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Carbon-doped surface unsaturated sulfur enriched CoS@rGO aerogel pseudocapacitive anode and biomass-derived

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第6期   页码 1500-1513 doi: 10.1007/s11705-021-2086-2

摘要: As a hybrid energy storage device of lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors have the potential to meet the demanding needs of energy storage equipment with both high power and energy density. In this work, to solve the obstacle to the application of lithium-ion capacitors, that is, the balancing problem of the electrodes kinetic and capacity, two electrodes are designed and adequately matched. For the anode, we introduced in situ carbon-doped and surface-enriched unsaturated sulfur into the graphene conductive network to prepare transition metal sulfides, which enhances the performance with a faster lithium-ion diffusion and dominant pseudocapacitive energy storage. Therefore, the lithium-ion capacitors anode material delivers a remarkable capacity of 810 mAh∙g–1 after 500 cycles at 1 A∙g–1. On the other hand, the biomass-derived porous carbon as the cathode also displays a superior capacity of 114.2 mAh∙g–1 at 0.1 A∙g–1. Benefitting from the appropriate balance of kinetic and capacity between two electrodes, the lithium-ion capacitors exhibits superior electrochemical performance. The assembled lithium-ion capacitors demonstrate a high energy density of 132.9 Wh∙kg–1 at the power density of 265 W∙kg–1, and 50.0 Wh∙kg–1 even at 26.5 kW∙kg–1. After 10000 cycles at 1 A∙g–1, lithium-ion capacitors still demonstrate the high energy density retention of 81.5%.

关键词: in-situ carbon-doped     surface unsaturated sulfur enriched     pseudocapacitive energy storage     biomass-derived carbon     lithium-ion capacitors    

Activity and characteristics of “Oxygen-enriched” highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous flue gas

Yi ZHAO,Tianxiang GUO,Zili ZANG

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2015年 第9卷 第2期   页码 222-229 doi: 10.1007/s11783-014-0636-2

摘要: An “Oxygen-enriched” highly reactive absorbent was prepared by mixing fly ash, lime and a small quantity of KMnO for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Removal of SO and NO simultaneously was carried out using this absorbent in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The highest simultaneous removal efficiency, 94.5% of SO and 64.2% of NO, was achieved under the optimal experiment conditions. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Accessory X-ray Energy Spectrometer (EDX) were used to observe the surface characteristics of fly ash, lime, “Oxygen-enriched” highly reactive absorbent and the spent absorbent. An ion chromatograph (IC) and chemical analysis methods were used to determine the contents of sulfate, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite in the spent absorbents, the results showed that sulfate and nitrite were the main products for desulfurization and denitrification respectively. The mechanism of removing SO and NO simultaneously was proposed based on the analysis results of SEM, EDX, IC and the chemical analysis methods.

关键词: “Oxygen-enriched” highly reactive absorbent     Surface characteristics     Flue gas circulating fluidized bed     Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification    

S-enriched porous polymer derived N-doped porous carbons for electrochemical energy storage and conversion

Chao Zhang, Chenbao Lu, Shuai Bi, Yang Hou, Fan Zhang, Ming Cai, Yafei He, Silvia Paasch, Xinliang Feng, Eike Brunner, Xiaodong Zhuang

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2018年 第12卷 第3期   页码 346-357 doi: 10.1007/s11705-018-1727-6

摘要:

Porous polymers have been recently recognized as one of the most important precursors for fabrication of heteroatom-doped porous carbons due to the intrinsic porous structure, easy available heteroatom-containing monomers and versatile polymerization methods. However, the heteroatom elements in as-produced porous carbons are quite relied on monomers. So far, the manipulating of heteroatom in porous polymer derived porous carbons are still very rare and challenge. In this work, a sulfur-enriched porous polymer, which was prepared from a diacetylene-linked porous polymer, was used as precursor to prepare S-doped and/or N-doped porous carbons under nitrogen and/or ammonia atmospheres. Remarkably, S content can sharply decrease from 36.3% to 0.05% after ammonia treatment. The N content and specific surface area of as-fabricated porous carbons can reach up to 1.32% and 1508 m2·g−1, respectively. As the electrode materials for electrical double-layer capacitors, as-fabricated porous carbons exhibit high specific capacitance of up to 431.6 F·g−1 at 5 mV·s−1 and excellent cycling stability of 99.74% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles at 100 mV·s−1. Furthermore, as the electrochemical catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, as-fabricated porous carbons presented ultralow half-wave-potential of 0.78 V versus RHE. This work not only offers a new strategy for manipulating S and N doping features for the porous carbons derived from S-containing porous polymers, but also paves the way for the structure-performance interrelationship study of heteroatoms co-doped porous carbon for energy applications.

关键词: porous polymers     porous carbons     sulfur and nitrogen doping     supercapacitor    

Behavior of materials for earth and rockfill dams: Perspective from unsaturated soil mechanics

Eduardo E. ALONSO, Rafaela CARDOSO,

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第1期   页码 1-39 doi: 10.1007/s11709-010-0013-6

摘要: The basis of the design of earth and rockfill dams is focused on ensuring the stability of the structure under a set of conditions expected to occur during its life. Combined mechanical and hydraulic conditions must be considered since pore pressures develop during construction, after impoundment and in drawdown. Other instability phenomena caused by transient flow and internal erosion must be considered. The prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of traditional and non-traditional materials used in the construction of dams is therefore fundamental. The materials used for dam’s construction cover a wide range from clayey materials to rockfill. In a broad sense they are compacted materials and therefore unsaturated materials. A summary of the current level of knowledge on the behavior of traditional materials used in the construction of dams is presented in the paper. Regular compacted materials (with a significant clay fraction), rockfill and compacted soft rocks are studied with more detail. The latter are non-traditional materials. They are analysed because their use, as well as the use of mixtures of soil and rock, is becoming more necessary for sustainability reasons.

关键词: dams     unsaturated soil mechanics     suction     rockfill     clayey soil     mixture    

Application of fractal theory to unsaturated soil mechanics

XU Yongfu, TONG Lixin

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第4期   页码 411-421 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0056-5

摘要: The mechanical properties of unsaturated soils are a function of the saturation degree or matric suction, and can be obtained based on currently available procedures. However, each procedure has its limitations and consequently, care should be taken in the selection of a proper procedure. The fractal approach seems to be a potentially useful tool to describe hierarchical systems and is suitable to model the structure and hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. In this paper, the soil-water characteristics, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function, unsaturated shear strength, swelling deformation and compression were derived from the fractal model for the pore-size distribution, and were expressed by only two independent physical parameters, the fractal dimension and the air entry value. The predictions of the proposed soil-water characteristics, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, unsaturated shear strength, swelling deformation and compression were in good agreement with published experimental data. Comparisons between the experimental results of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and the predictions of the both fractal model and the van Genuchten-Mualem model were also performed, and it was found that the predictions of the fractal model were better than that of the van Genuchten-Mualem model.

关键词: selection     soil-water     independent physical     unsaturated     strength    

Impact of oxygen enriched combustion on the performance of a single cylinder diesel engine

K. RAJKUMAR, P. GOVINDARAJAN

《能源前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第4期   页码 398-403 doi: 10.1007/s11708-011-0157-7

摘要: In the present experiment, a computerized single cylinder diesel engine with a data acquisition system was used to study the effects of oxygen enriched combustion technology (OECT) on the performance characteristics. The use of different levels of oxygen-enriched air was compared with respect to percentage load. Increasing the oxygen content in the air leads to faster burn rates and increases the combustibility at the same stoichiometry (oxygen-to-fuel ratio). These effects have the potential to increase the thermal efficiency and specific power output of a diesel engine. The power increases considerably with oxygen enrichment. In addition, oxygen enrichment can also be considered as a way to reduce the sudden loss in power output when the engine operates in a high load condition. Assessed high combustion temperature from the oxygen enriched combustion leads to high combustion efficiency. OECT reduces the volume of flue gases and reduces the effects of greenhouse effects. Engine tests were conducted in the above said engine for different loads and the following performance characteristics like brake power (BP), specific fuel consumption (SFC), mean effective pressure, brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature were studied. The objective of this paper is to address, in a systematic way, the key technical issues associated with applying OECT to single cylinder diesel engines.

关键词: oxygen enriched combustion     exhaust gas temperature     brake power (BP)     specific fuel consumption (SFC)    

Soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil slopes

ZHAN Liangtong

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2007年 第1卷 第2期   页码 198-204 doi: 10.1007/s11709-007-0023-1

摘要: The intensive soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil is one of the major reasons for slope failures. In this paper, the soil-water interaction is investigated with the full-scale field inspection of rainwater infiltration and comprehensive experiments, including wetting-induced softening tests, swelling, and shrinkage tests. It is demonstrated that the soil-water interaction induced by seasonal wetting-drying cycles is very complex, and it involves coupled effects among the changes in water content, suction, stress, deformation and shear strength. In addition, the abundant cracks in the expansive soil play an important role in the soil-water interaction. The cracks disintegrate the soil mass, and more importantly, provide easy pathways for rainfall infiltration. Infiltration of rainwater not only results in wetting-induced softening of the shallow unsaturated soil layers, but also leads to the increase of horizontal stress. The increase of horizontal stress may lead to a local passive failure. The seasonal wetting-drying cycles tend to result in a down-slope creeping of the shallow soil layer, which leads to progressive slope failure.

关键词: strength     intensive soil-water     comprehensive     Infiltration     wetting-induced softening    

Assessment of future climate change impacts on water-heat-salt migration in unsaturated frozen soil using

Hanli Wan, Jianmin Bian, Han Zhang, Yihan Li

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第15卷 第1期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1302-5

摘要: Abstract • A model coupling water-heat-salt of unsaturated frozen soil was established. • Future temperature, precipitation, and evaporation increase in freeze–thaw period. • Soil water, heat, and salt transport are closely coupled during freeze–thaw period. • Freeze–thaw cycles and future climate change can exacerbate salinization. The transport mechanisms of water, heat, and salt in unsaturated frozen soil, as well as its response to future climate change are in urgent need of study. In this study, western Jilin Province in north-eastern China was studied to produce a model of coupled water-heat-salt in unsaturated frozen soil using CoupModel. The water, heat, and salt dynamics of unsaturated frozen soil under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios were simulated to analyze the effects of future climate change on unsaturated frozen soil. The results show that water, heat, and salt migration are tightly coupled, and the soil salt concentration in the surface layer (10 cm) exhibits explosive growth after freezing and thawing. The future (2020–2099) meteorological factors in the study area were predicted using the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). For RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios, future temperatures during the freeze–thaw period increased by 2.68°C, 3.18°C, and 4.28°C, respectively; precipitation increased by 30.28 mm, 28.41 mm, and 32.17 mm, respectively; and evaporation increased by 93.57 mm, 106.95 mm, and 130.57 mm, respectively. Climate change will shorten the freeze–thaw period, advance the soil melting time from April to March, and enhance water and salt transport. Compared to the baseline period (1961–2005), future soil salt concentrations at 10 cm increased by 1547.54 mg/L, 1762.86 mg/L, and 1713.66 mg/L under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5, respectively. The explosive salt accumulation is more obvious. Effective measures should be taken to prevent the salinization of unsaturated frozen soils and address climate change.

关键词: Soil salinization     Climate change     Unsaturated frozen soil     Water-heat-salt balance     Soil environment change    

Stability analysis of layered slopes in unsaturated soils

Guangyu DAI; Fei ZHANG; Yuke WANG

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第3期   页码 378-387 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0808-2

摘要: This study presents stability analyses of layered soil slopes in unsaturated conditions and uses a limit equilibrium method to determine the factor of safety involving suction stress of unsaturated soil. One-dimensional steady infiltration and evaporation conditions are considered in the stability analyses. An example of a two-layered slope in clay and silt is selected to verify the used method by comparing with the results of other methods. Parametric analyses are conducted to explore the influences of the matric suction on the stability of layered soil slopes. The obtained results show that larger suction stress provided in unsaturated clay dominates the stability of the layered slopes. Therefore, the location and thickness of the clay layer have significant influences on slope stability. As the water level decreases, the factor of safety reduces and then increases gradually in most cases. Infiltration/evaporation can obviously affect the stability of unsaturated layered slopes, but their influences depend on the soil property and thickness of the lower soil layer.

关键词: slope stability     suction stress     unsaturated soil     layered slope     limit equilibrium    

Stable expression and control parameters in the numerical simulation of unsaturated flow

Zhiyuan ZHANG; Xu LI; Yongkang WU; Xiaokang LI

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第12期   页码 1501-1514 doi: 10.1007/s11709-022-0893-2

摘要: The Richards’ equation describes the flow phenomenon in unsaturated porous media and is essential to hydrology and environmental science. This study evaluated the numerical stability of two different forms of the Richards’ equation. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the control parameters of the equation. The results show that the h-form Richards’ equation has better applicability for calculating variable saturation flows than the θ-form Richards’ equation. For the h-form Richards’ equation, the hydraulic conductivity of the soil in the low-suction range and the specific moisture capacity in the high-suction range primarily influenced the solution. In addition, sensitivity analyses indicated that the saturated hydraulic conductivity, initial condition, and air-entry pressure have a higher sensitivity to the simulation results than the saturated water content, rainfall intensity, and decline rate of hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, their correctness needs to be guaranteed first in numerical simulations. The research findings can provide a helpful reference for improving the reliability of numerical simulations of unsaturated flows.

关键词: Richards’ equation     sensitivity analysis     unsaturated soil     hydraulic diffusivity     seepage simulation    

amino-functionalized University of Oslo 66 membranes as efficacious polysulfide barriers for lithium−sulfur

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第2期   页码 194-205 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2206-7

摘要: The shuttle effect of soluble polysulfides is a serious problem impeding the development of lithium−sulfur batteries. Herein, continuous amino-functionalized University of Oslo 66 membranes supported on carbon nanotube films are proposed as ion-permselective interlayers that overcome these issues and show outstanding suppression of the polysulfide shuttle effect. The proposed membrane material has appropriately sized pores, and can act as ionic sieves and serve as barriers to polysulfides transport while allowing the passage of lithium ions during electrochemical cycles, thereby validly preventing the shuttling of polysulfides. Moreover, a fast catalytic conversion of polysulfides is also achieved with the as-developed interlayer. Therefore, lithium−sulfur batteries with this interlayer show a desirable initial capacity of 999.21 mAh·g–1 at 1 C and a durable cyclic stability with a decay rate of only 0.04% per cycle over 300 cycles. Moreover, a high area capacity of 4.82 mAh·cm–2 is also obtained even under increased sulfur loading (5.12 mg·cm–2) and a lean-electrolyte condition (E/S = 4.8 μL·mg–1).

关键词: lithium−sulfur batteries     amino-functionalized University of Oslo 66 membrane     polysulfide     interlayer    

Tuning nitrogen defects and doping sulfur in carbon nitride for enhanced visible light photocatalytic

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第1期   页码 93-101 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2175-x

摘要: Defect construction and heteroatom doping are effective strategies for improving photocatalytic activity of carbon nitride (g-C3N4). In this work, N defects were successfully prepared via cold plasma. High-energy electrons generated by plasma can produce N defects and embed sulfur atoms into g-C3N4. The N defects obviously promoted photocatalytic degradation performance that was 7.5 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4. The concentration of N defects can be tuned by different power and time of plasma. With the increase in N defects, the photocatalytic activity showed a volcanic trend. The g-C3N4 with moderate concentration of N defects exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. S-doped g-C3N4 exhibited 11.25 times higher photocatalytic activity than pure g-C3N4. It provided extra active sites for photocatalytic reaction and improved stability of N defects. The N vacancy-enriched and S-doped g-C3N4 are beneficial for widening absorption edge and improving the separation efficiency of electron and holes.

关键词: g-C3N4     nitrogen defect     sulfur doping     photodegradation     plasma    

Determination of effective stress parameter of unsaturated soils: A Gaussian process regression approach

Pijush Samui, Jagan J

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2013年 第7卷 第2期   页码 133-136 doi: 10.1007/s11709-013-0202-1

摘要: This article examines the capability of Gaussian process regression (GPR) for prediction of effective stress parameter ( ) of unsaturated soil. GPR method proceeds by parameterising a covariance function, and then infers the parameters given the data set. Input variables of GPR are net confining pressure ( ), saturated volumetric water content ( ), residual water content ( ), bubbling pressure ( ), suction ( ) and fitting parameter ( ). A comparative study has been carried out between the developed GPR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models. A sensitivity analysis has been done to determine the effect of each input parameter on . The developed GPR gives the variance of predicted . The results show that the developed GPR is reliable model for prediction of of unsaturated soil.

关键词: unsaturated soil     effective stress parameter     Gaussian process regression (GPR)     artificial neural network (ANN)     variance    

Theoretical study on the mechanism of sulfur migration to gas in the pyrolysis of benzothiophene

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2023年 第17卷 第3期   页码 334-346 doi: 10.1007/s11705-022-2209-4

摘要: The release and control of sulfur species in the pyrolysis of fossil fuels and solid wastes have attracted attention worldwide. Particularly, thiophene derivatives are important intermediates for the sulfur gas release from organic sulfur, but the underlying migration mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, the mechanism of sulfur migration during the release of sulfur-containing radicals in benzothiophene pyrolysis was explored through quantum chemistry modeling. The C1-to-C2 H-transfer has the lowest energy barrier of 269.9 kJ·mol–1 and the highest rate constant at low temperatures, while the elevated temperature is beneficial for C−S bond homolysis. 2-Ethynylbenzenethiol is the key intermediate for the formation of S and SH radicals with the overall energy barriers of 408.0 and 498.7 kJ·mol–1 in favorable pathways. The generation of CS radicals is relatively difficult because of the high energy barrier (551.8 kJ·mol–1). However, it can be significantly promoted by high temperatures, where the rate constant exceeds that for S radical generation above 930 °C. Consequently, the strong competitiveness of S and SH radicals results in abundant H2S during benzothiophene pyrolysis, and the high temperature is more beneficial for CS2 generation from CS radicals. This study lays a foundation for elucidating sulfur migration mechanisms and furthering the development of pyrolysis techniques.

关键词: benzothiophene     sulfur migration     pyrolysis     density functional theory    

Effect of a less permeable stronger soil layer on the stability of non-homogeneous unsaturated slopes

Nabarun DEY, Aniruddha SENGUPTA

《结构与土木工程前沿(英文)》 2020年 第14卷 第6期   页码 1462-1475 doi: 10.1007/s11709-020-0674-8

摘要: Slope failure occurs due to an increase in the saturation level and a subsequent decrease in matric suction in unsaturated soil. This paper presents the results of a series of centrifuge experiments and numerical analyses on a 55° inclined unsaturated sandy slope with less permeable, stronger silty sand layer inclusion within it. It is observed that a less permeable, stronger silty sand layer in an otherwise homogeneous sandy soil slope hinders the infiltration of water. The water content of the slope just above the stronger layer increases significantly, compared to elsewhere. No shear band is found to initiate in a homogeneous sandy soil slope, whereas for a non-homogeneous slope, they initiate just above the less pervious, stronger layer. A discontinuity of the shear zone is also observed for the case of a non-homogeneous soil slope. The factor of safety of a non-homogeneous, unsaturated soil slope decreases because of the less permeable, stronger layer. It decreases significantly if this less permeable, stronger soil layer is located near the toe of the slope.

关键词: non-homogeneous slope     stronger soil layer     factor of safety     centrifuge model test     unsaturated soils    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

Carbon-doped surface unsaturated sulfur enriched CoS@rGO aerogel pseudocapacitive anode and biomass-derived

期刊论文

Activity and characteristics of “Oxygen-enriched” highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous flue gas

Yi ZHAO,Tianxiang GUO,Zili ZANG

期刊论文

S-enriched porous polymer derived N-doped porous carbons for electrochemical energy storage and conversion

Chao Zhang, Chenbao Lu, Shuai Bi, Yang Hou, Fan Zhang, Ming Cai, Yafei He, Silvia Paasch, Xinliang Feng, Eike Brunner, Xiaodong Zhuang

期刊论文

Behavior of materials for earth and rockfill dams: Perspective from unsaturated soil mechanics

Eduardo E. ALONSO, Rafaela CARDOSO,

期刊论文

Application of fractal theory to unsaturated soil mechanics

XU Yongfu, TONG Lixin

期刊论文

Impact of oxygen enriched combustion on the performance of a single cylinder diesel engine

K. RAJKUMAR, P. GOVINDARAJAN

期刊论文

Soil-water interaction in unsaturated expansive soil slopes

ZHAN Liangtong

期刊论文

Assessment of future climate change impacts on water-heat-salt migration in unsaturated frozen soil using

Hanli Wan, Jianmin Bian, Han Zhang, Yihan Li

期刊论文

Stability analysis of layered slopes in unsaturated soils

Guangyu DAI; Fei ZHANG; Yuke WANG

期刊论文

Stable expression and control parameters in the numerical simulation of unsaturated flow

Zhiyuan ZHANG; Xu LI; Yongkang WU; Xiaokang LI

期刊论文

amino-functionalized University of Oslo 66 membranes as efficacious polysulfide barriers for lithium−sulfur

期刊论文

Tuning nitrogen defects and doping sulfur in carbon nitride for enhanced visible light photocatalytic

期刊论文

Determination of effective stress parameter of unsaturated soils: A Gaussian process regression approach

Pijush Samui, Jagan J

期刊论文

Theoretical study on the mechanism of sulfur migration to gas in the pyrolysis of benzothiophene

期刊论文

Effect of a less permeable stronger soil layer on the stability of non-homogeneous unsaturated slopes

Nabarun DEY, Aniruddha SENGUPTA

期刊论文