methods in renewable energy systems

期刊论文

Numerical solution, simulation and testing of the thermal dynamic characteristics of ball-screws

XIA Junyong, HU Youmin, WU Bo, SHI Tielin

期刊论文

Analytical dynamic solution of a flexible cable-suspended manipulator

Mahdi BAMDAD

期刊论文

Solution properties and self-association of multi-blocks like copolymer P(AM/AA) prepared by template

ZHANG Yuxi, WU Feipeng, LI Miaozhen, WANG Erjian

期刊论文

Yue’s solution of classical elasticity in

Zhong-qi Quentin YUE

期刊论文

Simplified analytical solution for free vibration characteristics of Hardfill dam

XIAO Wei, HE Yunlong, ZHANG Yanfeng

期刊论文

Unified solution of limit loads of thick wall cylinder subject to external pressure considering strain

CHEN Changfu, XIAO Shujun, YANG Yu

期刊论文

Upper bound solution to seismic active earth pressure of submerged backfill subjected to partial drainage

期刊论文

Enhanced solution representations for vehicle routing problems with split deliveries

期刊论文

Additives effects on crystallization and morphology in a novel caustic aluminate solution decomposition

Ying ZHANG, Shili ZHENG, Yifei ZHANG, Hongbin XU, Yi ZHANG

期刊论文

Uncoupled state space solution to layered poroelastic medium with anisotropic permeability and compressible

Zhiyong AI, Wenze ZENG, Yichong CHENG, Chao WU

期刊论文

Using machine learning models to explore the solution space of large nonlinear systems underlying flowsheet

期刊论文

HPLC determination of glyoxal in aldehyde solution with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone

Yamei ZHU, Xiaoli YAO, Shaohui CHEN, Qun CUI, Haiyan WANG

期刊论文

Investigation of phosphate adsorption from an aqueous solution using spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst

Zhen Li, Zhaofu Qiu, Ji Yang, Benteng Ma, Shuguang Lu, Chuanhui Qin

期刊论文