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CH4 and N2O emissions from double-rice cropping system as affected by Chinese milkvetch and straw incorporation in southern China

Heshui XU,Dengyun LI,Bo ZHU,Kai ZHANG,Yadong YANG,Chen WANG,Ying JIANG,Zhaohai ZENG

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第4卷 第1期   页码 59-68 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2017137

摘要: Chinese milk vetch (CMV) and rice straw (RS) were incorporated into soil to substitute for synthetic N fertilizers and to maintain soil fertility. However, little is known about the integrated impacts of CMV and RS incorporation on CH and N O emissions in double-rice cropping systems in southern China. A field experiment was conducted to estimate the integrated impacts of CMV and RS incorporation in the early- and late-rice seasons on CH and N O emissions. All treatments received uniform N inputs, 6%–37% of which was replaced by CMV and RS crop residue. CMV and/or RS incorporation produced equivalent or slightly more grain yield, while reducing N O emissions by 3%–43%. However, both CMV and RS incorporation increased CH emissions. Annual CH emissions ranged from 321 to 614 kg·hm from CMV and RS amendment treatments, which were 1.5–2.9 times higher than that from synthetic N. Compared with single synthetic N fertilizer, incorporation of CMV and/or RS increased GWP and yield-scaled GWP by 45%–164% and 45%–153%, respectively. Our results demonstrate CMV and RS amendments replacing N fertilizer, maintained stable yield, mitigated N O emission, but enhanced CH emission. Further study is needed on crop residue management in double-cropping rice systems.

关键词: Chinese milk vetch     CH4     double-rice cropping system     grain yield     N2O     rice straw    

Perfluoroalkane acids in human milk under the global monitoring plan of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第16卷 第10期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-022-1541-8

摘要:

● Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid highest in human milk.

关键词: Human biomonitoring     Human breast milk     LC-MS/MS analysis     Lifestyle parameters    

Global warming potential associated with Irish milk powder production

William Finnegan, Jamie Goggins, Aksana Chyzheuskaya, Xinmin Zhan

《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2017年 第11卷 第3期 doi: 10.1007/s11783-017-0949-z

摘要: Climate change is an ever growing issue and a major concern worldwide. Both producers and processors need to address the issue now by reducing their carbon footprint. Additionally, if Ireland is to meet their climate and energy targets, as outlined in Food Harvest 2020, which outlines a range of objectives for the Irish agricultural sector, the efficient use of resources and fuels within the industry will need to be increased. In Ireland, agriculture accounts for 29.2% of the total greenhouse gas emissions (58.5 million tonnes CO eq). Therefore, in this paper, a single agri-food product, milk powder, is examined in order to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) associated with its manufacture using life cycle assessment. A cradle-to-processing factory gate analysis, which includes raw milk production, raw milk transportation to the processing factory, its processing into each product and product packaging, is assessed in this study using data collected circa 2013. The factories surveyed processed approximately 24% of the total raw milk processed in the Republic of Ireland in 2013, which was 5.83 billion liters. The average total GWP associated with the manufacture of milk powder is 9.731 kg CO eq·kg milk powder, which has a standard deviation of 2.26 kg CO eq·kg milk powder, for the life cycle stages analyzed in this study. The most significant contributor to GWP is raw milk production (84%), followed by dairy processing (14%), with the remainder of the life cycle stages contributing approximately 2%.

关键词: Dairy     Global warming potential     Ireland     Life cycle assessment     Milk powder     Milk production    

Expression of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the milk of transgenic mice

Dan LU,Shengzhe SHANG,Shen LIU,Ying WU,Fangfang WU,Tan TAN,Qiuyan LI,Yunping DAI,Xiaoxiang HU,Yaofeng ZHAO,Ning LI

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第3期   页码 179-184 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014020

摘要: Butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) is a natural bioscavenger that protects humans against organophosphate toxicity. Due to the limited yield of human BCHE (hBCHE) when purifying from human plasma, it is necessary to find an alternative method to produce this protein. One potential method is to produce transgenic livestock that make modified milk containing high concentration of hBCHE. In this study, we cloned the gene into a human lactoferrin (hLF) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct to make a hLF-hBCHE BAC construct. Subsequently, we injected the BAC construct into pronuclei of mouse fertilized embryos and generated transgenic mice. Expression analysis showed that recombinant hBCHE (rhBCHE) was expressed efficiently in the mammary gland of the transgenic mice and the concentration of rhBCHE in the milk of individual mice ranged from 76±12 to 159±28 mg·L . Protein function tests showed that rhBCHE has the same enzymatic activity as the native hBCHE. Our results pave the way for making transgenic livestock to produce large quantities of rhBCHE.

关键词: recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (rhBCHE)     human lactoferrin bacterial artificial chromosome (hLF BAC)     transgenic mice     milk    

A post-GWAS replication study confirming the association of

Shaohua YANG,Chao QI,Yan XIE,Xiaogang CUI,Yahui GAO,Jianping JIANG,Li JIANG,Shengli ZHANG,Qin ZHANG,Dongxiao SUN

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2014年 第1卷 第4期   页码 321-330 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2014037

摘要: Genome-wide association studies with an Illumina Bovine50K chip have detected 105 SNPs associated with one or multiple milk production traits in the Chinese Holstein population. Of these, 38 significant SNPs detected with high confidence by both L1-TDT and MMRA methods were selected to further mine potential key genes affecting milk yield and milk composition. By blasting the flanking sequences of these 38 SNPs with the bovine genome sequence combined with comparative genomics analysis, 26 genes were found to contain or be near to such SNPs. Among them, the gene is merely 87 bp away from the significant SNP, Hapmap30383-BTC-005848. Hence, we report herein genotype-phenotype associations to further validate the genetic effects of the gene. By pooled DNA sequencing of 14 unrelated Holstein sires, a total of 18 with seven novel SNPs were identified. Among them, nine SNPs were in the 5′ regulatory region, one in exon 6 and the other in the 3′ UTR and 3′ regulatory region. A total of nine of these identified SNPs were successfully genotyped and analyzed by mass spectrometry for association with five milk production traits in an independent resource population. The results showed that these SNPs were statistically significant for more than two traits [ <(0.0001-0.0267)]. In addition, mRNA expression analyses revealed that was ubiquitous in eight different tissues, with a relatively higher expression level in the mammary gland than in other tissues. These findings, therefore, provide strong evidence for association of variants with milk yield and milk composition traits and may be applied in Chinese Holstein breeding programs.

关键词: GWAS     functional annotation     Chinese Holstein     milk production traits     C14H8orf33 gene     single nucleotide polymorphisms     association study    

A review of traditional and novel detection techniques for melamine and its analogues in foods and animal feed

Mengshi LIN,

《化学科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2009年 第3卷 第4期   页码 427-435 doi: 10.1007/s11705-009-0244-z

摘要: Melamine, a nitrogen-rich chemical, has received much attention in recent years due to a series of highly publicized food safety incidents, including 2007 pet food recalls in North America and 2008 melamine contamination in milk, infant formula, and other milk-derived products in China. Current analytical methods for testing melamine are time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the food science and analytical chemistry field to develop simple, quick, sensitive, and cost-effective methods for detection of melamine and its analogues (e.g., cyanuric acid, melamine cyanurate, ammelide, and ammeline) in food ingredients, processed food, and animal feed. This review aims to summarize traditional and novel analytical techniques that have been used or show great potential to detect, characterize, and quantify melamine and its analogues in foods and animal feed.

关键词: milk-derived     Melamine     labor-intensive     cyanurate     time-consuming    

INTENSIFICATION OF GRASSLAND-BASED DAIRY PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPACTS ON LAND, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS USE EFFICIENCIES

Jouke OENEMA, Oene OENEMA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2021年 第8卷 第1期   页码 130-147 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2020376

摘要: Many grassland-based dairy farms are intensifying production, i.e., produce more milk per ha of land in response to the increasing demand for milk (by about 2% per year) in a globalized market. However, intensive dairy farming has been implicated for its resources use, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication impacts. This paper addresses the question of how the intensity of dairy production relates to N and P surpluses and use efficiencies on farms subjected to agri-environmental regulations. Detailed monitoring data were analyzed from 2858 grassland-based dairy farms in The Netherlands for the year 2015. The farms produced on average 925 Mg·yr milk. Milk production per ha ranged from<10 to>30 Mg·ha ·yr . Purchased feed and manure export strongly increased with the level of intensification. Surpluses of N and P at farm level remained constant and ammonia emissions per kg milk decreased with the level of intensification. In conclusion, N and P surpluses did not differ much among dairy farms greatly differing in intensity due to legal N and P application limits and obligatory export of manure surpluses to other farms. Further, N and P use efficiencies also did not differ among dairy farms differing in intensity provided the externalization of feed production was accounted for. This paper provides lessons for proper monitoring and control of N and P cycling in dairy farming.

关键词: ammonia     externalization     feed     forage maize     front runners     manure production     milk yield     nitrogen surplus    

Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2016年 第10卷 第3期   页码 360-376 doi: 10.1007/s11684-016-0455-x

摘要:

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were from World Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China’s TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines.

关键词: traditional Chinese medicine     Europe     development    

Practices, challenges, and opportunities: HIV/AIDS treatment with traditional Chinese medicine in China

Jian Wang, Wen Zou

《医学前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第2期   页码 123-126 doi: 10.1007/s11684-011-0124-z

摘要: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become widely used in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in China in recent years. In this article, we summarize the recent major developments in human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (HIV/AIDS) treatment with TCM. The use of TCM is associated with preventing or alleviating HIV-related symptoms, reducing treatment side effects, and improving the quality of life. The potential beneficial effects of TCM should be confirmed through extensive and rigorous trials.

关键词: HIV/AIDS     traditional Chinese medicine    

Named entity recognition for Chinese construction documents based on conditional random field

《工程管理前沿(英文)》 doi: 10.1007/s42524-021-0179-8

摘要: Named entity recognition (NER) is essential in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as information extraction and document classification. A construction document usually contains critical named entities, and an effective NER method can provide a solid foundation for downstream applications to improve construction management efficiency. This study presents a NER method for Chinese construction documents based on conditional random field (CRF), including a corpus design pipeline and a CRF model. The corpus design pipeline identifies typical NER tasks in construction management, enables word-based tokenization, and controls the annotation consistency with a newly designed annotating specification. The CRF model engineers nine transformation features and seven classes of state features, covering the impacts of word position, part-of-speech (POS), and word/character states within the context. The F1-measure on a labeled construction data set is 87.9%. Furthermore, as more domain knowledge features are infused, the marginal performance improvement of including POS information will decrease, leading to a promising research direction of POS customization to improve NLP performance with limited data.

关键词: NER     NLP     Chinese language     construction document    

Effectively cultivate the next generation of competent Chinese physicians: a perspective from a physiciantrained in both Chinese and US medical institutions

Zongyu John CHEN,

《医学前沿(英文)》 2010年 第4卷 第4期   页码 473-476 doi: 10.1007/s11684-010-0290-4

Traditional Chinese medicine in the new century

Jianxiang Liu, Zhu Chen

《医学前沿(英文)》 2011年 第5卷 第2期   页码 111-114 doi: 10.1007/s11684-011-0125-y

Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine

null

《医学前沿(英文)》 2012年 第6卷 第1期   页码 1-7 doi: 10.1007/s11684-012-0173-y

摘要:

The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphi-sms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community.

关键词: individualized medicine     health medicine     constitutional theory in Chinese medicine    

EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION TO KILL BRADYSIA CELLARUM ON CHINESE CHIVE GROWTH AND SOIL MICROBIAL DIVERSITY

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2022年 第9卷 第1期   页码 52-62 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2021402

摘要:

Bradysia cellarum Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) is an important subterranean pest and is especially damaging to Chinese chive. An effective and more environmentally safe method than pesticides is needed for its control. The efficacy of B. cellarum control, growth of Chinese chive and soil microbial diversity were investigated after uae of soil solarization to exterminate this insect pest. The results show that on the first day after soil solarization 100% control of B. cellarum was achieved. Growth of Chinese chive was lower in solarized plots than in control plots over the first 10 d after treatment. Chive growth in solarized plots increased subsequently to match that in the control plots. Moreover, the soil microbial community diversity in the treatment group decreased initially before gradually recovering. In addition, the abundance of beneficial microorganisms in the genus Bacillus and the phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes increased significantly. Soil solarization is therefore practical and worthy of promotion in Chinese chive-growing regions.

 

关键词: Bradysia cellarum / Chinese chive / control / soil microbes / soil solarization    

Evaluation of automated in-line precision dairy farming technology implementation in three dairy farms in Italy

Maria CARIA, Giuseppe TODDE, Antonio PAZZONA

《农业科学与工程前沿(英文)》 2019年 第6卷 第2期   页码 181-187 doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019252

摘要:

In recent decades, dairy farms have been exposed to wide variation in profit levels due to a considerable variability of milk price, and energy and feed costs. Consequently, it is necessary for the dairy industry to improve efficiency and productivity by adopting innovative technologies. The automated in-parlour milk analysis and separation is mainly useful to produce low or high quality milk and to monitor the animal health status. Milk with high levels of protein and fat contents may reduce the intensity of standardization during cheesemaking process, reducing production costs. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of real-time milk separation during milking and the performance of the milking machine after implementation of AfiMilk MCS. In addition, the economic aspects were assessed. The separation of milk required the existing milking parlors to be equipped with an additional milkline to allow channeling milk with low and high coagulation properties into two different cooling tanks. The results showed that the high coagulation milk fraction, compared to the bulk milk, increased in fat (from 18% to 43%) and protein (from 3% to 7%) concentration. The technology tested has given promising results showing reliability and efficiency in milk separation in real time with affordable implementation costs.

关键词: cheese yield     infrared analysis     milk quality     real-time measurement     sensor    

标题 作者 时间 类型 操作

CH4 and N2O emissions from double-rice cropping system as affected by Chinese milkvetch and straw incorporation in southern China

Heshui XU,Dengyun LI,Bo ZHU,Kai ZHANG,Yadong YANG,Chen WANG,Ying JIANG,Zhaohai ZENG

期刊论文

Perfluoroalkane acids in human milk under the global monitoring plan of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent

期刊论文

Global warming potential associated with Irish milk powder production

William Finnegan, Jamie Goggins, Aksana Chyzheuskaya, Xinmin Zhan

期刊论文

Expression of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the milk of transgenic mice

Dan LU,Shengzhe SHANG,Shen LIU,Ying WU,Fangfang WU,Tan TAN,Qiuyan LI,Yunping DAI,Xiaoxiang HU,Yaofeng ZHAO,Ning LI

期刊论文

A post-GWAS replication study confirming the association of

Shaohua YANG,Chao QI,Yan XIE,Xiaogang CUI,Yahui GAO,Jianping JIANG,Li JIANG,Shengli ZHANG,Qin ZHANG,Dongxiao SUN

期刊论文

A review of traditional and novel detection techniques for melamine and its analogues in foods and animal feed

Mengshi LIN,

期刊论文

INTENSIFICATION OF GRASSLAND-BASED DAIRY PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPACTS ON LAND, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS USE EFFICIENCIES

Jouke OENEMA, Oene OENEMA

期刊论文

Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe

null

期刊论文

Practices, challenges, and opportunities: HIV/AIDS treatment with traditional Chinese medicine in China

Jian Wang, Wen Zou

期刊论文

Named entity recognition for Chinese construction documents based on conditional random field

期刊论文

Effectively cultivate the next generation of competent Chinese physicians: a perspective from a physiciantrained in both Chinese and US medical institutions

Zongyu John CHEN,

期刊论文

Traditional Chinese medicine in the new century

Jianxiang Liu, Zhu Chen

期刊论文

Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine

null

期刊论文

EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION TO KILL BRADYSIA CELLARUM ON CHINESE CHIVE GROWTH AND SOIL MICROBIAL DIVERSITY

期刊论文

Evaluation of automated in-line precision dairy farming technology implementation in three dairy farms in Italy

Maria CARIA, Giuseppe TODDE, Antonio PAZZONA

期刊论文